- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Submit a Manuscript
- Table of Contents
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 895120, 7 pages
Effect of Serine and Methionine on Electrochemical Behavior of the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Aqueous Solutions
1Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benghazi University, P.O. Box 1308, Benghazi, Libya
2Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, AL Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
3Chemistry Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Benghazi University, Kufra, Benghazi, Libya
Received 9 December 2012; Accepted 30 December 2012
Academic Editors: N. Boshkov and Q. Qu
Copyright © 2013 Mohamed N. Rahuma et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The pitting corrosion behaviour of mild steel in Na2HPO4 solutions contains chloride ion as an aggressive ion and serine and methionine as inhibitors were investigated using open-circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic polarization measurements, and pitting corrosion current measurements; both inhibitors shift the potential in the positive direction. The corrosion rate of the mild steel was measured in the absence and presence of the inhibitors, and the inhibition efficiency of the amino acids at a concentration of 0.02 M was calculated. The pitting corrosion current shows that increasing concentration of the inhibitor causes a decrease in pitting current density, and inhibition efficiency increases with increasing concentration of the inhibitors. The adsorption of these inhibitors on the mild steel surface obeys Langmuir isotherm, and the calculated adsorption free energy (Δ) for the inhibitors on the mild steel in 0.1 M (Na2HPO4 + NaCl) solutions was found to be (−24.61, −29.34) kJ/mol for serine and methionine, respectively, which reveals strong physical adsorption of the amino acids molecules on the mild steel surface.
Mild steel is one of the major construction materials, which is extensively used in chemicals and industries [1, 2]. Pitting corrosion in the presence of aggressive chloride ions Cl− is the most frequently encountered cause of failure of mild steel. It is generally accepted that pitting proceeds by destruction of the protective oxide by adsorption of that subsequently passes into solution . Compounds that retard or stop this process when present in aggressive medium are prospective corrosion inhibitors. Its protection against pitting corrosion has attracted much attention. One of the available methods is the use of soluble inhibitors; the use of inhibitor is one of the most practical methods to protect metals from corrosion, especially in aggressive media in particular, in chemicals, and petrochemical and oil industries [4, 5]. Unfortunately, many of the inhibitors used are inorganic salts and organic compounds, with toxic properties or limited solubility . Protective action of inorganic inhibitors is related to the formation of oxide film or hardly soluble salt on the metal surface. One the other hand protective action of organic inhibitors comes from the adsorption on the oxide films. Increasing awareness of the health and ecological risks has drawn attention to finding more suitable inhibitors, which are nontoxic. Amino acids inhibitors fall into this category since they are cheap; most of them are soluble in aqueous media and are easy to produce at high purity . Using amino acids as inhibitor for localized corrosion is important from the theoretical point of view, because in construction principles of prevention of localized corrosion organic weak acids or base that are accounted any substituent that can influence the electronic structure and nucleophilic properties . Some studies involve the influence of amino acids on the corrosion of iron [8–10], steel [4, 11–20], aluminum [3, 7, 21] lead and its alloys [22–24], copper and its alloys [25–29], cobalt , vanadium , nickel  and tin . The objective of the present work is to investigate the inhibition effect of serine and methionine for the pitting corrosion of mild steel in aqueous solution.
2. Materials and Experimental Techniques
The steel samples used in this study were made from a mild steel its the chemical composition is shown in Table 1.
These steel samples were polished using a series of emery paper 100, 166, 320, 400, and 1200; then the specimens are washed thoroughly with double-distilled water degreased and dried with acetone. All chemicals used in this paper reagent grade, disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4) as passivating agent, sodium chloride (NaCl) solution as an aggressive solution and serine (Ser.) and methionine (Met.) as corrosion inhibitors.
2.2.1. Open-Circuit Potential Measurements
Open-circuit potential measurements are carried out in a conventional three-electrode test cell, the working electrode sample with an exposed area to the corrosive solution of 1 cm2. A saturated calomel electrode (SCE) and two graphite rods are used, respectively, as reference and auxiliary electrodes. The potential was measured using the potentiostat EG&G model 273A and recorded it as a function of time until the steady state potential was attained (Scheme 1).
2.2.2. Potentiodynamic Polarization Measurements
The potentiodynamic current-potential curves were recorded by changing the electrode potential automatically from −250 mV to +250 mV (SCE) with a scan rate of 0.2 mVs−1 .
2.2.3. Pitting Corrosion Current Measurements
The simple electrolytic cell which was used, as shown diagrammatically in Figure 1. It consists of two 250 mL Pyrex glass tube endings in a fine porosity, low resistance (G4) sintered glass disc [35–37]. Two identical cylindrical mild steel electrodes with a diameter of (1.127 cm) and height of (3.059 cm) were short circuited through a low resistance micrometer (Zero Resistance Ammeter). The passivating agents used were Na2HPO4 solution, ions were used as aggression ions and amino acids (Serine and Methionin) were utilized as corrosion inhibitors. The principle of this method is based on the presence of two similar electrodes in a two-compartment cell filled with a solution of the passivation of such has a concentration to stifle corrosion. When a steady state is attained, no current flows through the electrical circuit. An aggressive anion () is then introduced into one of the cells compartments, to initiate pitting corrosion. Local corrosion currents will flow through the circuit, and the pitting current will be measured using (Zero Resistance Ammeter). This is followed as a function of time until steady-state current values are obtained. Pitting corrosion current measurements were performed at different concentration of the inhibitor (amino acids) of (). This was done by adding different concentrations of the inhibitor (amino acids) to the solution containing a constant amount of the () and recording the corrosion current.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Open-Circuit Potential Measurements
The electrochemical behaviour of mild steel in 0.1 M Na2HPO4 in absence and in the presence of 0.1 M NaCl and 0.02 M of serine and methionine was studied on the basis of the change in potentials with time using (OCP). The values of immersion potential () and steady state potential () are given Table 2. The addition of NaCl to Na2HPO4 solution shifts the potential to more −ve direction; this gives an indication of the dissolution of the preformed protective film on the surface the steel. The presence of the amino acid in the solution shifts the value most likely in the more noble direction. This behavior indicates that amino acids are adsorbed on anodic sites and, consequently, affect mainly the anodic dissolution of mild steel .
3.1.1. Film Thickening on the Surface of Mild Steel Electrode in Absence and in Presence of Different Amino Acids
A theory for film thickening on the surface of metal and alloys based on open-circuit potential measurements has been developed by Abd El-Kader and Shams El-Din . The essence of the theory is based on the idea that the potential is determined by simultaneous anodic (film formation) and cathodic (oxygen reduction) couples, in which the anodic reaction is the rate limiting step.
The way by which the potential () of the mild steel approaches the stationary values is of interests, varies linearly with the logarithm of time of immersion until steady stat potential () is attained
Straight lines were obtained satisfying the relation where is the time from the moment of immersion in solution, is the rate of film thickening per decade of time, and β is given by where (α) is a transference coefficient similar to that encountered by normal electrochemical reactions, (0 < α < 1), = is the width of the activation energy barrier surrounded by the ion during film formation, is the gas constant, and is the absolute temperature. Assuming (α) to have the value of 0.5 and to the value of 1.0 nm, the constant () in (2) is set equal to 3.0 and β acquires the value of 58.6 nm/V .
Results given in Figures 2 and 3 illustrate the potential/log time curves for mild steel in 0.1 M Na2HPO4 in the absence and in the presence of 0.1 M NaCl and 0.02 M of for Serine and Methionine, respectively, and Table 3 illustrates the values of . It is observed that the rate of oxide thickening of mild steel immersed in aerated phosphate solution in the absence of amino acids is 1.454 (nm/log ). This indicates that the thickness of the formed oxide films increases with the field strength in the passive region. The presence of the amino acids the rate of oxide thickening are (1.4796 and 2.6020 (nm/log )) for Serine and Methionine, respectively. This indicates that thick oxide films are formed increasing with strength in the passive region, and also these may consist of a thin nonstructural barrier layer next to the mild steel and a thicker crystalline layer next to the barrier layer , showing the highest value of δ indicating a strong adsorption on the active sites of the electrode surface and the formation of thicker adsorption layer.
3.2. Potentiodynamic Polarization Measurements
Linear polarization resistance and Tafel plots are utilized to provide information about the corrosion rate of mild steel and inhibitor efficiencies in 0.1 M (Na2HPO4 + NaCl) solutions containing 0.02 M of Serine and Methionine, and the corrosion parameters which obtained from the linear polarization resistance and Tafel plot are given in Table 4.
The presence of the amino acid inhibitor decreases the corrosion rate and currents as shown in Table 4 this is due to the adsorption of amino acids on the metal surface. Accordingly, the inhibitors are found to retard the dissolution of the metals and act as mixed-type inhibitors. The presence of R–S–R in molecular structure of Methionine provokes an increase of the inhibition efficiency, which can be attributed to the fact that the sulfur containing amino acids can be adsorbed as bidentate ligands in which surface coordination is taking place through both the amino group (or carboxylic group) and the –S– moiety.
3.3. Pitting Corrosion Current on Mild Steel
In 1975, A. Shams El Din and his co-workers have devised a sample model cell for measuring the pitting corrosion currents of zinc . In the present part the this cell has been to measure the pitting corrosion currents of a mild steel electrode in (0.1 M Na2HPO4 + 0.1 M NaCl) blank solution in presence of different concentrations (2.0 × 10−2 M to 0.125 × 10−2) of the studied amino acids as shown in Figures 4 and 5.
The inhibition activity, calculated using following equations where is the pitting current density of the blank solution and is the pitting current density of the inhibited solution containing Serine and Methionine, and I.E.% is the percentage of inhibition efficiency; these data are included in Table 5. These results reveal that the presence or increasing concentration of the inhibitor causes decrease in pitting current density, and the value of pitting current density () increases with increases of the time.
Adsorption Isotherm. Action of inhibitors on metal surface is often expressed by an adsorption isotherm; many adsorption isotherms were proposed to calculate the thermodynamic parameters pertaining to inhibitor adsorption. The models considered were [24, 40] where θ is the surface coverage, is the equilibrium constant of the adsorption process, and the inhibitor concentration. The degree of surface coverage (θ) for different concentrations of these compounds can be evaluated from pitting current measurement: The obtained values of lead to the adsorption free energy (Δ) obtained according to the equation [14, 18]. The value of 55.5 is the concentration of water in the solution in moles. The results of the adsorption of Serine and Methionine on mild steel electrode in 0.1 M Na2HPO4 + 0.1 M NaCl solution are presented in Figures 6 and 7; plotting against of amino acids gives straight lines with unit slope value. Figures 6 and 7 indicate that adsorption of amino acids on steel surface follows Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm, free energy of adsorption for Methionine and Serine solutions is −24.61, −29.34 kJ/mol, respectively. The values of Δ for Serine and Methionine are <40 kJ/mol indicating that amino acids are physically adsorbed on the metal surface. The negative value of Δ indicated the spontaneous adsorption of inhibitor on the surface of mild steel [1, 4, 16, 31, 41, 42].
(i)Serine and Methionine revealed good inhibitory effects against mild steel pitting corrosion in aqueous solution.(ii)The open-circuit potential indicates that amino acids are adsorbed on anodic sites. This together with the decrease in the pitting current may indicate that these inhibitors can block the pits which are the anodic site, and inhibition increases with increasing the inhibitor concentration. (iii)The adsorption of Serine and Methionine on mild steel follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the free energy of adsorption (−24.61, −29.34) kJ/mol for Serine and Methionine, respectively, indicating the physical adsorption of the amino acid molecules on the metal surface.
- S. Divakara, P. Shetty, and H. Nayak, “The inhibition action of N-furfuryl-N′-phenyl thiourea on the corrosion of mild steel in acid media,” Chemical Society, vol. 71, no. 10, pp. 1073–1082, 2006.
- M. Fontana, Corrosion Engineering, Mc Graw-Hill Company, New York, NY, USA, 1987.
- G. Bereket and A. Yurt, “The inhibition effect of amino acids and hydroxy carboxylic acids on pitting corrosion of aluminum alloy 7075,” Corrosion Science, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1179–1195, 2001.
- L. Towfri, A. Kadri, A. Khelifa, N. Aimeur, and N. Benlrahim, “The inhibition and adsorption processes of L-cysteine against the corrosion of XC 18 carbon Steel in 2N H2SO4,” Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 688–696, 2008.
- A. Dubey and G. Singh, “Corrosion inhibition of mild steel using Brij-30,” Portugaliae Electrochimica Acta, vol. 25, pp. 205–219, 2007.
- C. M. A. Brett, I. A. R. Gomes, and J. P. S. Martins, “The electrochemical behaviour and corrosion of aluminium in chloride media. The effect of inhibitor anions,” Corrosion Science, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 915–923, 1994.
- A. El-shafei, M. Moussa, and A. El-far, “Inhibitory effect of amino acids on Al pitting corrosion in 0.1 M NaCl,” Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1075–1078, 1997.
- V. Hlluchan, B. Wheeler, and N. Hackerman, “Amino acids as corrosoin inhibitors in hydrochloric acid solution,” Materials and Corrosion, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 512–517, 1988.
- M. Zerfaoui, H. Oudda, B. Hammouti, S. Kertit, and M. Benkaddour, “Inhibition of corrosion of iron in citric acid media by aminoacids,” Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 134–138, 2004.
- A. A. Aksüt and A. N. Önal, “The effect of some organic compounds on the corrosion of pure Fe, pure Cr and Fe-Cr alloys in acidic solutions,” Corrosion Science, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 761–774, 1997.
- D. Kalota and D. Silverman, “Behavior of aspartic acid as a corrosion inhibitor for steel,” Corrosion, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 135–138, 1994.
- L. H. Madkour and M. M. Ghoneim, “Inhibition of the corrosion of 16/14 austenitic stainless steel by oxygen and nitrogen containing compounds,” Bulletin of Electrochemistry, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 1997.
- G. K. Gomma, “Inhibition of corrosion of steel by amino acids in acid medium,” Bulletin of Electrochemistry, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 456–461, 1998.
- M. S. S. Morad, A. E. A. Hermas, and M. S. A. Aal, “Effect of amino acids containing sulfur on the corrosion of mild steel in phosphoric acid solutions polluted with Cl-, F- and Fe3+ ions-behaviour near and at the corrosion potential,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 486–494, 2002.
- M. Vinnichenko, M. Pham, T. Chevolleau, L. Poperenko, and M. Maitz, “In situ ellipsometric investigation of stainless steel corrosion behavior in buffered solutions with amino acids,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 207, no. 1–4, pp. 176–182, 2003.
- H. Ashassi-Sorkhabi, M. Majidib, and K. Seyyedi, “Investigation of inhibition effect of some amino acids against steel corrosion in HCl solution,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 225, no. 1–4, pp. 176–185, 2004.
- M. Morad, “Effect of amino acids containing sulfur on the corrosion of mild steel in phosphoric acid solutions containing Cl−, F− and Fe3+ ions: behavior under polarization conditions,” Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 889–895, 2005.
- M. Alagbe, L. Umoru, and A. Afonja, “Effects of different amino-acid derivatives on the inhibition of NST-44 mild steel corrosion in lime fluid,” Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 1142–1147, 2006.
- E. Oguzie, Y. Li, and F. Wang, “Corrosion inhibition and adsorption behavior of methionine on mild steel in sulfuric acid and synergistic effect of iodide ion,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 310, no. 1, pp. 90–98, 2007.
- P. Singh, K. Bhrara, and G. Singh, “Adsorption and kinetic studies of L-leucine as an inhibitor on mild steel in acidic media,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 254, no. 18, pp. 5927–5935, 2008.
- H. Ashassi-Sorkhabi, Z. Ghasemi, and D. Seifzadeh, “The inhibition effect of some amino acids towards the corrosion of aluminum in 1 M HCl + 1 M H2SO4 solution,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 249, no. 1-4, pp. 408–418, 2005.
- Z. Ghasemi and A. Tizpar, “The inhibition effect of some amino acids towards Pb-Sb-Se-As alloy corrosion in sulfuric acid solution,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 252, no. 10, pp. 3667–3672, 2006.
- M. Kiani, M. Mousavi, S. Ghasemi, M. Shamsipur, and S. Kazemi, “Inhibitory effect of some amino acids on corrosion of Pb-Ca-Sn alloy in sulfuric acid solution,” Corrosion Science, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 1035–1045, 2008.
- N. Helal, M. El-Rabiee, Gh. Abd El-Hafez, and W. Badawy, “Environmentally safe corrosion inhibition of Pb in aqueous solutions,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 456, no. 1-2, pp. 372–378, 2008.
- S. Abd El-Maksoud, “Some phthalazin derivatives as non toxic corrosion inhibitors for copper in sulphuric acid,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 49, pp. 4205–4212, 2004.
- D. Zhang, Q. Cai, X. He, L. Gao, and G. Zhou, “Inhibition effect of some amino acids on copper corrosion in HCl solution,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 353–358, 2008.
- K. Barouni, L. Bazzi, R. Salghi, et al., “Some amino acids as corrosion inhibitors for copper in nitric acid solution,” Letters, vol. 62, no. 19, pp. 3325–3327, 2008.
- W. A. Badawy, K. M. Ismail, and A. M. Fathi, “Corrosion control of Cu-Ni alloys in neutral chloride solutions by amino acids,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 51, no. 20, pp. 4182–4189, 2006.
- G. K. Gomma and M. H. Wahdan, “Effect of temperature on the acidic dissolution of copper in the presence of amino acids,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 142–148, 1994.
- S. Bilgic and A. Aküt, “Effect of amino acids on corrosion of cobalt in H2SO4,” British Corrosion Journal, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 59–62, 1993.
- M. El-Rabiee, N. Helal, Gh. Abd El-Hafez, and W. Badawy, “Corrosion control of vanadium in aqueous solutions by amino acids,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 459, no. 1-2, pp. 466–471, 2008.
- A. Aksut and S. Bilgic, “The effect of amino acids on the corrosion of nickel in H2SO4,” Corrosion Science, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 379–387, 1992.
- M. S. S. Morad and A. A. A. Hermas, “Influence of some amino acids and vitamin C on the anodic dissolution of tin in sodium chloride solution,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 401–410, 2001.
- M. - Rahuma, Corrosion inhibition of 316l steel in hydrochloric acid solutions [Ph.D. thesis], University of Teesside, Middlesbrough, UK, 2000.
- S. Adb el Haleem and A. Abd el Aal, “Pitting corrosion currents on steel in relation to the concentration of the inhibitive and corrosive anions under natural corrosion conditions,” British Corrosion Journal, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 226–230, 1979.
- A. Shams El Din, S. Abd El Haleem, and J. Abd El Kader, “Studies on the pitting corrosion of zinc in aqueous solutions II. Measurement of pitting corrosion currents operating under natural conditions,” Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 335–349, 1975.
- S. Abd El Wanees, M. Abd El Azeem, and A. Abd El Fatah, “Pitting corrosion currents of tin in relation to the concentration of the inhibitive and corrosive anions under natural corrosion conditions,” International Journal of Electrochemical Science, vol. 3, pp. 1005–1015, 2008.
- J. M. Abd El Kader and A. M. Shams El Din, “Film thickening on nickel in aqueous solutions in relation to anions type and concentration,” British Corrosion Journal, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 40–45, 1979.
- P. Bothi Raja and M. G. Sethuraman, “Studies on the inhibitive effect of Datura stramonium extract on the acid corrosion of mild steel,” Surface Review and Letters, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1157–1164, 2007.
- D. Do, Adsorption Analysis: Equilibria and Kinetics, Imperial College Press, London, UK, 1998.
- P. Atkins, Physical Chemistry, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1999.
- B. Kobe, S. Ramamurthy, M. Biesinger, N. McIntyre, and A. Brennenstuhl, “XPS imaging investigations of pitting corrosion mechanisms in Inconel 600,” Surface and Interface Analysis, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 478–494, 2005.