- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Submit a Manuscript
- Table of Contents
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 649746, 9 pages
Chromatographic Removal of Endotoxins: A Bioprocess Engineer's Perspective
1Bio Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
2Biotechnology Research Institute, University Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
Received 26 March 2012; Accepted 22 April 2012
Academic Editors: M. P. Marszall, M. A. Pozo-Bayon, and A. Sanches Silva
Copyright © 2012 Clarence M. Ongkudon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- P. Magalhães, A. M. Lopes, P. G. Mazzola, C. Rangel-Yagui, T. C. V. Penna, and A. Pessoa, “Methods of endotoxin removal from biological preparations: a review,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 388–404, 2007.
- P. M. Montbriand and R. W. Malone, “Improved method for the removal of endotoxin from DNA,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 44, no. 1–3, pp. 43–46, 1996.
- D. Petsch, E. Rantze, and F. B. Anspach, “Selective adsorption of endotoxin inside a polycationic network of flat-sheet microfiltration membranes,” Journal of Molecular Recognition, vol. 11, no. 1–6, pp. 222–230, 1998.
- J. P. Zhang, Q. Wang, T. R. Smith, W. E. Hurst, and T. Sulpizio, “Endotoxin removal using a synthetic adsorbent of crystalline calcium silicate hydrate,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 1220–1225, 2005.
- U. Ritzén, J. Rotticci-Mulder, P. Strömberg, and S. R. Schmidt, “Endotoxin reduction in monoclonal antibody preparations using arginine,” Journal of Chromatography B, vol. 856, no. 1-2, pp. 343–347, 2007.
- F. B. Anspach and O. Hilbeck, “Removal of endotoxins by affinity sorbents,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 711, no. 1, pp. 81–92, 1995.
- M. Caroff and D. Karibian, “Structure of bacterial lipopolysaccharides,” Carbohydrate Research, vol. 338, no. 23, pp. 2431–2447, 2003.
- J. Kelly, H. Masoud, M. B. Perry, J. C. Richards, and P. Thibault, “Separation and characterization of O-deacylated lipooligosaccharides and glycans derived from Moraxella catarrhalis using capillary electrophoresis-electrospray mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 233, no. 1, pp. 15–30, 1996.
- P.-E. Jansson, “The chemistry of O-polysaccharide chains in bacterial lipopolysaccharides,” in Endotoxin in Health and Disease, H. Brade, D. C. Morrison, S. Opal, and S. Vogel, Eds., pp. 155–178, Medical Directions Incorporotion, New York, NY, USA, 1999.
- A. P. Moran, E. T. Rietschel, T. U. Kosunen, and U. Zahringer, “Chemical characterization of Campylobacter jejuni lipopolysaccharides containing N-acetylneuraminic acid and 2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxy-D-glucose,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 173, no. 2, pp. 618–626, 1991.
- D. Petsch and F. B. Anspach, “Endotoxin removal from protein solutions,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 76, no. 2-3, pp. 97–119, 2000.
- M. B. Gorbet and M. V. Sefton, “Endotoxin: the uninvited guest,” Biomaterials, vol. 26, no. 34, pp. 6811–6817, 2005.
- F. B. Anspach, “Endotoxin removal by affinity sorbents,” Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods, vol. 49, no. 1–3, pp. 665–681, 2001.
- I. P. Wicks, M. L. Howell, T. Hancock, H. Kohsaka, T. Olee, and D. A. Carson, “Bacterial lipopolysaccharide copurifies with plasmid DNA: implications for animal models and human gene therapy,” Human Gene Therapy, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 317–323, 1995.
- A. A. Ragab, R. Van De Motter, S. A. Lavish et al., “Measurement and removal of adherent endotoxin from titanium particles and implant surfaces,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 803–809, 1999.
- M. B. Gorbet and M. V. Sefton, “Leukocyte activation and leukocyte procoagulant activities after blood contact with polystyrene and polyethylene glycol-immobilized polystyrene beads,” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 137, no. 5, pp. 345–355, 2001.
- D. R. Cho, A. S. Shanbhag, C. Y. Hong, G. R. Baran, and S. R. Goldring, “The role of adsorbed endotoxin in particle-induced stimulation of cytokine release,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 704–713, 2002.
- M. Gorbet, E. L. Yeo, and M. V. Sefton, “Flow cytometric study of in vitro neutrophil activation by biomaterials,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, vol. 44, pp. 289–297, 1999.
- R. H. Chen, C. J. Huang, B. S. Newton, G. Ritter, L. J. Old, and C. A. Batt, “Factors affecting endotoxin removal from recombinant therapeutic proteins by anion exchange chromatography,” Protein Expression and Purification, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 76–81, 2009.
- A. Muck, M. Ramm, and M. Hamburger, “Efficient method for preparation of highly purified lipopolysaccharides by hydrophobic interaction chromatography,” Journal of Chromatography B, vol. 732, no. 1, pp. 39–46, 1999.
- C. J. Baker, M. J. Neilson, L. Sequeira, and K. G. Keegstra, “Chemical characterization of the lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas solanacearum,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1096–1100, 1984.
- A. Gamian, A. Krzyzaniak, M. Z. Barciszewska, I. Gawronska, and J. Barciszewski, “Specific incorporation of glycine into bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Novel function of specific transfer ribonucleic acids,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 6021–6025, 1991.
- M. Gross, H. Mayer, C. Widemann, and K. Rudolph, “Comparative analysis of the lipopolysaccharides of a rough and a smooth strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola,” Archives of Microbiology, vol. 149, no. 4, pp. 372–376, 1988.
- A. Kjellberg, F. Urbina, A. Weintraub, and G. Widmalm, “Structural analysis of the O-antigenic polysaccharide from the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O125,” European Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 239, no. 2, pp. 532–538, 1996.
- D. A. Powell, M. Duckworth, and J. Baddiley, “A membrane associated lipomannan in micrococci,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 387–397, 1975.
- C. M. Ongkudon, J. Ho, and M. K. Danquah, “Mitigating the looming vaccine crisis: production and delivery of plasmid-based vaccines,” Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 32–52, 2011.
- W. Guo, Z. H. Shang, Y. N. Yu, and L. M. Zhou, “Removal of endotoxin from aqueous solutions by affinity membrane,” Biomedical Chromatography, vol. 11, pp. 164–166, 1997.
- S. Nagamatsu, Y. Tanaka, and T. Shibata, “Separating membrane and separation method,” Tech. Rep. EP 0418517 A2, European Patent Application, 1991.
- M. K. Danquah, J. Ho, and G. M. Forde, “Performance of R-N(R')-R″ functionalised poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolithic sorbent for plasmid DNA adsorption,” Journal of Separation Science, vol. 30, no. 17, pp. 2843–2850, 2007.
- M. J. Fiske, R. A. Fredenburg, K. R. VanDerMeid, J. C. McMichael, and R. Arumugham, “Method for reducing endotoxin in Moraxella catarrhalis UspA2 protein preparations,” Journal of Chromatography B, vol. 753, no. 2, pp. 269–278, 2001.
- Z. Y. Ma, Y. P. Guan, and H. Z. Liu, “Synthesis of monodisperse nonporous crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate) particles with metal affinity ligands for protein adsorption,” Polymer International, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 1502–1507, 2005.
- C. Hirayama, M. Sakata, Y. Yugawa, and H. Ihara, “Cross-linked N,N-dimethylaminopropylacrylamide spherical particles for selective removal of endotoxin,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 676, no. 2, pp. 267–275, 1994.
- S. Minobe, T. Watanabe, T. Sato, and T. Tosa, “Characteristics and applications of adsorbents for pyrogen removal,” Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 143–153, 1988.
- M. M. Diogo, J. A. Queiroz, and D. M. F. Prazeres, “Chromatography of plasmid DNA,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1069, no. 1, pp. 3–22, 2005.
- I. Bemberis, M. Sakata, C. Hirayama et al., “Affinity chromatography removes endotoxins,” BioPharm International, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 50–57, 2005.
- Y. Han and G. M. Forde, “Single step purification of plasmid DNA using peptide ligand affinity chromatography,” Journal of Chromatography B, vol. 874, no. 1-2, pp. 21–26, 2008.
- T. Schluep and C. L. Cooney, “Immobilization of oligonucleotides on a large pore support for plasmid purification by triplex affinity interaction,” Bioseparation, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 317–326, 1999.
- P. Wils, V. Escriou, A. Warnery et al., “Efficient purification of plasmid DNA for gene transfer using triple-helix affinity chromatography,” Gene Therapy, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 323–330, 1997.
- T. Ito, C. L. Smith, and C. R. Cantor, “Sequence-specific DNA purification by triplex affinity capture,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 495–498, 1992.
- K. Buttenschoen, P. Radermacher, and H. Bracht, “Endotoxin elimination in sepsis: physiology and therapeutic application,” Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery, vol. 395, no. 6, pp. 597–605, 2010.
- F. Sousa, D. M. F. Prazeres, and J. A. Queiroz, “Improvement of transfection efficiency by using supercoiled plasmid DNA purified with arginine affinity chromatography,” Journal of Gene Medicine, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 79–88, 2009.
- F. Sousa, D. M. F. Prazeres, and J. A. Queiroz, “Affinity chromatography approaches to overcome the challenges of purifying plasmid DNA,” Trends in Biotechnology, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 518–525, 2008.
- A. Hanora, F. M. Plieva, M. Hedström, I. Y. Galaev, and B. Mattiasson, “Capture of bacterial endotoxins using a supermacroporous monolithic matrix with immobilized polyethyleneimine, lysozyme or polymyxin B,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 421–433, 2005.
- L. Tan, W. B. Lai, C. T. Lee, D. S. Kim, and W. S. Choe, “Differential interactions of plasmid DNA, RNA and endotoxin with immobilised and free metal ions,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1141, no. 2, pp. 226–234, 2007.
- G. S. Chaga, “Twenty-five years of immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography: past, present and future,” Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods, vol. 49, no. 1–3, pp. 313–334, 2001.
- E. C. Whisenant, B. K. A. Rasheed, and Y. M. Bhatnagar, “Plasmid purification using high-performance gel filtration chromatography,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 16, no. 11, p. 5202, 1988.
- S. H. Lee, J. S. Kim, and C. W. Kim, “Optimization of buffer conditions for the removal of endotoxins using Q-sepharose,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 1091–1098, 2003.
- A. Eon-Duval and G. Burke, “Purification of pharmaceutical-grade plasmid DNA by anion-exchange chromatography in an RNase-free process,” Journal of Chromatography B, vol. 804, no. 2, pp. 327–335, 2004.
- S. S. Freitas, J. A. L. Santos, and D. M. F. Prazeres, “Plasmid purification by hydrophobic interaction chromatography using sodium citrate in the mobile phase,” Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 95–104, 2009.
- D. M. F. Prazeres and G. N. M. Ferreira, “Design of flowsheets for the recovery and purification of plasmids for gene therapy and DNA vaccination,” Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 615–630, 2004.
- C. Hirayama, M. Sakata, H. Ihara, K. Ohkuma, and M. Iwatsuki, “Effect of the pore size of an aminated poly(3-methyl L-glutamate) adsorbent on the selective removal of endotoxin,” Analytical Sciences, vol. 8, pp. 805–810, 1992.
- C. Hirayama, M. Sakata, Y. Ohkura, H. Ihara, and K. Ohkuma, “Removal of endotoxin from culture supernatant of Bordetella pertussis with aminated poly(γ-methyl L-glutamat) spherical beads,” Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 2106–2109, 1992.
- G. Muszynska, G. Dobrowolska, A. Medin, P. Ekman, and J. O. Porath, “Model studies on iron(III) ion affinity chromatography. II. Interaction of immobilized iron(III) ions with phosphorylated amino acids, peptides and proteins,” Journal of Chromatography, vol. 604, no. 1, pp. 19–28, 1992.
- G. N. M. Ferreira, J. M. S. Cabral, and D. M. F. Prazeres, “Development of process flow sheets for the purification of supercoiled plasmids for gene therapy applications,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 725–731, 1999.
- T. Vo-Quang, Y. Malpiece, D. Buffard, P. A. Kaminski, D. Vidal, and A. D. Strosberg, “Rapid large-scale purification of plasmid DNA by medium or low pressure gel filtration. Application: construction of thermoamplifiable expression vectors,” Bioscience Reports, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 101–111, 1985.
- R. Lemmens, U. Olsson, T. Nyhammar, and J. Stadler, “Supercoiled plasmid DNA: selective purification by thiophilic/aromatic adsorption,” Journal of Chromatography B, vol. 784, no. 2, pp. 291–300, 2003.
- W. C. Tseng and F. L. Ho, “Enhanced purification of plasmid DNA using Q-Sepharose by modulation of alcohol concentrations,” Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, vol. 791, no. 1-2, pp. 263–272, 2003.
- P. E. Gustavsson, R. Lemmens, T. Nyhammar, P. Busson, and P. O. Larsson, “Purification of plasmid DNA with a new type of anion-exchange beads having a non-charged surface,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1038, no. 1-2, pp. 131–140, 2004.
- C. M. Ongkudon and M. K. Danquah, “Process optimisation for anion exchange monolithic chromatography of 4.2 kbp plasmid vaccine (pcDNA3F),” Journal of Chromatography B, vol. 878, no. 28, pp. 2719–2725, 2010.
- S. Iuliano, J. R. Fisher, M. Chen, and W. J. Kelly, “Rapid analysis of a plasmid by hydrophobic-interaction chromatography with a non-porous resin,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 972, no. 1, pp. 77–86, 2002.
- D. White, D. Creswell, E. Schenborn, and S. Krueger, “Automated purification of transfection-grade plasmid DNA using Wizard MagneSil Tfx system,” Journal of the Association for Laboratory Automation, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 50–53, 2003.