- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Submit a Manuscript
- Table of Contents
ISRN Veterinary Science
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 984813, 6 pages
A Survey for Escherichia coli Virulence Factors in Asymptomatic Free-Ranging Parrots
1Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia,
Universidade de São Paulo, 05508 270 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
2Programa de MDR, Universidade Anhanguera-UNIDERP, and Projeto Arara-azul, 79051 660 Campo Grande, MS, Brazil
3Projeto Papagaio-verdadeiro, Fundação Neotrópica do Brasil, 79290 000 Bonito, MS, Brazil
4Universidade Luterana do Brasil, 92425 900 Canoas, RS, Brazil
5Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508 090 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Received 19 April 2012; Accepted 20 May 2012
Academic Editors: M. H. Kogut and A. Pratelli
Copyright © 2012 André Becker Saidenberg et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- N. Snyder, P. Mcgowan, J. Gilardi, and A. Grajal, “Parrots—status survey and conservation action plan 2000–2004,” in The World Parrot Trust, N. Snyder, P. Mcgowan, J. Gilardi, and A. Grajal, Eds., pp. 98–151, IUCN, Cambridge, UK, 2000.
- E. G. Stone, G. Montiel-Parra, and T. M. Pérez, “A survey of selected parasitic and viral pathogens in four species of Mexican parrots, Amazona autumnalis, Amazona oratrix, Amazona viridigenalis, and Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha,” Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 245–249, 2005.
- H. McCallum and A. Dobson, “Detecting disease and parasite threats to endangered species and ecosystems,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 190–194, 1995.
- M. G. Spalding and D. J. Forrester, “Disease monitoring of free-ranging and released wildlife,” Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, vol. 24, pp. 271–280, 1993.
- K. V. Gilardi, L. J. Lowenstine, J. D. Gilardi, and C. A. Munn, “A survey for selected viral, chlamydial, and parasitic diseases in wild dusky-headed parakeets (Aratinga weddellii) and tui parakeets (Brotogeris sanctithomae) in Peru,” Journal of wildlife diseases, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 523–528, 1995.
- S. L. Deem, A. J. Noss, R. L. Cuéllar, and W. B. Karesh, “Health evaluation of free-ranging and captive blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) in the Gran Chaco, Bolivia,” Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 598–605, 2005.
- M. C. Allgayer, N. M. R. Guedes, C. Chiminazzo, M. Cziulik, and T. A. Weimer, “Clinical pathology and parasitologic evaluation of free-living nestlings of the hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus),” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 972–981, 2009.
- D. L. McDonald, S. Jaensch, G. J. Harrison et al., “Health and nutritional status of wild Australian psittacine birds: an evaluation of plasma and hepatic mineral levels, plasma biochemical values, and fecal microflora,” Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 288–298, 2010.
- Birdlife International, “IUCN Red List for birds,” December 2011, http://www.birdlife.org/.
- G. H. F. Seixas, “Projeto Papagaio-verdadeiro (Amazona aestiva): Manejo e conservação no Pantanal e Cerrado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil,” PUBVET, vol. 1, p. 410, 2007.
- R. L. Bangert, B. R. Cho, P. R. Widders, E. H. Stauber, and A. C. Ward, “A survey of aerobic bacteria and fungi in the feces of healthy psittacine birds,” Avian Diseases, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 46–52, 1988.
- L. Allegretti, Isolation and Identification of Lactobacillus Spp., Bifidobacterium Spp., Enterococcus Spp., Pediococcus Spp., and Lactococcus Spp. From the Intestinal Microbiota of Blue-Fronted Parrot (Amazona aestiva) [Ph.D. thesis], University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, 2009.
- H. Gerlach, “Bacteria,” in Avian Medicine: Principles and Application, B. W. Ritchie, G. J. Harrison, and L. R. Harrison, Eds., pp. 949–983, Wingers Publishing, Lake Worth, Fla, USA, 1994.
- J. P. Nataro and J. B. Kaper, “Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 142–201, 1998.
- H. J. Barnes, J. P. Vaillancourt, and W. B. Gross, “Colibacillosis,” in Diseases of Poultry, Y. M. Saif, H. J. Barnes, J. R. Glisson, A. M. Fadly, L. R. McDougald, et al., Eds., pp. 631–656, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA, 2004.
- J. R. Johnson, T. T. O'Bryan, D. A. Low et al., “Evidence of commonality between canine and human extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strains that express papG allele III,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 3327–3336, 2000.
- G. Dell'Omo, S. Morabito, R. Quondam et al., “Feral pigeons as a source of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli,” Veterinary Record, vol. 142, no. 12, pp. 309–310, 1998.
- G. Foster, H. M. Ross, T. W. Pennycott, G. F. Hopkins, and I. M. McLaren, “Isolation of Escherichia coli O86:K61 producing cyto-lethal distending toxin from wild birds of the finch family,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 395–398, 1998.
- H. Schmidt, J. Scheef, S. Morabito, A. Caprioli, L. H. Wieler, and H. Karch, “A new Shiga toxin 2 variant (Stx2f) from Escherichia coli isolated from pigeons,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 1205–1208, 2000.
- H. Kobayashi, T. Pohjanvirta, and S. Pelkonen, “Prevalence and characteristics of intimin- and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from gulls, pigeons and broilers in Finland,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, vol. 64, no. 11, pp. 1071–1073, 2002.
- C. M. Steele, R. N. Brown, and R. G. Botzler, “Prevalences of zoonotic bacteria among seabirds in rehabilitation centers along the Pacific Coast of California and Washington, USA,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 735–744, 2005.
- K. Pedersen, L. Clark, W. F. Andelt, and M. D. Salman, “Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in rock pigeons captured in Fort Collins, Colorado,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 46–55, 2006.
- C. Schremmer, J. E. Lohr, U. Wastlhuber et al., “Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Psittaciformes,” Avian Pathology, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 349–354, 1999.
- T. Knöbl, S. N. Godoy, E. R. Matushima, M. B. Guimarães, and A. J. P. Ferreira, “Caracterização molecular dos fatores de virulência de estirpes de Escherichia coli isoladas de papagaios com colibacilose aviária,” Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, vol. 45, pp. 54–60, 2008.
- A. B. S. Saidenberg, Detection of Escherichia coli virulence factors isolated from psittacines with varied clinical signs [Ph.D. thesis], University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, 2009.
- K. R. S. Aranda, S. H. Fabbricotti, U. Fagundes-Neto, and I. C. A. Scaletsky, “Single multiplex assay to identify simultaneously enteropathogenic, enteroaggregative, enterotoxigenic, enteroinvasive and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains in Brazilian children,” FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 267, no. 2, pp. 145–150, 2007.
- S. Yamamoto, A. Terai, K. Yuri, H. Kurazono, Y. Takeda, and O. Yoshida, “Detection of urovirulence factors in Escherichia coli by multiplex polymerase chain reaction,” FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 85–90, 1995.
- C. Ewers, T. Janßen, S. Kießling, H. C. Philipp, and L. H. Wieler, “Rapid detection of virulence-associated genes in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli by multiplex polymerase chain reaction,” Avian Diseases, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 269–273, 2005.
- L. R. Trabulsi, R. Keller, and T. A. Tardelli Gomes, “Typical and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 508–513, 2002.
- G. Krause, S. Zimmermann, and L. Beutin, “Investigation of domestic animals and pets as a reservoir for intimin- (eae) gene positive Escherichia coli types,” Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 106, no. 1-2, pp. 87–95, 2005.
- S. Pakpinyo, D. H. Ley, H. J. Barnes, J. P. Vaillancourt, and J. S. Guy, “Prevalence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in naturally occurring cases of poult enteritis-mortality syndrome,” Avian Diseases, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 360–369, 2002.
- R. M. La Ragione, W. A. Cooley, D. D. G. Parmar, and H. L. Ainsworth, “Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli 0103 : K+ : H− in red-legged partridges,” Veterinary Record, vol. 155, no. 13, pp. 397–398, 2004.
- M. Sussmann, “Escherichia coli and human disease,” in Escherichia coli Mechanisms of Virulence, M. Sussmann, Ed., pp. 3–48, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1997.
- J. R. Johnson, “Virulence factors in Escherichia coli urinary tract infection,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 80–128, 1991.
- T. Janßen, C. Schwarz, P. Preikschat, M. Voss, H. C. Philipp, and L. H. Wieler, “Virulence-associated genes in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolated from internal organs of poultry having died from colibacillosis,” International Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 291, no. 5, pp. 371–378, 2001.
- T. Knöbl, Caracterização Epidemiológica, Molecular E De Virulência De Escherichia coli sfa+ Isoladas De Aves [Ph.D. thesis], Preventive Veterinary Medicine Department, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, 2005.
- K. A. Tivendale, J. L. Allen, C. A. Ginns, B. S. Crabb, and G. F. Browning, “Association of iss and iucA, but not tsh, with plasmid-mediated virulence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 72, no. 11, pp. 6554–6560, 2004.
- M. Dho-Moulin and J. M. Fairbrother, “Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC),” Veterinary Research, vol. 30, no. 2-3, pp. 299–316, 1999.
- C. M. Dozois, M. Dho-Moulin, A. Brée, J. M. Fairbrother, C. Desautels, and R. Curtiss, “Relationship between the Tsh autotransporter and pathogenicity of avian Escherichia coli and localization and analysis of the tsh genetic region,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 68, no. 7, pp. 4145–4154, 2000.
- S. F. Altekruse, F. Elvinger, C. DebRoy, F. W. Pierson, J. D. Eifert, and N. Sriranganathan, “Pathogenic and fecal Escherichia coli strains from turkeys in a commercial operation,” Avian Diseases, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 562–569, 2002.
- R. D. Ness, “Integrative therapies,” in Clinical Avian Medicine, G. J. Harrison and T. L. Lightfoot, Eds., pp. 343–364, Spix, South Palm Beach, Fla, USA, 2006.
- G. A. Wobeser, “What is disease,” in Essentials of Disease in Wild Animals, G. A. Wobeser, Ed., pp. 11–24, Blackwell, Ames, Iowa, USA, 2005.