- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents

Abstract and Applied Analysis

Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 236830, 10 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/236830

## Lag Synchronization of Hyperchaotic Systems via Intermittent Control

^{1}College of Computer, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030, China^{2}School of Computer Science, Chongqing University of Education, Chongqing 400067, China

Received 12 September 2012; Accepted 4 October 2012

Academic Editor: Xiaodi Li

Copyright © 2012 Junjian Huang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

Different from the most existing results, in this paper an intermittent control scheme is designed to achieve lag synchronization of coupled hyperchaotic systems. Several sufficient conditions ensuring lag synchronization are proposed by rigorous theoretical analysis with the help of the Lyapunov stability theory. Numerical simulations are also presented to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the theoretical results.

#### 1. Introduction

Chaos is a highly interesting nonlinear phenomenon that has been much investigated for its great theoretical challenge and potential applications to many fields. Since the seminal works of Pecora and Carroll [1], the idea of synchronization of chaotic systems has received a great deal of interest among researchers from various fields. Over the past decades, several different regimes of chaos synchronization have been investigated, for example, complete synchronization [1, 2], generalized synchronization [3], projective synchronization [4], phase synchronization [5], lag synchronization [6], and anticipating synchronization [7].

On the other hand, it has been shown that the complete synchronization of chaos is practically impossible for the finite speed of signals. Chaotic lag synchronization appears as a coincidence of shift-in-time states of interactive systems. It is just synchronization lag that makes lag synchronization practically available. For instance, in the telephone communication system, the voice one hears on the receive side at time is often the voice from the transmitter side at time [8]. So, in many cases, it is more reasonable to require the slave system to synchronize the master system with a time-delay . Moreover, projective synchronization of chaotic systems has attracted increasing attention due to its potential applications in secure communication and control processing.

There are many different methods including continuous control and discontinuous control that have been proposed for stabilizing and synchronizing chaotic systems, such as state feedback control [9, 10], adaptive control [11], switching control [12, 13], impulsive control [14–18], and intermittent control [19–22]. Recently, intermittent control of nonlinear system has drawn increasing interests in process control, ecosystem management, synchronizing chaotic systems, and communication, and so on. As a special form of switching control, intermittent control is also divided into two classes: state-dependent switching rule and time-switching rule. The former implies that the control operation is activated only when the states come into the certain region which is often before given, while the latter activates the control only in some finite time intervals; the system evolves freely when the time goes out of those intervals. Therefore, these intermittent control systems are open looped. Compared with continuous control method, and intermittent control method is advantageous for its efficiency.

Motivated by the above discussions, in this paper, we first investigate lag synchronization of hyperchaotic systems by periodically intermittent control. By using the Lyapunov stability theory and the intermittent control technique, the intermittent controllers and the corresponding parameter update rules are designed to obtain lag synchronization of hyperchaotic systems. Numerical simulations are reported to show their good agreement with the theoretical results.

The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, model description is given. We will study the lag synchronization of coupled hyperchaotic systems, respectively. Accordingly, we obtain the control laws for both regimes based on the rigorous theoretical analysis. In Section 3, numerical examples are given to show the theoretical results, which is followed by the conclusions in Section 4.

#### 2. Problem Formulations

Now we consider a novel hyperchaotic system described as [23] where , , , and are state variables, and , , , , and are real parameters. It is shown that this system is hyperchaotic when the parameters are chosen as , , , and , as shown in Figure 1.

We divide the system (2.1) into two parts, that is, linear part and nonlinear part. Then, we rewrite (2.1) as follows: where

In what follows, the coupled response system with feedback control is given by where is the response state. is the intermittent control gain defined by where is the propagation delay, denotes control strength, denotes switching rate and denotes control period. Let be the lag synchronization error between the systems (2.2) and (2.4), then yields the error system

Under the control of the form (2.5), the lag synchronization error (2.6) can be rewritten as

We now state our main results.

Theorem 2.1. *Suppose that there exist positive constants , such that *(1)*;*(2)*;*(3)*.*

Then, the lag synchronization error system (2.7) is globally exponentially stable, and moreover,

This implies that the two systems (2.2) and (2.4) are globally exponentially lag synchronized.

*Proof. *Consider the following Lyapunov function:
which implies that .

When , the derivative of (2.9) with respect to time along the trajectories of the first subsystem of the system (2.7) is calculated and estimated as follows:

Thus, we have

And then

Similarly, when , we have

Therefore, we derive that when ,

Hence,

Following the same line of argument of the proof of Theorem 1 of [20], we can get

Therefore, for any ,

This implies that the origin of system (2.7) is globally exponentially stable and the following estimate holds:

Hence, the two systems (2.2) and (2.4) are globally exponentially lag synchronized. The proof is thus completed.

*Remark 2.2. *Let be the largest eigenvalue of . If we replace the first two conditions in Theorem 2.1 by the scalar equalities , , where and , then, Theorem 2.1 also holds. Furthermore, Theorem 2.1 will reduce the following corollary.

Corollary 2.3. *If there exist constants , , such that , where , , the lag synchronization error system (2.7) is globally exponentially stable and the lag synchronization between the systems (2.2) and (2.4) is achieved.*

#### 3. Numerical Examples

In this section, we will present some numerical simulations for lag synchronization of the hyperchaotic system to verify and illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis in Section 3. In all these simulations, the constants are set to be , , , and . From Corollary 2.3, one observes that the control strength can be estimated as follows: From (3.1), one then estimates the feasible region of control parameters , .

Based on the bound of the hyperchaotic attractor, we can choose . Since the eigenvalues of the matrix are −33.5370, −5.3334, 1.2020, and 10.3350, .

Therefore, the feasible region of control parameters is as shown in Figure 2.

To satisfy the conditions in Theorem 2.1, we set , , , and . Figure 3 shows dynamical behaviors of the hyperchaotic system (2.2) and its nonlinear observer (2.4). Figure 4 shows the time response curves of the lag synchronization error in the case of . Figure 5 shows the norm of lag synchronization error of the hyperchaotic system. From Figures 4 and 5, one can see that the state variables of the hyperchaotic systems achieve lag synchronization, which shows the correctness and effectiveness of our method via intermittent control.

#### 4. Conclusions

In this paper, we have formulated the lag synchronization problem for hyperchaotic systems by means of periodically intermittent control and design a general periodically intermittent controller for hyperchaotic systems. Lag synchronization criteria are established based on the Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality techniques. Numerical simulations have showed the validity of theoretical result.

#### Acknowledgments

The work described in this paper was partially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 60974020) and the Natural Science Foundation Project of CQ CSTC (Grant no. cstc2011jjA0980).

#### References

- L. M. Pecora and T. L. Carroll, “Synchronization in chaotic systems,”
*Physical Review Letters*, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 821–824, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - L. M. Pecora and T. L. Carroll, “Driving systems with chaotic signals,”
*Physical Review Letters*, vol. 80, pp. 2309–2112, 1998. View at Google Scholar - N. F. Rulkov, M. M. Sushchik, L. S. Tsimring, and H. D. I. Abarbanel, “Generalized synchronization of chaos in directionally coupled chaotic systems,”
*Physical Review E*, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 980–994, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - R. Mainieri and J. Rehacek, “Projective synchronization in three-dimensional chaotic systems,”
*Physical Review Letters*, vol. 82, no. 15, pp. 3042–3045, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - M. G. Rosenblum, A. S. Pikovsky, and J. Kurths, “Phase synchronization of chaotic oscillators,”
*Physical Review Letters*, vol. 76, no. 11, pp. 1804–1807, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - M. G. Rosenblum, A. S. Pikovsky, and J. Kurths, “From phase to lag synchronization in coupled chaotic oscillators,”
*Physical Review Letters*, vol. 78, no. 22, pp. 4193–4196, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - C. Masoller and D. H. Zanette, “Anticipated synchronization in coupled chaotic maps with delays,”
*Physica A*, vol. 300, no. 3-4, pp. 359–366, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - Q. J. Zhang and J. A. Lu, “Full state hybrid lag projective synchronization in chaotic (hyperchaotic) systems,”
*Physics Letters A*, vol. 372, no. 9, pp. 1416–1421, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - G. Hu, L. Pivka, and A. L. Zheleznyak, “Synchronization of a one-dimensional array of Chua's circuits by feedback control and noise,”
*IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I*, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 736–740, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - G. P. Jiang, G. Chen, and W. K. S. Tang, “A new criterion for chaos synchronization using linear state feedback control,”
*International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos in Applied Sciences and Engineering*, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 2343–2351, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - D. B. Huang, “Simple adaptive-feedback controller for identical chaos synchronization,”
*Physical Review E*, vol. 71, no. 3, Article ID 037203, pp. 037203/1–037203/4, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - G. Millerioux and J. Daafouz, “An observer-based approach for input-independent global chaos synchronization of discrete-time switched systems,”
*IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I*, vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 1270–1279, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - M. Morgäul and M. Akgäu, “A switching synchronization scheme for a class of chaotic systems,”
*Physics Letters A*, vol. 301, no. 3-4, pp. 241–249, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - T. Yang and L. O. Chua, “Impulsive stabilization for control and synchronization of chaotic systems: theory and application to secure communication,”
*IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I*, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 976–988, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - T. Yang, “Impulsive control,”
*IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control*, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1081–1083, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - Z. G. Li, C. Y. Wen, Y. C. Soh, and W. X. Xie, “The stabilization and synchronization of Chua's oscillators via impulsive control,”
*IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I*, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 1351–1355, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - T. Stojanovski, L. Kocarev, and U. Parlitz, “Driving and synchronizing by chaotic impulses,”
*Physical Review E*, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 2128–2131, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - J. Chen, H. Liu, J. A. Lu, and Q. Zhang, “Projective and lag synchronization of a novel hyperchaotic system via impulsive control,”
*Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation*, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 2033–2040, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - T. W. Huang, C. D. Li, W. W. Yu, and G. Chen, “Synchronization of delayed chaotic systems with parameter mismatches by using intermittent linear state feedback,”
*Nonlinearity*, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 569–584, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - S. Deng and D. Xiao, “Exponential stabilization of chaotic systems with delay by periodically intermittent control,”
*Chaos*, vol. 17, no. 1, p. 013103, 2007. View at Google Scholar - C. D. Li, G. Feng, and X. F. Liao, “Stabilization of nonlinear systems via periodically intermittent control,”
*IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II*, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 1019–1023, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - M. Zochowski, “Intermittent dynamical control,”
*Physica D*, vol. 145, no. 3-4, pp. 181–190, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - Q. Yang, K. Zhang, and G. Chen, “Hyperchaotic attractors from a linearly controlled Lorenz system,”
*Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications*, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1601–1617, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus