- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Submit a Manuscript
- Table of Contents
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 575168, 6 pages
Complications of Intrathecal Baclofen Pump: Prevention and Cure
1Pediatric Neurology and Movement Disorder Program, Oakwood Health System, Dearborn, MI, USA
2Department of Pediatric Neurology, National Neurosciences Institute, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh 11393, Saudi Arabia
3Department of Neurosurgery, Henry Ford Health Systems, Detroit, MI, USA
4Operating Room Services, Oakwood Health System, Dearborn, MI, USA
Received 26 December 2011; Accepted 16 January 2012
Academic Editor: Y. Ersahin
Copyright © 2012 Yasser Awaad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- “Upper motor neuron control of the brainstem and spinal cord,” in Neuroscience, D. Purves, G. J. Augustine, D. Fitzpatrick, W. C. Hall, A.-S. LaMantia, J. O. McNamara, et al., Eds., pp. 414–415, Sinauer Publishers, Sunderland, Mass, USA, 3rd edition, 2004.
- “Lower motor neuron circuits and motor control,” in Neuroscience, D. Purves, G. J. Augustine, D. Fitzpatrick, W. C. Hall, A.-S. LaMantia, J. O. McNamara, et al., Eds., pp. 379–381, Sinauer Publishers, Sunderland, Mass, USA, 3rd edition, 2004.
- R. D. Penn and J. S. Kroin, “Intrathecal baclofen alleviates spinal cord spasticity,” Lancet, vol. 1, no. 8385, p. 1078, 1984.
- T. D. Sanger, M. R. Delgado, D. Gaebler-Spira, M. Hallett, and J. W. Mink, “Classification and definition of disorders causing hypertonia in childhood,” Pediatrics, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. e89–e97, 2003.
- C. B. Ivanhoe and T. A. Reistetter, “Spasticity: the misunderstood part of the upper motor neuron syndrome,” American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 83, no. 10, supplement, pp. S3–S9, 2004.
- B. Ashworth, “Preliminary trial of carisoprodol in multiple sclerosis,” The Practitioner, vol. 192, pp. 540–542, 1964.
- F. Biering-Sørensen, J. B. Nielsen, and K. Klinge, “Spasticity-assessment: a review,” Spinal Cord, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 708–722, 2006.
- J. Whyte, K. M. Robinson, M. B. Glenn, and J. Whyte, Eds., The Practical Management of Spasticity in Children and Adults, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1990.
- R. T. Katz and D. I. Campagnolo, “Pharmacologic management of spasticity.,” Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 8, pp. 473–480, 1994.
- W. B. Van Winkle, “Calcium release from skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum: site of action of dantrolene sodium?” Science, vol. 193, no. 4258, pp. 1130–1131, 1976.
- J. T. Dall, R. L. Harmon, and C. M. Quinn, “Use of clonidine for treatment of spasticity arising from various forms of brain injury: a case series,” Brain Injury, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 453–458, 1996.
- M. S. Kaplan, “Tizanidine: another tool in the management of spasticity,” Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 93–97, 1997.
- A. Badell, “The effect of medications that reduce spasticity in the management of spastic cerebral palsy,” Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation, vol. 5, no. 1, supplement, pp. 13–14, 1991.
- R. R. Young, M. Emre, and P. W. Nance, “Current issues in spasticity management,” Neurologist, vol. 3, pp. 261–275, 1997.
- C. F. Terrence, G. H. Fromm, and M. S. Roussan, “Baclofen. Its effect on seizure frequency,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 28–29, 1983.
- R. Gilmartin, D. Bruce, B. B. Storrs et al., “Intrathecal baclofen for management of spastic cerebral palsy: multicenter trial,” Journal of Child Neurology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 71–77, 2000.
- R. D. Penn, S. M. Savoy, D. Corcos et al., “Intrathecal baclofen for severe spinal spasticity,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 320, no. 23, pp. 1517–1521, 1989.
- Y. Awaad and T. Rizk, “Synergetic effect of intrathecal baclofen and deep brain stimulation in treating dystonia,” Journal of Pediatric Neurology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 221–225, 2011.
- B. Sallerin and Y. Lazorthes, “Intrathecal baclofen. Experimental and pharmacokinetic studies,” Neurochirurgie, vol. 49, no. 2-3, pp. 271–275, 2003.