- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Abstract and Applied Analysis
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 168672, 18 pages
Exponential Polynomials, Stirling Numbers, and Evaluation of Some Gamma Integrals
Department of Mathematics, Ohio Northern University, Ada, OH 45810, USA
Received 15 May 2009; Accepted 4 August 2009
Academic Editor: Lance Littlejohn
Copyright © 2009 Khristo N. Boyadzhiev. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This article is a short elementary review of the exponential polynomials (also called single-variable Bell polynomials) from the point of view of analysis. Some new properties are included, and several analysis-related applications are mentioned. At the end of the paper one application is described in details—certain Fourier integrals involving and are evaluated in terms of Stirling numbers.
We review the exponential polynomials and present a list of properties for easy reference. Exponential polynomials in analysis appear, for instance, in the rule for computing derivatives like and the related Mellin derivatives:
Namely, we have or, after the substitution ,
We also include in this review two properties relating exponential polynomials to Bernoulli numbers, . One is the semiorthogonality
where the right-hand side is zero if is odd. The other property is (2.25).
At the end we give one application. Using exponential polynomials we evaluate the integrals
for , in terms of Stirling numbers.
2. Exponential Polynomials
The evaluation of the series
has a long and interesting history. Clearly, , with the agreement that . Several reference books (e.g., ) provide the following numbers:
As noted by Gould in [2, page 93], the problem of evaluating appeared in the Russian journal Matematicheskii Sbornik, 3 (1868), page 62, with solution ibid, 4 (1868-9), page 39. Evaluations are presented also in two papers by Dobinski and Ligowski. In 1877 Dobinski  evaluated the first eight series by regrouping and continuing like that to . For large this method is not convenient. However, later that year Ligowski  suggested a better method, providing a generating function for the numbers :
Further, an effective iteration formula was found
by which every can be evaluated starting from .
These results were preceded, however, by the work  of Grunert (1797–1872), professor at Greifswalde. Among other things, Grunert obtained formula (2.9) from which the evaluation of (2.1) follows immediately.
The structure of the series hints at the exponential function. Differentiating the expansion and multiplying both sides by we get
which, for , gives . Repeating the procedure, we find from
and continuing like that, for every we find the relation
where are polynomials of degree . Thus,
The polynomials deserve a closer look. From the defining relation (2.9) we obtain
that is, which helps to find explicitly starting from :
Obviously, is a zero for all , . It can be seen that all the zeros of are real, simple, and nonpositive. The nice and short induction argument belongs to Harper .
The assertion is true for . Suppose that for some the polynomial has distinct real nonpositive zeros (including ). Then the same is true for the function
Moreover, is zero at and by Rolle's theorem its derivative
has distinct real negative zeros. It follows that the function
has distinct real nonpositive zeros (adding here ).
The polynomials can be defined also by the exponential generating function (extending Ligowski's formula)
Proposition 2.1. The polynomials defined by (2.9) are exactly the partial derivatives evaluated at .
Setting , in the generating function (2.19) one finds
which shows that the exponential polynomials are linearly dependent:
Comparing coefficient for in the equation
yields the binomial identity
With this implies the interesting “orthogonality’’ relation for :
Some Historical Notes
As already mentioned, formula (2.9) appears in the work of Grunert [5, page 260], where he gives also the representation (3.4) and computes explicitly the first six exponential polynomials. The polynomials were studied more systematically (and independently) by S. Ramanujan in his unpublished notebooks. Ramanujan's work is presented and discussed by Berndt in [7, Part 1, Chapter 3]. Ramanujan, for example, obtained (2.19) from (2.9) and also proved (2.14), (2.15), and (2.25). Later, these polynomials were studied by Bell  and Touchard [11, 12]. Both Bell and Touchard called them “exponential’’ polynomials, because of their relation to the exponential function, for example, (1.2), (1.3), (2.9), and (2.19). This name was used also by Rota . As a matter of fact, Bell introduced in  a more general class of polynomials of many variables, , including as a particular case. For this reason are known also as the single-variable Bell polynomials [14–17]. These polynomials are also a special case of the actuarial polynomials introduced by Toscano  which, on their part, belong to the more general class of Sheffer polynomials . The exponential polynomials appear in a number of papers and in different applications—see [9, 13, 20–24] and the references therein. In  they appear on page 524 as the horizontal generating functions of the Stirling numbers of the second kind (see (3.4)).
are sometimes called exponential numbers, but a more established name is Bell numbers. They have interesting combinatorial and analytical applications [15, 16, 18, 26–32]. An extensive list of 202 references for Bell numbers is given in .
We note that (2.9) can be used to extend to for any complex number by the formula
where . When is a negative integer, the polyexponential can be written as a finite linear combination of exponential polynomials (see ).
3. Stirling Numbers and Mellin Derivatives
The iteration formula (2.12) shows that all polynomials have positive integer coefficients. These coefficients are the Stirling numbers of the second kind (or )—see [25, 28, 36–39]. Given a set of elements, represents the number of ways by which this set can be partitioned into nonempty subsets . Obviously, , and a short computation gives . For symmetry one sets , . The definition of implies the property (see [38, page 259]) which helps to compute all by iteration. For instance,
A general formula for the Stirling numbers of the second kind is
Proposition 3.1. For every
The proof is by induction and is left to the reader. Setting here we come to the well-known representation for the numbers
It is interesting that formula (3.4) is very old—it was obtained by Grunert [5, page 260] together with the representation (3.3) for the coefficients which are called now Stirling numbers of the second kind. In fact, coefficients of the form
appear in the computations of Euler—see .
Next we turn to some special differentiation formulas. Let .
It is easy to see that the first equality in (2.9) extends to (1.3), where is an arbitrary complex number, that is, by the substitution . Even further, this extends to for any , and (simple induction and (2.12)). Again by induction, it is easy to prove that for any -times differentiable function . This formula was obtained by Grunert [5, pages 257-258] (see also [2, page 89], where a proof by induction is given).
As we know the action of on exponentials, formula (3.9) can be “discovered’’ by using Fourier transform. Let be the Fourier transform of some function . Then
Now we list some simple operational formulas. Starting from the obvious relation
for any function of the form
we define the differential operator
with action on functions :
If now is a function analytical in a neighborhood of zero, the action of on this function is given by provided that the series on the right side converges. When is a polynomial, formula (3.22) helps to evaluate series like in a closed form. This idea was exploited by Schwatt  and more recently by the present author in . For instance, when , (3.22) becomes
As shown in  this series transformation can be used for asymptotic series expansions of certain functions.
The higher-order Mellin derivative satisfies the Leibniz rule The proof is easy, by induction, and is left to the reader. We shall use this rule to prove the following proposition.
Proposition 3.2. For all
Setting in (3.25) yields an identity for the Bell numbers: This identity was recently published by Spivey , who gave a combinatorial proof. After that Gould and Quaintance  obtained the generalization (3.26) together with two equivalent versions. The proof in  is different from the one above.
Using the Leibniz rule for we can prove also the following extension of property (2.24).
Proposition 3.3. For any two integers
The proof is simple. Just compute
More Stirling Numbers
The polynomials , , form a basis in the linear space of all polynomials. Formula (3.4) shows how this basis is expressed in terms of the standard basis We can solve for in (3.4) and express the standard basis in terms of the exponential polynomials and so forth. The coefficients here are also special numbers. If we write then are the (absolute) Stirling numbers of first kind, as defined in . (The numbers are nonnegative. The symbol is used for Stirling numbers of the first kind with changing sign—see [28, 33, 39] for more details.) is the number of ways to arrange objects into cycles. According to this interpretation,
4. Semiorthogonality of
Proposition 4.1. For every , one has Here are the Bernoulli numbers. Note that the right-hand side is zero when is odd, as all Bernoulli numbers with odd indices are zeros.
Using the representation (3.4) in (4.1) and integrating termwise one obtains an equivalent form of (4.1): This (double sum) identity extends the known identity [38, page 317, Problem 6.76] Namely, (4.3) results from (4.2) for . The presence of at the right-hand side in (4.1) is not a “break of symmetry,’’ because when is even, then and are both even or both odd.
Proof. Starting from we set , , to obtain the representation which is a Fourier transform integral. The inverse transform is When this is Differentiating (4.7) times for we find and Parceval's formula yields the equation or, with The right-hand side is when is odd. When is even, we use the integral [1, page 351] to finish the proof.
5. Gamma Integrals
We use the technique in the previous section to compute certain Fourier integrals and evaluate the moments of and .
Proof. Using again (4.6)
we differentiate both side times
and then, according to the Leibniz rule and (1.2) the left-hand side becomes
and (5.2) follows from here.
Replacing by we write (5.6) in the form and then Parceval's formula for Fourier integrals applied to (5.9) and (5.10) yields Returning to the variable we write this in the form which is (5.1). The proof is complete.
Next, we observe that for any polynomial
one can use (5.4) to write the following evaluation:
In particular, when we have
- A. P. Prudnikov, Yu. A. Brychkov, and O. I. Marichev, Integrals and Series. Vol. 1. Elementary Functions, Gordon & Breach Science, New York, NY, USA, 1986.
- H. W. Gould, Topics in Combinatorics, H. W. Gould, 2nd edition, 2000.
- G. Dobinski, “Summerung der Reihe , für ,” Archiv der Mathematik und Physik, vol. 61, pp. 333–336, 1877.
- W. Ligowski, “Zur summerung der Reihe...,” Archiv der Mathematik und Physik, vol. 62, pp. 334–335, 1878.
- J. A. Grunert, “Uber die Summerung der Reihen...,” Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik, vol. 25, pp. 240–279, 1843.
- L. H. Harper, “Stirling behavior is asymptotically normal,” Annals of Mathematical Statistics, vol. 38, pp. 410–414, 1967.
- B. C. Berndt, Ramanujan's Notebooks. Part I, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1985.
- B. C. Berndt, Ramanujan's Notebooks. Part II, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1989.
- K. N. Boyadzhiev, “Polyexponentials,” http://www.arxiv.org/pdf/0710.1332.
- E. T. Bell, “Exponential polynomials,” Annals of Mathematics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 258–277, 1934.
- J. Touchard, “Nombres exponentiels et nombres de Bernoulli,” Canadian Journal of Mathematics, vol. 8, pp. 305–320, 1956.
- J. Touchard, “Proprietes arithmetiques de certains nombres recurrents,” Annales de la Société Scientifique de Bruxelles A, vol. 53, pp. 21–31, 1933.
- G.-C. Rota, Finite Operator Calculus, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1975.
- L. Carlitz, “Single variable Bell polynomials,” Collectanea Mathematica, vol. 14, pp. 13–25, 1962.
- H. W. Gould and J. Quaintance, “A linear binomial recurrence and the Bell numbers and polynomials,” Applicable Analysis and Discrete Mathematics, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 371–385, 2007.
- H. W. Gould and J. Quaintance, “Implications of Spivey's Bell number formula,” Journal of Integer Sequences, vol. 11, no. 3, article 08.3.7, 2008.
- Y.-Q. Zhao, “A uniform asymptotic expansion of the single variable Bell polynomials,” Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, vol. 150, no. 2, pp. 329–355, 2003.
- L. Toscano, “Una classe di polinomi della matematica attuariale,” Rivista di Matematica della Università di Parma, vol. 1, pp. 459–470, 1950.
- R. P. Boas Jr. and R. C. Buck, Polynomial Expansions of Analytic Functions, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1964.
- K. N. Boyadzhiev, “A series transformation formula and related polynomials,” International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, vol. 2005, no. 23, pp. 3849–3866, 2005.
- K. N. Boyadzhiev, “On Taylor's coefficients of the Hurwitz zeta function,” JP Journal of Algebra, Number Theory and Applications, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 103–112, 2008.
- A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1991.
- J. Riordan, Combinatorial Identities, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1968.
- J. Riordan, An Introduction to Combinatorial Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1967.
- J. Sandor and B. Crstici, Handbook of Number Theory, Part II, Springer/Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2004.
- E. T. Bell, “Exponential numbers,” The American Mathematical Monthly, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 411–419, 1934.
- N. G. de Bruijn, Asymptotic Methods in Analysis, Dover, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 1981.
- M. E. Dasef and S. M. Kautz, “Some sums of some significance,” The College Mathematics Journal, vol. 28, pp. 52–55, 1997.
- L. F. Epstein, “A function related to the series for ,” Journal of Mathematics and Physics, vol. 18, pp. 153–173, 1939.
- M. Klazar, “Bell numbers, their relatives, and algebraic differential equations,” Journal of Combinatorial Theory. Series A, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 63–87, 2003.
- J. Pitman, “Some probabilistic aspects of set partitions,” The American Mathematical Monthly, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 201–209, 1997.
- M. Z. Spivey, “A generalized recurrence for Bell numbers,” Journal of Integer Sequences, vol. 11, pp. 1–3, 2008.
- H. W. Gould, Catalan and Bell Numbers: Research Bibliography of Two Special Number Sequences, H. W. Gould, 5th edition, 1979.
- P. L. Butzer, M. Hauss, and M. Schmidt, “Factorial functions and Stirling numbers of fractional orders,” Results in Mathematics, vol. 16, no. 1-2, pp. 16–48, 1989.
- P. L. Butzer and M. Hauss, “On Stirling functions of the second kind,” Studies in Applied Mathematics, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 71–91, 1991.
- L. Comtet, Advanced Combinatorics: The Art of Finite and Infinite Expansions, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1974.
- H. W. Gould, “Euler's formula for th differences of powers,” The American Mathematical Monthly, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 450–467, 1978.
- R. L. Graham, D. E. Knuth, and O. Patashnik, Concrete Mathematics: A Foundation for Computer Science, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass, USA, 2nd edition, 1994.
- D. E. Knuth, “Two notes on notation,” The American Mathematical Monthly, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 403–422, 1992.
- I. J. Schwatt, An Introduction to the Operations with Series, Chelsea, New York, NY, USA, 1962.
- P. L. Butzer, A. A. Kilbas, and J. J. Trujillo, “Fractional calculus in the Mellin setting and Hadamard-type fractional integrals,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 269, no. 1, pp. 1–27, 2002.
- P. L. Butzer, A. A. Kilbas, and J. J. Trujillo, “Compositions of Hadamard-type fractional integration operators and the semigroup property,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 269, no. 2, pp. 387–400, 2002.
- P. L. Butzer, A. A. Kilbas, and J. J. Trujillo, “Mellin transform analysis and integration by parts for Hadamard-type fractional integrals,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 270, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2002.
- F. Oberhettinger, Tables of Mellin Transforms, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1974.