- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Submit a Manuscript
- Table of Contents
Case Reports in Radiology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 642062, 7 pages
Intramedullary Chondrosarcoma of Proximal Humerus
Department of Radiodiagnosis, Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Pimpri, Maharashtra, Pune 411006, India
Received 13 October 2012; Accepted 30 October 2012
Academic Editors: P. García González and A. Vade
Copyright © 2012 Pratiksha Yadav et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Primary chondrosarcoma is the third most frequent primary malignancy of bone after myeloma and osteosarcoma. It is ranging from slow growing nonmetastasising lesions to highly aggressive lesions. We report a case of primary intramedullary chondrosarcoma of proximal humerus. A 60-year-old female presented with pain and hard swelling involving the left arm for 5 months. Radiograph showed a lucent expansile intramedullary lesion with matrix calcification and associated soft tissue mass. CT confirmed the finding. MRI showed a lobulated lesion which is hyperintense on T2WI with low signal fibrous septae. Increased tracer uptake was seen on bone scan. Histopathology confirmed the radiology diagnosis. The patient underwent wide resection and endoprosthetic reconstruction of proximal humerus.
1. Case Report
Primary chondrosarcoma is the third most common primary malignant tumor of bone after myeloma and osteosarcoma. It is most commonly seen between 30 and 70 years of age. We report a case of a sixty-year-old female who presented with gradually progressive pain and swelling over the proximal part of left arm since 5 months associated with restricted flexion, extension, and abduction of left shoulder. On inspection, loss of normal contour of left shoulder due to a diffuse swelling and asymmetric pectoral girdle (Figure 1). Skin over the surface was normal, with mild prominence of the veins. On palpation, it is tender and measuring approximately 6 cm in length and 4 cm in breadth. It was bony hard in consistency and fixed in nature with immobile skin over the swelling. Clinical diagnosis was of a neoplastic musculoskeletal pathology. Radiographs of left shoulder showed an ill defined, expansile, and osteolytic lesion involving the cortical and medullary region of neck and proximal shaft of left humerus with a wide zone of transition (Figures 2 and 3). Few specks of calcifications were seen within it. It shows endosteal scalloping with cortical break and adjacent soft tissue component. In addition, a calcified nodular opacity was seen in the peripheral left lung mid zone. As computed tomography (CT) is useful in defining the bony anatomy, integrity of the cortex surrounding a lesion, and calcifications within, a helical CT scan of 5 mm thickness was done from the superior margin of left shoulder to mid arm level. It revealed that the osteolytic expansile lesion was seen with endosteal scalloping and cortical thinning. It contains matrix calcification, break in cortices at multiple sites with adjacent anterolateral soft tissue component, and specks of calcification within it (Figure 4). The deltoid muscle in its anterior portion was thinned out and displaced.
After a preanaesthetic assessment, the patient was taken up for surgery under general anaesthesia for wide resection and endoprosthetic reconstruction of proximal humerus.
Chondrosarcomas account for the third most common primary tumour of the bone, after myeloma and osteosarcoma . This primary sarcoma of bone in adults has a male predominance and is seen between the 3rd and 7th decade of life, more common in male, as male : female ratio is 1.5 : 1. Usual clinical presentation of chondrosarcoma is pain, tenderness, with or without a mass, and a slow growth over an average duration of 1-2 year. The characteristic feature of chondrosarcomas is to produce coalescent cartilage lobules of varying sizes with often a necrotic or cystic centre . Chondrsarcoma is graded from 1 (low) to 3 (high). Low grade chondrsarcoma is very close in appearance to enchondroma and osteochondroma and has occasional binucleated cells. High grade chondrsarcoma have increased cellularity, atypia, and mitoses .
2.1. Skeletal Distribution
The commonest sites are the pelvic bones, femur, humerus, and ribs followed by other sites such as the trunk, skull, and facial bones. Hands and feet are rarely involved. Peculiar forms are known to develop on laryngeal cartilage, base of the skull, or in soft tissue. Chondrosarcomas can occur on preexisting lesions.
Central chondrosarcoma predominates in long bones and peripheral tumours in the pelvis and vertebrae.
Plain films allow depicting the location of the lesion to identify the cartilaginous nature as well as its aggressiveness. The most frequent type of lesion is central chondrosarcoma. The tumour begins in the metaphysis and extends to the diaphysis. It is a well-defined lytic lesion, associated with endosteal scalloping, cortical thinning, or thickening. High-grade tumours show irregular margins. Calcifications of the tumoral matrix may be punctate, flocculent, or have a ring-like pattern they can be small, or disseminated, dense, or subtle. Their absence is frequent in aggressive types. In the soft tissue, the mass is frequently huge and palpable when tumour has an extension. CT scan has a diagnostic role as it shows the bony destruction, the small calcifications, and the intra- and extraosseous extent.
In typical forms, MRI shows a lobulated lesion with a low or intermediate signal on T1-weighted images and a high-signal intensity on T2 . MRI shows the medullary involvement and the soft-tissue mass precisely. In diffusion, low-grade lesions show a lobulated pattern with enhanced septations after intravenous injection of contrast media. High-grade tumours do not have septations and show a more diffuse, heterogeneous enhancement. Benign and low-grade tumors cannot be differentiated by the MRI appearance of the matrix alone.
2.3. Differential Diagnosis
The main differential diagnosis in chondromas is specially in the differentiation between a benign chondroma and a low-grade central chondrosarcoma . Features suggestive of a malignant lesion are pain, proximal location or a location on the axial skeleton, size being greater than 5 cm, a lobulated aspect, an ill-defined margin, endosteal erosion, and bone destruction with an extraosseous component [6, 7]. Biopsy is necessary to make the diagnosis. A metaphyseal lesion could suggest a chondromyxoid fibroma, while an epiphyseal lesion could suggest a chondroblastoma or a giant cell tumour. Fibrous dysplasia or a bone infarction can be misdiagnosed as chondrosarcomas; the lack of cortical erosion or of soft-tissue mass would suggest something other than a chondrosarcoma. New immunohistochemistry techniques contribute to the differentiation of malignant lesions [8, 9]. More rarely, a lytic lesion can be considered with a lytic form of osteosarcoma or fibrosarcoma, a plasmocytoma or a metastasis.
2.4. Chondrosarcomas: Variants
2.4.1. Periosteal Chondrosarcomas 
This is a rare form representing 1-2% of all cases of chondrosarcomas. The growth of the tumour begins at the surface of the bone (usually metaphysis of the distal femur or proximal humerus) and develops in the soft tissues as a lobulated mass. The lesion is usually well differentiated and grows slower than central forms. The cortex is never normal, either eroded or often thickened by the tumour, but never destroyed. Ring-like calcifications can be disseminated or localised within the mass. Medullary involvement evaluated on CT or MRI is rare and limited. Uncalcified tumoral nodules are hypodense on CT and show a high signal on T2-weighted MRI. Satellite nodules can be depicted and separated from the principal lesion. The outcome is generally favourable after an appropriate surgical resection.
The differentiation from an osteochondroma is generally easy. The diagnosis of periosteal chondroma can be made by histology alone. Patients are younger and lesions are smaller, not painful, and are located more distally on the skeleton. The periosteal osteosarcoma is more often located on the diaphysis and has reactionary cortical spiculations.
2.4.2. Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma
This entity represents 2-3% of all chondrosarcomas and combines an undifferentiated cell component with well-differentiated cartilaginous areas . The diagnosis is only made on this biphasic aspect. The average age of the patients is 26 years. Common skeletal sites are the femur, pelvic bones, ribs, and vertebrae. Extraosseous site involvement such as brain, meninges, or soft tissues is seen in about one-third of cases. The prognosis is poor, with early pulmonary, bony, and lymph nodes metastases. The tumours are large, destructive lesions with a purely lytic pattern. Calcified masses can be found. The lesion appears of low signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI and heterogeneous high signal on T2 images . Multidrug chemotherapy used in osteosarcomas can be combined with surgery and radiotherapy, but the 10-year survival is only 28%.
2.4.3. Clear Cell Chondrosarcoma
In rare forms (2%) of chondrosarcoma, these lesions are distinguished by their cytology, epiphyseal location in long bones, and slow evolution . There is a male predominance and patients are in the third to fifth decade. Clinical symptoms are pain and swelling may last up to almost 23 years. Some tumours may be an incidental finding; pathological fractures have been reported in one-quarter of cases. The commonest sites are the femur, humerus and tibia. This low-grade tumour shows a geographic lytic epiphyseal lesion with extension to the metaphysis. The margins can be well defined, but indistinct or sclerotic margins have also been described. Calcifications of the tumoral matrix are not always present. There is no extension to the soft tissues. Periosteal reactions are unusual. CT may be useful to depict lobulated margins and calcified matrix. MRI shows a well-delineated low signal on T1-weighted images and heterogeneous high signal on T2 images. The main differential diagnosis is the chondroblastoma, which is a smaller lesion in younger patients. The other differential diagnoses include giant cell tumours and other epiphyseal tumours.
The treatment is radical surgery. The prognosis is good with a 5-year survival of 92% , even though metastases are found in 15% of cases (lung, brain, and bones).
2.4.4. Dedifferentiated Chondrosarcoma
This form represents 10–12% of all chondrosarcomas . It is characterised by a special histology and very poor prognosis. Pain and swelling are the usual clinical symptoms as well as pathological fractures . The commonest locations are the femur, the acetabulum, and the proximal humerus.
These metaphyseal or diaphyseal lesions are rapidly destructive. Osteolytic lesion is associated with calcifications resulting in the biomorphic pattern . A huge soft-tissue mass without calcifications, seen on CT or MRI, is also indicative for this diagnosis. Imaging helps to direct biopsy of the lytic area in order to improve the histological diagnosis. The treatment involves surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The prognosis is very poor, with an overall 5-year survival rate of only 8–13%. The metastases appear in the lungs but also in unusual sites such as the adrenal gland, brain, and liver.
2.4.5. Secondary Chondrosarcoma
Twelve percent of all chondrosarcomas are developed in a preexisting lesion. It may be secondary to a solitary osteochondroma, osteochondromatosis, enchondromatosis (Ollier’s disease), fibrous dysplasia, Paget’s disease, irradiated bone, or synovial chondromatosis . In osteochondromatosis, the risk of sarcomatous transformation is 5–25%; it is 25–50% in enchondromatosis and nearly 100% in Maffucci’s syndrome . The increased size of an enchondroma, lytic area with cortical destruction, associated with pain or fracture are features suggestive of malignant transformation. An enlarging exostosis associated with pain, the appearance of a less mineralized zone in the cartilage cap, calcifications in the soft tissues, and the thickening of the cap (>1 cm) on CT and MRI suggest sarcomatous transformation .
P. Yadav has analysed the case by radiograph, CT, and MRI with the assistance and useful support of D. Thakkar and has also advised bone scan and biopsy which has confirmed the diagnosis. S. S. Thind, the Head of the Department of Radiodiagnosis, has given his clear concepts and critical ways of looking at different aspects of the case, encouraging the rest of the authors to proceed with the case workup.
The authors are grateful to the Department of Orthopedics and Pathology at Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra, India, for their extended support, without whom this entire case work up would have been impossible.
- H. Gelderblom, P. C. W. Hogendoorn, S. D. Dijkstra et al., “The clinical approach towards chondrosarcoma,” The Oncologist, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 320–329, 2008.
- K. Krishnan, Dahlin’s Bone Tumors: General Aspects and Data on 11087 Cases, Lippincot-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 5th edition, 1996.
- D. G. Varma, A. G. Ayala, C. H. Carrasco, S. Q. Guo, R. Kumar, and J. Edeiken, “Chondrosarcoma: MR imaging with pathologic correlation,” Radiographics, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 687–704, 1992.
- H. Welkerling, S. Kratz, G. Delling, and V. Ewerbeck, “Differentiation of enchondroma and low-grade chondrosarcoma-clinicopatological and radiological findings in 34 cases,” Sarcoma, vol. 6, article S9, 2002.
- M. J. A. Geimaerdt, J. Hermans, J. L. Bloem, et al., “Usefulness of radiography in differentiating enchondroma from gentral grade I chondrosarcoma,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 169, pp. 1097–1104, 1997.
- M. D. Murphey, D. J. Flemming, S. R. Boyea, J. A. Bojescul, D. E. Sweet, and H. T. Temple, “Enchondroma versus Chondrosarcoma in the appendicular skeleton: differentiating features,” Radiographics, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 1213–1237, 1998.
- D. Eefting, M. J. A. Geimaerdt, S. Le Cessie, A. H. M. Taminiau, and P. C. W. Hogendoom, “Diagnostic impact of histologic parameters in differentiating enchondroma from grade I central chondrosarcoma,” Sarcoma, vol. 6, article S1, 2002.
- J. V. Bovee, P. Kok, L. J. Van den Broek, and P. C. W. Hogendoom, “Immunohistochemistry as a tool to distinguish osteochondroma and grade I peripheral chondrosarcoma,” Sarcoma, vol. 6, article S1, 2002.
- D. Vanel, M. De Paolis, C. Monti, M. Mercuri, and P. Picci, “Radiological features of 24 periosteal chondrosarcomas,” Skeletal Radiology, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 208–212, 2001.
- M. Forest, B. Tomeno, and D. Vanel, Orthopedic Surgical Pathology: Diagnosis of Tumors and Pseudotumoral Lesions of Bones and Joints, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK, 1998.
- J. Q. Ly, “Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the maxilla,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 179, no. 4, pp. 1077–1078, 2002.
- R. E. Fechner and E. M. Mills, “Cartilaginous lesions,” in Tumors of the Bones and Joints, R. E. Fechner and E. M. Mills, Eds., vol. 8, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC, USA, 3rd edition, 1993.
- P. Anract, B. Tomeno, and M. Forest, “Chondrosarcomes dédifférenciés. Etude de treize cas cliniques et revue de la littérature,” Revue de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique, vol. 80, pp. 669–680, 1994.
- T. M. Hudson, D. S. Springfield, and S. S. Spanier, “Benign exostoses and exostotic chondrosarcomas: evaluation of cartilage thickness by CT,” Radiology, vol. 152, no. 3, pp. 595–599, 1984.