- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Submit a Manuscript
- Table of Contents
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 130289, 8 pages
Fungicide: Modes of Action and Possible Impact on Nontarget Microorganisms
1Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, AAFC, Swift Current, SK, S9H 3X2, Canada
2Department of Food and Bioproducts Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5N8, Canada
Received 26 July 2011; Accepted 5 September 2011
Academic Editors: K. Muylaert and H. Sanderson
Copyright © 2011 Chao Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- C. Aponte, T. Marañón, and L. V. García, “Microbial C, N and P in soils of Mediterranean oak forests: influence of season, canopy cover and soil depth,” Biogeochemistry, vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 77–92, 2010.
- M. Sioud, A. Boudabous, and L. Cekaite, “Transcriptional responses of Bacillus subtillis and thuringiensis to antibiotics and anti tumour-drugs,” International Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 33–39, 2009.
- J. F. Carr, S. T. Gregory, and A. E. Dahlberg, “Severity of the streptomycin resistance and streptomycin dependence phenotypes of ribosomal protein S12 of Thermus thermophilus depends on the identity of highly conserved amino acid residues,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 187, no. 10, pp. 3548–3550, 2005.
- M. E. Perez, E. Soto, and R. Vega, “Streptomycin blocks the postsynaptic effects of excitatory amino acids on the vestibular system primary afferents,” Brain Research, vol. 563, no. 1-2, pp. 221–226, 1991.
- P. M. White, T. L. Potter, and A. K. Culbreath, “Fungicide dissipation and impact on metolachlor aerobic soil degradation and soil microbial dynamics,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 408, no. 6, pp. 1393–1402, 2010.
- Y. S. Wang, C. Y. Wen, T. C. Chiu, and J. H. Yen, “Effect of fungicide iprodione on soil bacterial community,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 127–132, 2004.
- J. H. Yen, J. S. Chang, P. J. Huang, and Y. S. Wang, “Effects of fungicides triadimefon and propiconazole on soil bacterial communities,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 681–689, 2009.
- C. C. Lo, “Effect of pesticides on soil microbial community,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B, vol. 45, pp. 348–359, 2010.
- B. Alberts, A. Johnson, and J. Lewis, Molecular Biology of the Cell, Garland Science, New York, NY, USA, 4th edition, 2002.
- F. Boscá, M. A. Miranda, G. Serrano, and F. Vargas, “Photochemistry and photobiological properties of dicloran, a postharvest fungicide with photosensitizing side effects,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 532–537, 1998.
- B. Radzuhn and H. Lyr, “On the mode of action of the fungicide etridiazole,” Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 14–23, 1984.
- D. P. De Ouveira, M. Sakagami, S. Warren, F. Kummrow, and G. A. De Umbuzeiro, “Evaluation of dicloran's contribution to the mutagenic activity of cristais river, Brazil, water samples,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1881–1884, 2009.
- G. A. Rodgers, “Potency of nitrification inhibitors following their repeated application to soil,” Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 105–108, 1986.
- R. J. Pring, “Effects of triadimefon on the ultrastructure of rust fungi infecting leaves of wheat and broad bean (Vicia faba),” Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 127–137, 1984.
- A. Niewiadomska, Z. Sawińska, and A. W. Maruwka, “Impact of selected seed dressings on soil microbiological activity in spring barley cultivation,” Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, vol. 20, pp. 1252–1261, 2011.
- S. Milenkovski, E. Bååth, P. E. Lindgren, and O. Berglund, “Toxicity of fungicides to natural bacterial communities in wetland water and sediment measured using leucine incorporation and potential denitrification,” Ecotoxicology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 285–294, 2010.
- M. Cycoń, Z. Piotrowska-Seget, and J. Kozdrój, “Responses of indigenous microorganisms to a fungicidal mixture of mancozeb and dimethomorph added to sandy soils,” International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 316–323, 2010.
- M. Kawai and J.-I. Yamagishi, “Mechanisms of action of acriflavine: electron microscopic study of cell wall changes induced in Staphylococcus aureus by acriflavine,” Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 481–486, 2009.
- R. J. Madhuri and V. Rangaswamy, “Influence of selected fungicides on microbial population in groundnut (Arachis hypogeae L.) soils,” Pollution Research, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 205–212, 2003.
- M. A. Pereyra, F. M. Ballesteros, C. M. Creus, R. J. Sueldo, and C. A. Barassi, “Seedlings growth promotion by Azospirillum brasilense under normal and drought conditions remains unaltered in Tebuconazole-treated wheat seeds,” European Journal of Soil Biology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 20–27, 2009.
- Q. Yang, J. Zhang, K. Zhu, and H. Zhang, “Influence of oxytetracycline on the structure and activity of microbial community in wheat rhizosphere soil,” Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 954–959, 2009.
- S. Verdisson, M. Couderchet, and G. Vernet, “Effects of procymidone, fludioxonil and pyrimethanil on two non-target aquatic plants,” Chemosphere, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 467–474, 2001.
- J. B. Lee, H. Y. Sohn, K. S. Shin et al., “Microbial biodegradation and toxicity of vinclozolin and its toxic metabolite 3,5-dichloroaniline,” Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 343–349, 2008.
- G. G. Miñambres, M. Y. Conles, E. I. Lucini, R. A. Verdenelli, J. M. Meriles, and J. A. Zygadlo, “Application of thymol and iprodione to control garlic white rot (Sclerotium cepivorum) and its effect on soil microbial communities,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 161–170, 2010.
- A. Banerjee and A. K. Banerjee, “Effect of the fungicides tridemorph and vinclozolin on soil microorganisms and nitrogen metabolism,” Folia Microbiologica, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 567–571, 1991.
- K. S. Oyedotun and B. D. Lemire, “The quaternary structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae succinate dehydrogenase: homology modeling, cofactor docking, and molecular dynamics simulation studies,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 279, no. 10, pp. 9424–9431, 2004.
- R. P. A. van Wijngaarden, G. H. P. Arts, J. D. M. Belgers et al., “The species sensitivity distribution approach compared to a microcosm study: a case study with the fungicide fluazinam,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 109–122, 2010.
- J. Černohlávková, J. Jarkovský, and J. Hofman, “Effects of fungicides mancozeb and dinocap on carbon and nitrogen mineralization in soils,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 80–85, 2009.
- S. K. Chen, C. A. Edwards, and S. Subler, “Effects of the fungicides benomyl, captan and chlorothalonil on soil microbial activity and nitrogen dynamics in laboratory incubations,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 33, no. 14, pp. 1971–1980, 2001.
- G. R. Carr and M. A. Hinkley, “Germination and hyphal growth of Glomus caledonicum on water agar containing benomyl,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 313–316, 1985.
- X. Wang, M. Song, C. Gao et al., “Carbendazim induces a temporary change in soil bacterial community structure,” Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1679–1683, 2009.
- R. Pal, K. Chakrabarti, A. Chakraborty, and A. Chowdhury, “Pencycuron application to soils: degradation and effect on microbiological parameters,” Chemosphere, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 1513–1522, 2005.
- A. Monkiedje and M. Spiteller, “Degradation of metalaxyl and mefenoxam and effects on the microbiological properties of tropical and temperate soils,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 272–285, 2005.
- J. Liebich, A. Schäffer, and P. Burauel, “Structural and functional approach to studying pesticide side-effects on specific soil functions,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 784–790, 2003.
- O. Kostov and O. Van Cleemput, “Microbial activity of Cu contaminated soils and effect of lime and compost on soil resiliency,” Compost Science and Utilization, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 336–351, 2001.
- H. Lodish, A. Berk, C. A. Kaiser, et al., Molecular Cell Biology, W. H. Freeman, London, UK, 4th edition, 2000.
- B, M. D. Singh, “Bactericidal activity of streptomycin and isoniazid against tubercle bacilli,” The British Medical Journal, vol. 1, pp. 130–132, 1954.
- D. Old and L. Gorini, “Amino acid changes provoked by streptomycin in a polypeptide synthesized in vitro,” Science, vol. 150, no. 3701, pp. 1290–1292, 1965.
- D. Doyle, K. J. McDowall, M. J. Butler, and I. S. Hunter, “Characterization of an oxytetracycline-resistance gene, otrA, of Streptomyces rimosus,” Molecular Microbiology, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 2923–2933, 1991.
- B. Halling-Sørensen, G. Sengeløv, and J. Tjørnelund, “Toxicity of tetracyclines and tetracycline degradation products to environmentally relevant bacteria, including selected tetracycline-resistant bacteria,” Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 263–271, 2002.
- J. H. Kim, B. C. Campbell, N. Mahoney, K. L. Chan, R. J. Molyneux, and G. S. May, “Enhancement of fludioxonil fungicidal activity by disrupting cellular glutathione homeostasis with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid,” FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 270, no. 2, pp. 284–290, 2007.
- H. J. Rosslenbroich and D. Stuebler, “Botrytis cinerea—history of chemical control and novel fungicides for its management,” Crop Protection, vol. 19, pp. 557–561, 2000.
- N. Ochiai, M. Fujimura, M. Oshima et al., “Effects of iprodione and fludioxonil on glycerol synthesis and hyphal development in Candida albicans,” Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 2209–2215, 2002.
- D. Hagiwara, Y. Asano, J. Marui, A. Yoshimi, T. Mizuno, and K. Abe, “Transcriptional profiling for Aspergillus nidulans HogA MAPK signaling pathway in response to fludioxonil and osmotic stress,” Fungal Genetics and Biology, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 868–878, 2009.
- T. Mizuno, “Two-component phosphorelay signal transduction systems in plants: from hormone responses to circadian rhythms,” Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, vol. 69, no. 12, pp. 2263–2276, 2005.
- S. M. J. C. S. Cabral and J. P. S. Cabral, “Morphological and chemical alterations in Botrytis cinerea exposed to the dicarboximide fungicide vinclozolin,” Canadian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 552–560, 1997.
- K. Fujii and S. Takamura, “Pyricut® (difulmetorim, UBF-002EC)—a new fungicide for ornamental use,” Agrochemicals Japan, no. 72, pp. 14–16, 1998.
- “The E-pesticide manual,” 2006.
- J. Spiegel and G. Stammler, “Baseline sensitivity of Monilinia laxa and M. fructigena to pyraclostrobin and boscalid,” Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, vol. 113, no. 5, pp. 199–206, 2006.
- B. N. Ziogas and S. G. Georgopoulos, “The effect of carboxin and of thenoyltrifluoroacetone on cyanide-sensitive and cyanide-resistant respiration of Ustilago maydis mitochondria,” Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, vol. 11, no. 1–3, pp. 208–217, 1979.
- M. Matsson and L. Hederstedt, “The carboxin-binding site on Paracoccus denitrificans succinate: quinone reductase identified by mutations,” Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 99–105, 2001.
- K. Motoba, M. Uchida, and E. Tada, “Mode of antifungal action and selectivity of flutolanil,” Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1445–1449, 1988.
- S. R. M. De Bittencourt, J. O. M. Menten, C. A. Dos Santos Araki et al., “Eficiency of the fungicide carboxin + thiram in peanut seed treatment,” Revista Brasileira de Sementes, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 214–222, 2007.
- D. L. Smith, M. C. Garrison, J. E. Hollowell, T. G. Isleib, and B. B. Shew, “Evaluation of application timing and efficacy of the fungicides fluazinam and boscalid for control of Sclerotinia blight of peanut,” Crop Protection, vol. 27, no. 3–5, pp. 823–833, 2008.
- B. A. C. Ackrell, et al., “Structure and function of succinate dehydrogenase and fumarate reductase,” Chemistry and Biochemistry of Flavoenzymes, vol. 3, pp. 229–297, 1992.
- A. N. Tucker and T. T. Lillich, “Effect of the systemic fungicide carboxin on electron transport function in membranes of Micrococcus denitrificans,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 572–578, 1974.
- Z. Guo, H. Miyoshi, T. Komyoji, T. Haga, and T. Fujita, “Uncoupling activity of a newly developed fungicide, fluazinam [3-chloro-N-(3-chloro-2,6-dinitro-4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-5-trifluoro methyl-2-pyridinamine],” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1056, no. 1, pp. 89–92, 1991.
- U. Brandt, J. Schubert, P. Geck, and G. Von Jagow, “Uncoupling activity and physicochemical properties of derivatives of fluazinam,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1101, no. 1, pp. 41–47, 1992.
- J. P. Seiler, “Toxicology and genetic effects of benzimidazole compounds,” Mutation Research, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 151–167, 1975.
- N. E. McCarroll, A. Protzel, Y. Ioannou et al., “A survey of EPA/OPP and open literature on selected pesticide chemicals—III. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of benomyl and carbendazim,” Mutation Research—Reviews in Mutation Research, vol. 512, no. 1, pp. 1–35, 2002.
- K. Gupta, J. Bishop, A. Peck, J. Brown, L. Wilson, and D. Panda, “Antimitotic antifungal compound benomyl inhibits brain microtubule polymerization and dynamics and cancer cell proliferation at mitosis, by binding to a novel site in tubulin,” Biochemistry, vol. 43, no. 21, pp. 6645–6655, 2004.
- L. C. Davidse, “Benzimidazole fungicides: mechanism of action and biological impact,” Annual Review of Phytopathology, vol. 24, pp. 43–65, 1986.
- B. S. Koo, H. Park, S. Kalme et al., “α- and β-tubulin from Phytophthora capsici KACC 40483: molecular cloning, biochemical characterization, and antimicrotubule screening,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 513–524, 2009.
- K. Rathinasamy and D. Panda, “Suppression of microtubule dynamics by benomyl decreases tension across kinetochore pairs and induces apoptosis in cancer cells,” FEBS Journal, vol. 273, no. 17, pp. 4114–4128, 2006.
- M. J. Clément, K. Rathinasamy, E. Adjadj, F. Toma, P. A. Curmi, and D. Panda, “Benomyl and colchicine synergistically inhibit cell proliferation and mitosis: evidence of distinct binding sites for these agents in tubulin,” Biochemistry, vol. 47, no. 49, pp. 13016–13025, 2008.
- C. W. Bi, J. B. Qiu, M. G. Zhou, C. J. Chen, and J. X. Wang, “Effects of carbendazim on conidial germination and mitosis in germlings of fusarium graminearum and botrytis cinerea,” International Journal of Pest Management, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 157–163, 2009.
- P. Sukul and M. Spiteller, “Metalaxyl: persistence, degradation, metabolism, and analytical methods,” Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 164, pp. 1–26, 2000.
- H. Buchenauer, Chemistry of Plant Protection. Part 6: Controlled Release, Biochemical Effects of Pesticides, Inhibition of Plant Pathogenic Fungi, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1990.
- S. Lee, C. D. Garzón, and G. W. Moorman, “Genetic structure and distribution of Pythium aphanidermatum populations in Pennsylvania greenhouses based on analysis of AFLP and SSR markers,” Mycologia, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 774–784, 2010.
- D. W. Holloman and K. Chamberlain, “Hydroxypyrimidine fungicides inhibit adenosine deaminase in barley powdery mildew,” Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 158–169, 1981.
- J. K. M. Brown and C. G. Simpson, “Genetic analysis of DNA fingerprints and virulences in Erysiphe graminis f.Sp. hordei,” Current Genetics, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 172–178, 1994.