Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 246057, 9 pages
Phytoliths as a Tool for the Identification of Some Chloridoideae Grasses in Kerala
Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala 673 635, India
Received 15 October 2012; Accepted 18 November 2012
Academic Editors: T. Berberich, F. A. Culianez-Macia, and S.-W. Park
Copyright © 2012 P. I. Jattisha and M. Sabu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- L. H. P. Jones and K. A. Handreck, “Silica in soils, plants, and animals,” Advances in Agronomy, vol. 19, pp. 107–149, 1967.
- E. Blackman, “Opaline silica in the range grasses of southern Alberta,” Canadian Journal of Botany, vol. 49, pp. 769–781, 1971.
- I. Rovner, “Plant opal-phytolith analysis. Major advances in archaeobotanical research,” in Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, M. Schiffer, Ed., vol. 6, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1983.
- J. Bartolome, S. E. Klukkert, and W. J. Barry, “Opal phytoliths as evidence for displacement of native Californian grassland,” Madrono, vol. 33, pp. 217–222, 1986.
- P. C. Twiss, “Grass-opal phytoliths as climatic indicators of the Great Plains Pleistocene,” in Quarternary Environments of Kansas, W. C. Johnson, Ed., pp. 179–188, Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, Kan, USA, 1987.
- D. Piperno, Phytolith Analysis : An Archaeological and Geological Perspective, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1988.
- R. F. Fisher, C. N. Bourn, and W. F. Fisher, “Opal phytoliths as an indicator of the floristics of prehistoric grasslands,” Geoderma, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 243–255, 1995.
- A. J. Alexandre, D. Meunier, A. M. Lézine, A. Vincens, and D. Schwartz, “Phytoliths: indicators of grassland dynamics during the late Holocene in intertropical Africa,” Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol. 136, no. 1–4, pp. 213–229, 1997.
- J. A. Carter, “Late devonian, permian and triassic phytoliths from antarctica,” Micropaleontology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 56–61, 1999.
- A. L. Carnelli, J. P. Theurillat, and M. Madella, “Phytolith types and type-frequencies in subalpine-alpine plant species of the European Alps,” Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, vol. 129, no. 1-2, pp. 39–65, 2004.
- L. Gallego and R. A. Distel, “Phytolith assemblages in grasses native to central Argentina,” Annals of Botany, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 865–874, 2004.
- D. Barboni and L. Bremond, “Phytoliths of East African grasses: an assessment of their environmental and taxonomic significance based on floristic data,” Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, vol. 158, no. 1-2, pp. 29–41, 2009.
- C. R. Metcalfe, Anatomy of the Monocotyledons. 1. Gramineae, Claredon Press, Oxford, UK, 1960.
- A. L. Ollendorf, S. C. Mulholland, and G. J. Rapp, “Phytolith analysis as a means of plant identification: arundo donax and Phragmites communis,” Annals of Botany, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 209–214, 1988.
- T. B. Ball, J. D. Brotherson, and J. S. Gardner, “A typological and morphometric study of variation in phytoliths from Triticum monococcum,” Canadian Journal of Botany, vol. 71, pp. 1182–1192, 1993.
- S. S. Whang, K. Kim, and W. M. Hess, “Variation of silica bodies in leaf epidermal long cells within and among seventeen species of Oryza (Poaceae),” American Journal of Botany, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 461–466, 1998.
- S. Krishnan, N. P. Samson, P. Ravichandran, D. Narasimhan, and P. Dayanandan, “Phytoliths of Indian grasses and their potential use in identification,” Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 132, no. 3, pp. 241–252, 2000.
- P. B. Kaufman, P. Dayanandan. Y. Takeoka, W. C. Bigelow, J. D. Jones, and R. K. Iller, “Silica in shoots of higher plants,” in Silicon and Silicious Structure in Biological System, T. L. Simpson and B. E. Voliani, Eds., pp. 409–449, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1981.
- L. H. P. Jones and K. A. Handreck, “Studies of silica in the oat plant—III. Uptake of silica from soils by the plant,” Plant and Soil, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 79–96, 1965.
- E. Blackman, “Observation on the development of the silica cells of the leaf sheath of wheat,” Canadian Journal of Botany, vol. 47, pp. 827–838, 1969.
- J. A. Raven, “The transport and function of silica in plants,” Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, vol. 58, pp. 179–207, 1983.
- D. R. Piperno, “A comparison and differentiation of phytoliths from maize and wild grases. Use of morphological criteria,” American Antiquity, vol. 49, pp. 361–383, 1984.
- D. M. Pearsall, K. Chandler-Ezell, and A. Chandler-Ezell, “Maize can still be identified using phytoliths: response to Rovner,” Journal of Archaeological Science, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1029–1038, 2004.
- Y. Zheng, A. Matsui, and H. Fujiwara, “Phytoliths of rice detected in the neolithic sites in the valley of the Taihu Lake in China,” Environmental Archaeology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 177–183, 2003.
- W. D. Clayton and S. A. Renvoize, Genera Graminum, Grasses of the World, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, UK, 1986.
- M. Madella, A. Alexandre, and T. Ball, “International code for phytolith nomenclature 1.0,” Phytolitharien, vol. 15, pp. 7–16, 2005.