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Advances in Astronomy
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 428757, 46 pages
Review Article

Multimessengers from Core-Collapse Supernovae: Multidimensionality as a Key to Bridge Theory and Observation

1Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
2Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
3Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
4Department of Aerospace Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579, Japan
5Knowledge Dissemination Unit, Oshima Lab, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan
6Department of Computational Science, Graduate School of System Informatics, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-8501, Japan
7Kumamoto National College of Technology, 2659-2 Suya, Goshi, Kumamoto 861-1102, Japan

Received 11 September 2011; Revised 31 January 2012; Accepted 21 March 2012

Academic Editor: Andrew Fruchter

Copyright © 2012 Kei Kotake et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Core-collapse supernovae are dramatic explosions marking the catastrophic end of massive stars. The only means to get direct information about the supernova engine is from observations of neutrinos emitted by the forming neutron star, and through gravitational waves which are produced when the hydrodynamic flow or the neutrino flux is not perfectly spherically symmetric. The multidimensionality of the supernova engine, which breaks the sphericity of the central core such as convection, rotation, magnetic fields, and hydrodynamic instabilities of the supernova shock, is attracting great attention as the most important ingredient to understand the long-veiled explosion mechanism. Based on our recent work, we summarize properties of gravitational waves, neutrinos, and explosive nucleosynthesis obtained in a series of our multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations and discuss how the mystery of the central engines can be unraveled by deciphering these multimessengers produced under the thick veils of massive stars.