Table 4: Testing result’s statistics of the problem ZDT4.

AlgorithmConvergence metricDiversity metric

NSGA-II (real-coded) 0 . 5 1 3 0 5 3 ± 0 . 1 1 8 4 6 0 0 . 7 0 2 6 1 2 ± 0 . 0 6 4 6 4 8
NSGA-II (binary-coded) 3 . 2 2 7 6 3 6 ± 7 . 3 0 7 6 3 0 0 . 4 7 9 4 7 5 ± 0 . 0 0 9 8 4 1
SPEA 7 . 3 4 0 2 9 9 ± 6 . 5 7 2 5 1 6 0 . 7 9 8 4 6 3 ± 0 . 0 1 4 6 1 6
PAES 0 . 8 5 4 8 1 6 ± 0 . 5 2 7 2 3 8 0 . 8 7 0 4 5 8 ± 0 . 1 0 1 3 9 9
PDEAN/A 0 . 8 4 0 8 5 2 ± 0 . 0 3 5 7 4 1
MODE 0 . 6 3 8 9 5 0 ± 0 . 5 0 0 2 0 0 N/A
MTVDE 0 . 0 0 5 2 0 0 ± 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 . 7 4 4 5 0 0 ± 0 . 0 0 3 5 0 0