- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Submit a Manuscript
- Table of Contents
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 148973, 3 pages
Neglected Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Seven Years after Initial Diagnosis
1Second Department of Propedeutic Surgery, Laiko General Hospital, University of Athens, Medical School, 11527 Athens, Greece
2Department of Radiology, Laiko General Hospital, 11527 Athens, Greece
Received 10 November 2012; Accepted 25 December 2012
Academic Editors: L. J. Layfield, R. Palmirotta, K. Tanaka, and D. Yin
Copyright © 2013 Eleftherios D. Spartalis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common epithelial thyroid tumor, accounting for more than 80% of all thyroid tumors. Recent advances in ultrasonographic screening and US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) have facilitated the early detection and diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinomas. In exceptionally rare cases, papillary thyroid tumors may assume enormous dimensions due to recurrent disease or the patient's negligence of the problem. We report an extremely rare case of a 72-year-old woman presented with a neglected giant exophytic papillary thyroid carcinoma with hemorrhagic ulcers. Computed tomography showed a mass measured cm that caused a displacement of the trachea to the right side and reached the mediastinum. After bleeding management, patient was discharged. The patient was fully aware of her situation, but she denied any further therapeutic management.
It is well known that papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has a generally indolent character and has a favorable prognosis if no high-risk features such as clinical lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and significant extrathyroid extension are present. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is a slow growing neoplasm which explains the relatively long duration until a diagnosis is established. Appropriate early surgical treatment decreases the risk of metastasis and recurrence. A neglected papillary thyroid carcinoma can occasionally assume large dimensions and present as a giant hemorrhagic goiter.
2. Case Presentation
A 72-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with cervical bleeding due to a giant ulcerous goiter (Figure 1(a)). The patient had a long-standing history of neglected thyroid carcinoma. Seven years earlier, she had undergone excisional biopsy of the thyroid tumor, and histology revealed papillary carcinoma (PTC). After the diagnosis was established, the patient refused therapeutic treatment. The growing mass was regularly monitored by computed tomography (CT) over 7 years, although the patient continued to refuse therapy. A physical examination revealed a cauliflower-like cervical mass with a giant cystic section on the right side. The rest of the clinical investigation was unremarkable. Routine laboratory tests, including hematocrit, were within normal levels. The latest contrast-enhanced axial CT image showed a large heterogenous mass localized to the left thyroid lobe and extended to the anterior neck space with a solid enhanced component and cystic areas (Figure 1(b)). The neck mass at this time measured cm and caused a displacement of the trachea to the right side. Mass surface bleeding was managed with common bedside hemostatic maneuvers and use of local electrocauterization. The patient was discharged after successful hemostasis, as she denied any further management, such as surgical debulking and radioiodine therapy.
In the differential diagnosis of a neck mass, neoplastic, congenital, traumatic, and inflammatory lesions and metabolic disorders should be considered . The diagnosis is made by clinical and radiological evaluations and confirmed by biopsy and histologic evaluation. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA-b) is an excellent tool for evaluating neoplastic neck masses .
Metabolic disease involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands can present as a neck mass. A goiter can present in an otherwise asymptomatic person. A variety of benign and malignant tumors such as lipoma, lymphoma, epidermoid carcinoma, thyroid tumors, melanoma, sarcoma, plasmacytoma, schwannoma, paraganglioma, and metastatic head and neck carcinoma may present as a neck mass [1, 2].
Congenital lesions are not always present at birth and can appear from birth to 30 years of age or older. Branchial cleft cysts, thyroglossal duct cysts, hemangiomas, and lymphangiomas are the most common congenital lesions that present as a neck mass. On the other hand, degenerative lesions are rare with laryngocele and Zenker’s diverticulum being the most common causes .
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most frequent histological subtype, accounting for 80% of cases . It occurs more often in the third and fourth decades. Over the last decades, the incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma has increased. This apparent increase is due to the widespread use of cervical ultrasound and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies of nonpalpable thyroid nodules and more accurate histopathologic screen for small PTMC with more extensive sampling of resected thyroids [5, 6]. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is associated with good outcome, and generally, the tumor is indolent with a low distant metastatic potential. The factors significantly associated with prognosis include male sex, aged over 45 years, local invasion, large tumor size, distant metastases, and histopathological tumor features [7, 8]. The prognosis is better in female patients and patients younger than 45 years . The 5-year survival rate for local disease is 99.7%, whereas patients with regional metastases have a 96.9% 5-year survival rate. Patients with distant metastases have a 56% 5-year survival rate .
Despite its well-differentiated characteristics, PTC may be overtly or minimally invasive. Papillary tumors tend to invade lymphatics but are less likely to invade blood vessels. Of patients with PTC, about 11% present with metastases outside of the neck and mediastinum [8, 9]. Metastases, in descending order of frequency, are most common in neck lymph nodes and the lungs, followed by bones, the brain, the liver, and other sites .
Lymph node metastasis at the initial diagnosis is common, with rates as high as 78% . Although common, it appears that the presence of positive lymph nodes has little influence on overall survival, although this does influence recurrence [10, 11].
In exceptionally rare cases, papillary thyroid tumors may assume enormous dimensions due to recurrent disease or the patient’s negligence of the problem. If neglected, any thyroid cancer may exhibit symptoms due to compression and infiltration of the cancer mass into the neighboring tissues. After a thorough search of the English literature, only few other cases of a neglected papillary thyroid carcinoma with the enormous dimensions observed in this case have been reported to the best of our knowledge [12, 13]. There are also two articles regarding distant metastases from a neglected thyroid papillary carcinoma [14, 15].
Floros and Grigg reported a case of a 55-year-old woman with an enormous recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma. She presented with two neck masses that measured cm on the right and cm on the left. The elevated serum TSH, history of papillary thyroid carcinoma, and radiological findings suggested the recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma. She underwent a two-stage debulking of the tumors and then received I-131 ablation therapy for residual disease . Rush and Trinkle point out that even long-standing malignant lesions may be amenable to surgery. Operation is at times simplified by resultant displacement of normal anatomic structures .
In the second case, a 94-year-old woman with a large recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma was treated with Mohs chemosurgery with good results. The tumor measured 10 cm and was exophytic and hemorrhaging. With Mohs chemosurgery, the tumor had flattened and the hemorrhage was stopped .
Mostarchid et al. reported a case of giant skull and brain metastasis from a neglected thyroid papillary carcinoma , while Pavlidis et al. investigated the occurrence of subcutaneous scalp metastases .
It is notable that the patient was fully aware of her situation, and there were no diagnosed mental health disorders that could inhibit understanding of the severity of the problem. The patient consulted several surgeons who advised that the tumor should be removed before growth and pressure to neighboring anatomical structures occurred.
Papillary thyroid cancer is well known for its low malignant potential and good prognosis. The outcome can be fatal in patients with low compliance and delayed treatment. The inability of health care access, lack of patient concern, and denial of the appropriate treatment could result in extreme cases of neglected papillary thyroid carcinoma, such as that presented here.
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this paper and accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.
Conflict of Interests
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
E. D. Spartalis analysed and interpreted patient’s files and wrote the paper. T. Karatzas and D. Dimitroulis were the responsible surgeons for the patient, and the supervising professors. P. Charalampoudis and V. Vergadis contributed in the writing. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
- J. Lee and R. Fernades, “Neck masses: evaluation and diagnostic approach,” Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 321–337, 2008.
- E. W. Lee, C. Chen, S. Sauk, and N. Ragavendra, “How diagnostic is ultrasound-guided neck mass biopsy (fine-needle capillary sampling biopsy technique)? evaluation of 132 nonthyroid neck mass biopsies with pathologic analysis over 7 years at a single institution,” Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1679–1684, 2009.
- P. A. Rosa, D. L. Hirsch, and E. J. Dierks, “Congenital neck masses,” Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 339–352, 2008.
- D. S. Cooper, G. M. Doherty, B. R. Haugen et al., “Revised American thyroid association management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer,” Thyroid, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1167–1214, 2009.
- S. Grodski, T. Brown, S. Sidhu et al., “Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer is due to increased pathologic detection,” Surgery, vol. 144, no. 6, pp. 1038–1043, 2008.
- L. Davies and H. G. Welch, “Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the United States, 1973–2002,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 295, no. 18, pp. 2164–2167, 2006.
- M. R. Pelizzo, I. Merante Boschin, A. Toniato et al., “Diagnosis, treatment, prognostic factors and long-term outcome in papillary thyroid carcinoma,” Minerva Endocrinologica, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 359–379, 2008.
- E. L. Mazzafern, “A vision for the surgical management of papillary thyroid carcinoma: extensive lymph node compartmental dissections and selective use of radioiodine,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 1086–1088, 2009.
- G. L. Clayman, T. D. Shellenberger, L. E. Ginsberg et al., “Approach and safety of comprehensive central compartment dissection in patients with recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma,” Head and Neck, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1152–1163, 2009.
- K. Tanaka, H. Sonoo, M. Hirono et al., “Retrospective analysis of predictive factors for recurrence after curatively resected papillary thyroid carcinoma,” Surgery Today, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 714–719, 2005.
- N. Arora, H. K. Turbendian, M. A. Kato, T. A. Moo, R. Zarnegar, and T. J. Fahey III, “Papillary thyroid carcinoma and microcarcinoma: is there a need to distinguish the two?” Thyroid, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 473–477, 2009.
- P. Floros and R. Grigg, “Hugely recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma,” The Internet Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, vol. 13, article 1, 2011.
- Y. Tomisawa, S. Ogasawara, M. Kashiwaba et al., “Mohs chemosurgery for local control of giant recurrent papillary thyroid cancer,” Thyroid, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 657–659, 2009.
- B. El Mostarchid, A. Akhaddar, and M. Boucetta, “Giant skull and brain metastasis from a neglected thyroid papillary carcinoma,” Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 515–516, 2010.
- N. A. Pavlidis, A. D. Sourla, N. G. Nikolaou, C. F. Tolis, and V. D. Mitsi, “Neglected cases of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma. Occurrence of subcutaneous scalp metastases,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 175–179, 1990.
- B. F. Rush Jr. and K. Trinkle, “The management of low-grade, neglected neoplasms,” Southern Medical Journal, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 714–718, 1967.