Table 1: Testing result’s statistics of the problem ZDT1.

AlgorithmConvergence metricDiversity metric

NSGA-II (real-coded) 0 . 0 3 3 4 8 2 ± 0 . 0 0 4 7 5 0 0 . 3 9 0 3 0 7 ± 0 . 0 0 1 8 7 6
NSGA-II (binary-coded) 0 . 0 0 0 8 9 4 ± 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 4 6 3 2 9 2 ± 0 . 0 4 1 6 2 2
SPEA 0 . 0 0 1 7 9 9 ± 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 . 7 8 4 5 2 5 ± 0 . 0 0 4 4 4 0
PAES 0 . 0 8 2 0 8 5 ± 0 . 0 0 8 6 7 9 1 . 2 2 9 7 9 4 ± 0 . 0 0 0 7 4 2
PDEAN/A 0 . 2 9 8 5 6 7 ± 0 . 0 0 0 7 4 2
MODE 0 . 0 0 5 8 0 0 ± 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 N/A
MTVDE 0 . 0 0 1 2 0 0 ± 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 . 5 0 5 8 0 0 ± 0 . 0 0 3 2 0 0