- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Advances in Astronomy
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 607172, 8 pages
Long-Term Cosmic Ray Variability and the CME-Index
Faculty of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Zografos, 15784 Athens, Greece
Received 25 September 2012; Accepted 28 November 2012
Academic Editor: Karel Kudela
Copyright © 2012 Helen Mavromichalaki and Evangelos Paouris. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- S. Forbush, “World-wide cosmic ray variations, 1937–1952,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 59, no. 4, p. 525, 1954.
- M. S. Potgieter, “The modulation of galactic cosmic rays in the heliosphere: theory and models,” Space Science Reviews, vol. 83, no. 1-2, pp. 147–158, 1998.
- G. Exarhos and X. Moussas, “Time variations of the magnetic field at the heliospheric termination shock—galactic cosmic-ray modulation,” Solar Physics, vol. 187, no. 1, pp. 157–175, 1999.
- I. Morishita and S. Sakukibara, “Size of heliomagnetosphere derived from long term modulation of neutron monitor intensities,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC '99), p. 87, 1999.
- I. Usoskin, K. Mursula, S. Solanki, M. Schüssler, and G. Kovaltsov, “A physical reconstruction of cosmic ray intensity since 1610,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 107, p. 1374, 2002.
- A. Belov, “Large scale modulation: view from the earth,” Space Science Reviews, vol. 93, pp. 79–105, 2000.
- P. Lantos, “Predictions of galactic cosmic ray intensity deduced from that of sunspot number,” Solar Physics, vol. 229, no. 2, pp. 373–386, 2005.
- G. D. Badhwar and P. M. O’Neil, “Time lag of twenty two year solar modulation,” in Proceedings of the 23rd International Cosmic Ray Conference, vol. 3, pp. 535–539, 1993.
- K. Alanko-Huotari, K. Mursula, I. G. Usoskin, and G. A. Kovaltsov, “Global heliospheric parameters and cosmic-ray modulation: an empirical relation for the last decades,” Solar Physics, vol. 238, no. 2, pp. 391–404, 2006.
- E. Paouris, H. Mavromichalaki, A. Belov, R. Gushchina, and V. Yanke, “Galactic cosmic ray modulation and the last solar minimum,” Solar Physics, vol. 280, pp. 255–271, 2012.
- R. P. Kane, “Hysteresis of cosmic rays with respect to sunspot numbers during the recent sunspot minimum,” Solar Physics, vol. 269, no. 2, pp. 451–454, 2011.
- E. Paouris, “Ineffectiveness of narrow CMEs for cosmic ray modulation,” in Advances in European Solar Physics, V. M. Nakariakov, M. K. Georgoulis, and S. Poedts, Eds., Solar Physics.
- R. P. Kane, “Comparison of the variations of CMEs and ICMEs with those of other solar and interplanetary parameters during solar cycle 23,” Solar Physics, vol. 233, pp. 107–115, 2006.
- J. T. Hoeksema, “The large-scale structure of the heliospheric current sheet during the Ulysses epoch,” Space Science Reviews, vol. 72, pp. 137–148, 1995.
- I. G. Richardson and H. V. Cane, “Near-earth interplanetary coronal mass ejections during solar cycle 23 (1996–2009): catalog and summary of properties,” Solar Physics, vol. 264, pp. 189–237, 2010.
- N. Gopalswamy, “Coronal mass ejections of solar cycle 23,” Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy, vol. 27, pp. 243–254, 2006.
- M. Gerontidou, H. Mavromichalaki, A. Belov, and V. Kurt, “Solar proton enhancements in different energy channels and coronal mass ejections during the last solar cycle,” Advances in Space Research, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 687–693, 2009.
- N. Gopalswamy, S. Yashiro, A. Lara, et al., “Large solar energetic particle events of cycle 23: a global view,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 30, p. 8015, 2003.
- S. W. Kahler, “The correlation between solar energetic particle peak intensities and speeds of coronal mass ejections: effects of ambient particle intensities and energy spectra,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 106, p. 20947, 2001.
- H. Mavromichalaki, E. Paouris, and T. Karalidi, “Long-term cosmic-ray modulation during solar cycle 23,” in Proceedings of the AIP Conference Proceedings, N. H. Solomos, Ed., vol. 848, pp. 184–193, September 2005.
- H. Mavromichalaki, E. Paouris, and T. Karalidi, “Cosmic-ray modulation: an empirical relation with solar and heliospheric parameters,” Solar Physics, vol. 245, no. 2, pp. 369–390, 2007.
- E. Paouris, “A new statistical index (Pi) for coronal mass ejections,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Solar Extreme Events International Symposium-COSPAR Colloquium, H. Mavromichalaki and A. Papaioannou, Eds., pp. 284–287, 2007.
- A. Kilcik, V. B. Yurchyshyn, V. Abramenko et al., “Maximum coronal mass ejection speed as an indicator of solar and geomagnetic activities,” Astrophysical Journal Letters, vol. 727, no. 1, p. 44, 2011.
- H. Mavromichalaki and B. Petropoulos, “An empirical model for the 11-year cosmic-ray modulation,” Earth, Moon and Planets, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 79–88, 1987.
- C. J. Hatton, “Solar flares and the cosmic ray intensity,” Solar Physics, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 159–165, 1980.
- H. Mavromichalaki, A. Belehaki, and X. Rafios, “Simulated effects at neutron monitor energies: evidence for a 22-year cosmic-ray variation,” Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 330, no. 2, pp. 764–772, 1998.
- K. Nagashima and I. Morishita, “Long term modulation of cosmic rays and inferable electromagnetic state in solar modulating region,” Planetary and Space Science, vol. 28, no. 2, p. 117, 1980.
- J. Xanthakis, H. Mavromichalaki, and B. Petropoulos, “Cosmic-ray intensity related to solar and terrestrial activity indices in solar cycle no. 20,” Astrophysics and Space Science, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 303–317, 1981.
- S. E. S. Ferreira and M. S. Potgieter, “Long-term cosmic-ray modulation in the Heliosphere,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 603, p. 744, 2004.
- H. Mavromichalaki, E. Marmatsouri, and A. Vassilaki, “Simulation of long-term cosmic-ray intensity variation,” Solar Physics, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 409–414, 1990.
- H. S. Ahluwalia and R. C. Ygbuhay, “The onset of sunspot cycle 24 and galactic cosmic ray modulation,” Advances in Space Research, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 61–64, 2011.
- A. V. Belov, R. T. Gushchina, and V. G. Yanke, “The spectrum of cosmic rays variations during 19-22 solar cycles,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Cosmic Ray Conference, vol. 7, pp. 175–178, 1999.
- H. V. Cane, G. Wibberenz, I. G. Richardson, and T. T. von Rosenvinge, “Cosmic ray modulation and the solar magnetic field,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 565–568, 1999.
- I. Usoskin, H. Kananen, K. Mursula, P. Tanskanen, and G. A. Kovaltsov, “Correlative study of solar activity and cosmic ray intensity,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 103, p. 9567, 1998.