- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Submit a Manuscript
- Table of Contents
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 984786, 6 pages
Biomarkers in Alzheimer's Disease: A Review
1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy & Technology Management, SVKM's NMIMS, Vile Parle, Mumbai 400056, India
2Department of Pharmacology, Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy & Technology Management, SVKM's NMIMS, Vile Parle, Mumbai 400056, India
Received 3 April 2012; Accepted 20 May 2012
Academic Editors: R. Couture and M. Tohda
Copyright © 2012 Meena Chintamaneni and Manju Bhaskar. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- K. Duff and F. Suleman, “Transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease: how useful have they been for therapeutic development?” Briefings in Functional Genomics & Proteomics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 47–59, 2004.
- Y. H. Suh and F. Checler, “Amyloid precursor protein, presenilins, and α-synuclein: molecular pathogenesis and pharmacological applications in Alzheimer's disease,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 469–525, 2002.
- K. N. Prasad, W. C. Cole, and K. C. Prasad, “Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: role of multiple antioxidants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and cholinergic agents alone or in combination in prevention and treatment,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 506–522, 2002.
- A. H. Simonsen, J. McGuire, O. Hansson et al., “Novel panel of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for the prediction of progression to Alzheimer dementia in patients with mild cognitive impairment,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 366–370, 2007.
- C. Humpel and T. Hochstrasser, “Cerebrospinal fluid and blood biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease,” World Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 8–18, 2011.
- B. L. Tang and R. Kumar, “Biomarkers of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease,” Annals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 406–410, 2008.
- N. Mattsson and H. Zetterberg, “Alzheimer's disease and CSF biomarkers: key challenges for broad clinical applications,” Biomarkers in Medicine, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 735–737, 2009.
- D. I. Dominguez, D. Hartmann, and B. De Strooper, “BACE1 and presenilin: two unusual aspartyl proteases involved in Alzheimer's disease,” Neurodegenerative Diseases, vol. 1, no. 4-5, pp. 168–174, 2004.
- J. M. Shoffner, M. D. Brown, A. Torroni et al., “Mitochondrial DNA variants observed in Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease patients,” Genomics, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 171–184, 1993.
- G. E. Gibson, V. Haroutunian, H. Zhang et al., “Mitochondrial damage in Alzheimer's disease varies with apolipoprotein E genotype,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 297, pp. 297–303, 2000.
- M. S. Wolfe, “Gamma-scretase-intramembrane protease with a complex,” Science of Aging Knowledge Environment, vol. 2003, no. 11, article E7, 2003.
- R. E. Tanzi and L. Bertram, “Twenty years of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid hypothesis: a genetic perspective,” Cell, vol. 120, no. 4, pp. 545–555, 2005.
- L. F. Lau, J. B. Schachter, P. A. Seymour, and M. A. Sanner, “Tau protein phosphorylation as a therapeutic target in Alzheimer's disease,” Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 395–415, 2002.
- J. B. Martin, “Molecular basis of the neurodegenerative disorders,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 340, no. 25, pp. 1970–1980, 1999.
- S. M. Lopez, L. Morelli, E. M. Castano, and J. M. Pasquini, “Defective ubiquitination of cerebral proteins in Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 62, pp. 302–310, 2000.
- F. Checler, C. Alves Da Costa, K. Ancolio, N. Chevallier, E. Lopez-Perez, and P. Marambaud, “Role of the proteasome in Alzheimer's disease,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1502, no. 1, pp. 133–138, 2000.
- T. J. Montine, K. S. Montine, W. McMahan, W. R. Markesbery, J. F. Quinn, and J. D. Morrow, “F2-isoprostanes in Alzheimer and other neurodegenerative diseases,” Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, vol. 7, no. 1-2, pp. 269–275, 2005.
- L. M. Refolo, M. A. Pappolla, B. Malester et al., “Hypercholesterolemia accelerates the Alzheimer's amyloid pathology in a transgenic mouse model,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 321–331, 2000.
- R. E. Mrak and W. S. T. Griffin, “Potential Inflammatory biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 369–375, 2005.
- E. R. Peskind, W. S. T. Griffin, K. T. Akama, M. A. Raskind, and L. J. Van Eldik, “Cerebrospinal fluid S100B is elevated in the earlier stages of Alzheimer's disease,” Neurochemistry International, vol. 39, no. 5-6, pp. 409–413, 2001.
- J. D. Luterman, V. Haroutunian, S. Yemul et al., “Cytokine gene expression as a function of the clinical progression of Alzheimer disease dementia,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 1153–1160, 2000.
- T. Kordula, R. E. Rydel, E. F. Brigham, F. Horn, P. C. Heinrich, and J. Travis, “Oncostatin M and the interleukin-6 and soluble interleukin-6 receptor complex regulate α1-antichymotrypsin expression in human cortical astrocytes,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 273, no. 7, pp. 4112–4118, 1998.
- G. M. Murphy Jr., L. Yang, and B. Cordell, “Macrophage colony-stimulating factor augments β-amyloid-induced interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and nitric oxide production by microglial cells,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 273, no. 33, pp. 20967–20971, 1998.
- S. D. Yan, H. Zhu, J. Fu et al., “Amyloid-β peptide-receptor for advanced glycation endproduct interaction elicits neuronal expression of macrophage-colony stimulating factor: a proinflammatory pathway in Alzheimer disease,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 94, no. 10, pp. 5296–5301, 1997.
- T. K. Khan and D. L. Alkon, “An internally controlled peripheral biomarker for Alzheimer's disease: Erk1 and Erk2 responses to the inflammatory signal bradykinin,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 103, no. 35, pp. 13203–13207, 2006.
- D. Galimberti, N. Schoonenboom, P. Scheltens et al., “Intrathecal chemokine synthesis in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 538–543, 2006.
- W. Q. Zhao, L. Ravindranath, A. S. Mohamed et al., “MAP kinase signaling cascade dysfunction specific to Alzheimer's disease in fibroblasts,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 166–183, 2002.
- I. Blasko, K. Jellinger, G. Kemmler et al., “Conversion from cognitive health to mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: prediction by plasma amyloid-β 42, medial temporal lobe atrophy and homocysteine,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2008.
- P. D. Mehta, T. Pirttilä, S. P. Mehta, E. A. Sersen, P. S. Aisen, and H. M. Wisniewski, “Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of amyloid β proteins 1–40 and 1–42 in Alzheimer disease,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 100–105, 2000.
- R. Mayeux, L. S. Honig, M. X. Tang et al., “Plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 and Alzheimer's disease: relation to age, mortality, and risk,” Neurology, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 1185–1190, 2003.
- H. Fukumoto, M. Tennis, J. J. Locascio, B. T. Hyman, J. H. Growdon, and M. C. Irizarry, “Age but not diagnosis is the main predictor of plasma amyloid β-protein levels,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 958–964, 2003.
- B. Borroni, M. Di Luca, and A. Padovani, “Predicting Alzheimer dementia in mild cognitive impairment patients. Are biomarkers useful?” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 545, no. 1, pp. 73–80, 2006.
- M. C. Irizarry, “Biomarkers of Alzheimer disease in plasma,” NeuroRx, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 226–234, 2004.
- S. H. Freeman, S. Raju, B. T. Hyman, M. P. Frosch, and M. C. Irizarry, “Plasma Aβ levels do not reflect brain Aβ levels,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 264–271, 2007.
- M. van Oijen, A. Hofman, H. D. Soares, P. J. Koudstaal, and M. M. Breteler, “Plasma Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 and the risk of dementia: a prospective case-cohort study,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 655–660, 2006.
- M. Pesaresi, C. Lovati, P. Bertora et al., “Plasma levels of beta-amyloid (1–42) in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 904–905, 2006.
- N. R. Graff-Radford, J. E. Crook, J. Lucas et al., “Association of low plasma Aβ42/Aβ40 ratios with increased imminent risk for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 354–362, 2007.
- R. Oprisiu, J. M. Serot, O. Godefroy, S. E. Black, and A. Fournier, “Plasma amyloid-β concentrations in Alzheimer's disease: an alternative hypothesis,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 1001–1002, 2006.
- D. Chabas, S. E. Baranzini, D. Mitchell et al., “The influence of the proinflammatory cytokine, osteopontin, on autoimmue demyelinating desease,” Science, vol. 294, no. 5547, pp. 1731–1735, 2001.
- J. Valk, F. Barkhof, and P. Scheltens, Magnetic Resonance in Dementia, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2002.
- M. Albert, C. De Carli, and S. De Kosky, “The use of MRI and PET for clinical diagnosis of dementia and investigation of cognitive impairment,” A consensus report, Report of the neuroimaging work group of the Alzheimer's Association, 2005.
- H. V. Vinters, Z. Z. Wang, and D. L. Secor, “Brain parenchymal and microvascular amyloid in Alzheimer's disease,” Brain Pathology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 179–195, 1996.
- A. Nordberg, “PET imaging of amyloid in Alzheimer's disease,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 519–527, 2004.
- B. J. Bacskai, G. A. Hickey, J. Skoch et al., “Four-dimensional multiphoton imaging of brain entry, amyloid binding, and clearance of an amyloid-β ligand in transgenic mice,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 21, pp. 12462–12467, 2003.
- S. B. Raymond, J. Skoch, I. D. Hills, E. E. Nesterov, T. M. Swager, and B. J. Bacskai, “Smart optical probes for near-infrared fluorescence imaging of Alzheimer's disease pathology,” European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, vol. 35, supplement 1, pp. S93–S98, 2008.
- M. A. Yassa, “Searching for novel biomarkers using high resolution diffusion tensor imaging,” in Handbook of Imaging the Alzheimer Brain, pp. 547–555, ISO Press, 2011.
- O. Rukovets, “FDA approves florbetapir for imaging amyloid beta for Alzheimer's disease,” Neurology Today, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 18–20, 2012.