- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Submit a Manuscript
- Table of Contents
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 802785, 6 pages
Young Stroke Mortality in Fiji Islands: An Economic Analysis of National Human Capital Resource Loss
1Lourdes Hospital and Community Health Service, P.O. Box 974, Dubbo, NSW 2830, Australia
2College of Business, Hospitality and Tourism Studies, Fiji National University, P.O. Box 7222, Nasinu, Fiji
Received 3 February 2012; Accepted 2 March 2012
Academic Editors: B. Drukarch, R. L. Macdonald, and A. K. Petridis
Copyright © 2012 Jagdish C. Maharaj and Mahendra Reddy. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- R. Bonita and R. Beaglehole, “Stroke prevention in poor countries: time for action,” Stroke, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 2871–2872, 2007.
- A. Sen, Non-Communicable Diseases and Achieving the Millennium Development Goals, Health and Development Section, Emerging Social Issues Division, UNESCAP, Health and Development Series, Bangkok, Thailand, August 2006, http://www.unescap.org/esid/hds/issues/NCD-MDG.pdf.
- R. Beaglehole, R. Bonita, G. Alleyne, et al., “UN High-Level Meeting on Non-Communicable Diseases: addressing four questions,” The Lancet, vol. 378, no. 9789, pp. 449–455, 2011.
- R. Bonita, “Epidemiology of stroke,” The Lancet, vol. 339, no. 8789, pp. 342–344, 1992.
- N. V. Ramani, P. H. Kwek, and M. J. Dass, “Stroke,” in Geriatric Medicine for Singapore, C. K. Ming, Y. K. Bee, and W. S. Fun, Eds., pp. 123–139, Armour, Singapore, 1996.
- M. E. Brandstater, “Stroke rehabilitation,” in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Principles and Practice, J. A. DeLisa, Ed., pp. 1656–1676, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2005.
- E. Shahar, P. G. McGovern, J. M. Sprafka et al., “Improved survival of stroke patients during the 1980s: the Minnesota stroke survey,” Stroke, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 1995.
- N. E. Mayo, D. Neville, S. Kirkland et al., “Hospitalization and case-fatality rates for stroke in Canada from 1982 through 1991: the Canadian Collaborative Study Group of Stroke Hospitalizations,” Stroke, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 1215–1220, 1996.
- Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, The Changing Face of Heart Disease and Stroke in Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 1999.
- D. Griffiths and J. Sturm, “Epidemiology and etiology of young stroke,” Stroke Research and Treatment, vol. 2011, Article ID 209370, 9 pages, 2011.
- C. Marini, T. Russo, and G. Felzani, “Incidence of stroke in young adults: a review,” Stroke Research and Treatment, vol. 2011, Article ID 535672, 5 pages, 2011.
- A. S. Kim and S. C. Johnston, “Global variation in the relative burden of stroke and ischemic heart disease,” Circulation, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 314–323, 2011.
- V. L. Feigin, C. M. Lawes, D. A. Bennett, S. L. Barker-Collo, and V. Parag, “Worldwide stroke incidence and early case fatality reported in 56 population-based studies: a systematic review,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 355–369, 2009.
- World Health Organisation, “NCD Surveillance: STEPwise approach to stroke surveillance,” February 2006, http://www.who.int/ncd_surveillance/steps/stroke/en/.
- M. Tripathi and D. Vibha, “Stroke in young in India,” Stroke Research and Treatment, vol. 2011, Article ID 368629, 6 pages, 2011.
- L. F. Owolabi and A. Ibrahim, “Stroke in young adults: a prospective study from Northwestern Nigeria,” International Scholarly Research Network Neurology, vol. 2012, Article ID 468706, 5 pages, 2012.
- World Bank, “How we classify countries,” 2012, http://data.worldbank.org/about/country-classifications.
- Wikipedia, “Demographics of Fiji,” 2012, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Fiji#2007_Census.
- C. D. Mathers, E. T. Vos, C. E. Stevenson, and S. J. Begg, “The Australian burden of disease study: measuring the loss of health from diseases, injuries and risk factors,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 172, no. 12, pp. 592–596, 2000.
- Fiji Islands Ministry of Health, 2003 Annual Report. Parliamentary Paper No. 45 of 2005, Ministry of Health, Suva, Fiji, 2003.
- Fiji Islands Ministry of Health, 2004 Annual Report. Parliamentary Paper No. 123 of 2005, Ministry of Health, Suva, Fiji, 2004.
- G. Waqa, “NCDs Blamed for Deaths,” Fiji Times, March 2010, http://www.fijitimes.com.fj/story.aspx?id=141852.
- F. Waqabaca, “NCDs Threat,” Fiji Times, April 2011, http://www.fijitimes.com/story.aspx?id=170166.
- M. Price, Care for the Elderly Report, Ministry of Health, Suva, Fiji, 1997.
- J. C. Maharaj, “Policy and programme for health care of older persons,” in Proceedings of the 41st Fiji Medical Association Annual Conference—Health care of Older Persons: Ageing & Health into the New Millennium, Suva, Fiji, September 1999.
- J. C. Maharaj and F. Ehrlich, “Elderly persons admitted to general medical wards in Fiji,” BOLD Quarterly Journal of the International Institute on Ageing, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 17–26, 1999.
- S. V. Panapasa, “Disability among older women and men in Fiji: concerns for the future,” Journal of Women and Aging, vol. 14, no. 1-2, pp. 149–162, 2002.
- World Health Organisation, “Programmes and projects,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 88, no. 7, pp. 481–560, 2010.
- J. C. Maharaj and S. V. Panapasa, “Burden of stroke among Fiji's older persons,” in Proceedings of the International Union of Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP '02), Bangkok, Thailand, June 2002, http://www.iussp.org/Bangkok2002/S7Maharaj.pdf.
- M. J. O'Donnell, X. Denis, L. Liu et al., “Risk factors for ischaemic and intracerebral haemorrhagic stroke in 22 countries (the INTERSTROKE study): a case-control study,” The Lancet, vol. 376, no. 9735, pp. 112–123, 2010.
- M. Lowe, “Hypertension and stroke,” in Health and Disease in Fiji, M. Lowe, Ed., School of Medicine, Suva, Fiji, 1st edition, 2001.
- K. Daniel, C. D. A. Wolfe, M. A. Busch, and C. Mckevitt, “What are the social consequences of stroke for working-aged adults?: a systematic review,” Stroke, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. e431–e440, 2009.
- M. Kepa and B. Makutu, “Nurses as actors in health promotion,” July 2008, http://www.samoanursing.ws/abstract%20.html.
- T. N. Taylor, P. H. Davis, J. C. Torner, J. Holmes, J. W. Meyer, and M. F. Jacobson, “Lifetime cost of stroke in the United States,” Stroke, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1459–1466, 1996.
- R. L. Sacco, E. J. Benjamin, J. P. Broderick, et al., “Risk factors: public health burden of stroke,” Stroke, vol. 28, pp. 1507–1517, 1997.
- L. B. Morgenstern, “Outcomes in stroke: reducing the economic burden,” 2006, http://www.plavix.com/stroke.aspx.
- H. M. Dewey, A. G. Thrift, C. Mihalopoulos et al., “Lifetime cost of stroke subtypes in Australia: findings from the North East Melbourne Stroke Incidence Study (NEMESIS),” Stroke, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 2502–2507, 2003.
- H. M. Dewey, A. G. Thrift, C. Mihalopoulos et al., “Cost of stroke in Australia from a societal perspective: results from the North East Melbourne Stroke Incidence Study (NEMESIS),” Stroke, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 2409–2416, 2001.
- H. S. Jørgensen, H. Nakayama, H. O. Raaschou, and T. S. Olsen, “Acute stroke care and rehabilitation: an analysis of the direct cost and its clinical and social determinants. The Copenhagen Stroke Study,” Stroke, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 1138–1141, 1997.
- S. Gerzeli, R. Tarricone, P. Zolo, I. Colangelo, M. R. Busca, and C. Gandolfo, “The economic burden of stroke in Italy. The EcLIPSE study: economic longitudinal incidence-based project for stroke evaluation,” Neurological Sciences, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 72–80, 2005.
- A. Terent, L. A. Marke, K. Asplund, B. Norrving, E. Jonsson, and P. O. Wester, “Costs of stroke in Sweden: a national perspective,” Stroke, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2363–2369, 1994.
- S. M. A. A. Evers, A. J. H. A. Ament, and G. Blaauw, “Economic evaluation in stroke research: a systematic review,” Stroke, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 1046–1053, 2000.
- M. F. Drummond, B. O’Brien, G. L. Stoddart, and G. W. Torrance, Methods for Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1997.
- World Health Organization, “Workbook 8: economic evaluations—evaluation of psychoactive substance use disorder treatment,” WHO/MSD/MSB 00.2i, November 2008, http://www.unodc.org/docs/treatment/economic_evaluation.pdf.
- R. Luengo-Fernandez, A. M. Gray, and P. M. Rothwell, “Costs of stroke using patient-level data: a critical review of the literature.,” Stroke, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. e18–23, 2009.
- C. J. Murray and A. D. Lopez, The Global Burden of Disease: A Comprehensive Assessment of Mortality and Disability from Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected to 2020, vol. 1 of Global Burden of Disease and Injury Series, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard, UK, 1996.
- K. Strong, C. Mathers, and R. Bonita, “Preventing stroke: saving lives around the world,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 182–187, 2007.
- B. Graham, E. Davis, P. Trott, and M. Uncles, The New Penguin Dictionary of Business, Penguin Books, London, UK, 2002.
- O. Pushkarev, “Method and criterion of an estimation of the human capital,” KORUS, Life Science, Biotehnology, Medicine, vol. 4, pp. 65–68, 2003.
- D. Stockley, “Human capital concept—definition and explanation,” September 2008, http://derekstockley.com.au/newsletters-05/018-human-capital.html.
- Fiji Islands Ministry of Health, Stroke Mortality in Fiji [I64] 1998–2001, Ministry of Health, Suva, Fiji, 2005.
- W. B. F. Brouwer and M. A. Koopmanschap, “The friction-cost method: replacement for nothing and leisure for free?” PharmacoEconomics, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 105–111, 2005.
- M. L. Moodie, R. Carter, C. Mihalopoulos et al., “Trial application of a Model of Resource Utilization, Costs, and Outcomes for Stroke (MORUCOS) to assist priority setting in stroke,” Stroke, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1041–1046, 2004.
- C. Mihalopoulos, D. A. Cadilhac, M. L. Moodie et al., “Development and application of Model of Resource Utilization, Costs, and Outcomes for Stroke (MORUCOS): an Australian economic model for stroke,” International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 499–505, 2005.
- World Health Organisation, “Guide to identifying the economic consequences of disease and injury,” 2009, http://www.who.int/choice/publications/d_economic_impact_guide.pdf.
- Fiji Islands Revenue and Customs Authority, “Annual Report 2005,” http://www.frca.org.fj/docs/firca/legislations_regulations/firca_annual%20_re port_2005.pdf.
- Fiji Islands Ministry of Health, “2001 Annual Report,” Parliamentary Paper No. 43 of 2005, Ministry of Health, Suva, Fiji, 2005.
- J. Siegrist, O. V. D. Knesebeck, and C. E. Pollack, “Social productivity and well-being of older people: a sociological explanation,” Social Theory and Health, vol. 2, pp. 1–17, 2004.
- J. C. Maharaj and N. Venketasubramanian, “Burden of stroke in Fiji,” International Journal of Stroke, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 321–322, 2010.
- World Health Organisation, “Death and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) estimates for 2002 by cause for WHO Member,” July 2008, http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/estimates_country/en/in dex.html.
- S. C. Johnston, S. Mendis, and C. D. Mathers, “Global variation in stroke burden and mortality: estimates from monitoring, surveillance, and modelling,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 345–354, 2009.
- P. L. Henneman and R. J. Lewis, “Is admission medically justified for all patients with acute stroke or transient ischemic attack?” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 458–463, 1995.
- M. Naylor, D. Brooten, R. Jones, R. Lavizzo-Mourey, M. Mezey, and M. Pauly, “Comprehensive discharge planning for the hospitalized elderly: a randomized clinical trial,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 120, no. 12, pp. 999–1006, 1994.
- A. Jones, E. K. Carr, D. J. Newham, and J. Wilson-Barnett, “Positioning of stroke patients: evaluation of a teaching intervention with nurses,” Stroke, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1612–1617, 1998.
- Stroke Unit Trialists’ Collaboration, “Organised inpatient (stroke unit) care for stroke,” Cochrane Database Systemic Review, vol. 1, Article ID CD000197, 2002.
- S. M. A. A. Evers, J. N. Struijs, A. J. H. A. Ament, M. L. L. Van Genugten, J. C. Jager, and G. A. M. Van Den Bos, “International comparison of stroke cost studies,” Stroke, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1209–1215, 2004.