- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents

Abstract and Applied Analysis

Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 347478, 11 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/347478

## The Hyers-Ulam-Rassias Stability of -Derivations on Normed Algebras

Faculty of Management, University of Primorska, Cankarjeva 5, 6104 Koper, Slovenia

Received 8 April 2012; Accepted 31 May 2012

Academic Editor: Nicole Brillouet-Belluot

Copyright © 2012 Ajda Fošner. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

We study the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of -derivations on normed algebras.

#### 1. Introduction

A classical question in the theory of functional equations is as follows. *Under what conditions is it true that a mapping which approximately satisfies a functional equation ** must be somehow close to an exact solution of * This problem was formulated by Ulam in 1940 (see [1, 2]). He investigated the stability of group homomorphisms. *Let* *be a group, and let * *be a metric group with a metric *. *Suppose that * *is a map and* *a fixed scalar. Does there exists * *such that if **satisfies the inequality**for all *, *then there exists a group homomorphism * *with the property**for all *?

One year later, Ulam's problem was affirmatively solved by Hyers [3] for the Cauchy functional equation * *.*: Let ** be a normed space, ** a Banach space, and ** a fixed scalar. Suppose that f : **→ ** is a map with the property **for all *. *Then there exists a unique additive mapping * *such that**for all *. This gave rise to the stability theory of functional equations.

The famous Hyers stability result has been generalized in the stability of additive mappings involving a sum of powers of norms by Aoki [4] which allowed the Cauchy difference to be unbounded. In 1978, Rassias [5] proved the stability of linear mappings in the following way. * Let ** be a real normed space and ** a real Banach space. If there exist scalars ** and ** such that**for all *, *then there exists a unique additive mapping ** with the property**for all *. *Moreover, if the map ** is continuous on ** for each **, then ** is linear. *This result has provided a lot of influence in the development of what we now call the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of functional equations.

Later, Găvruţa [6] generalized the Rassias' theorem as follows:* Let ** be an Abelian group and ** a Banach space. Suppose that the so-called admissible control function ** satisfies**for all *. If *is a mapping with the property**for all *, *then there exists a unique additive mapping ** such that**for all *.

In the last few decades, various approaches to the problem have been introduced by several authors. Moreover, it is surprising that in some cases the * approximate mapping* is actually a * true mapping*. In such cases we call the equation superstable. For the history and various aspects of this theory we refer the reader to monographs [7–9].

As we are aware, the stability of derivations was first investigated by Jun and Park [10]. During the past few years, approximate derivations were studied by a number of mathematicians (see [11–18] and references therein).

Moslehian [19] studied the stability of -derivations and generalized some results obtained in [18]. He also established the generalized Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of -derivations on normed algebras into Banach bimodules. This motivated us to investigate approximate -derivations on normed algebras. The aim of this paper is to study the stability of -derivations and to generalize some results given in [19].

#### 2. Preliminaries

Throughout, will be a normed algebra and a Banach -bimodule. Let and be two linear operators on . An additive mapping is called an -derivation if holds for all . Ordinary derivations from to and maps defined by , where is a fixed element and are endomorphisms on , are natural examples of -derivations on . Moreover, if is an endomorphism on , then is a -derivation on . We refer the reader to [20], where further information about -derivations can be found.

In [19] Moslehian studied stability of -derivations. The natural question here is, whether the analogue results hold true for -derivations. Theorem 3.1 answers this question in the affirmative.

Let and be nonnegative integers with . An additive mapping is called a -derivation if holds for all . Clearly, -derivations are one of the natural generalizations of -derivations (the case ). If , where denotes the identity map on , and an additive mapping satisfies (2.2), then is called a -derivation. In the last few decades a lot of work has been done on the field of -derivations on rings and algebras (see, e.g, [21–25]). This motivated us to study the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of functional inequalities associated with -derivations.

In the following, we will assume that and are nonnegative integers with . We will use the same symbol in order to represent the norms on a normed algebra and a Banach -bimodule . For a given (admissible control) function we will use the following abbreviation: Let us start with one well-known lemma.

Lemma 2.1 (see [6]). * Suppose that a function satisfies , . If is a mapping with
**
for all , then there exists a unique additive mapping such that
**
for all . *

We say that an additive mapping is -linear if for all and all scalars . In the following, will denote the set of all complex units, that is, For a given additive mapping , Park [26] obtained the next result.

Lemma 2.2. * If for all and all , then is -linear. *

#### 3. The Results

Our first result is a generalization of [19, Theorem 2.1] (the case ). We use the direct method to construct a unique -linear mapping from an approximate one and prove that this mapping is an appropriate -derivation on . This method was first devised by Hyers [3]. The idea is taken from [19].

Theorem 3.1. *Let and be mappings with . Suppose that there exists a function such that for all and
**
for all and . Then there exist unique -linear mappings satisfying
**
for all , and a unique -linear -derivation such that
**
for all . *

*Proof. *Taking in (3.1) and using Lemma 2.1, it follows that there exists a unique additive mapping such that holds for all . More precisely, using the induction, it is easy to see that
for all , all positive integers , and all . According to the assumptions on , it follows that the sequence is Cauchy. Thus, by the completeness of , this sequence is convergent and we can define a map as
Using (3.1), we get
This yields that
for all and . Using Lemma 2.2, it follows that the map is -linear. Moreover, according to inequality (3.7), we have
for all .

Next, we have to show the uniqueness of . So, suppose that there exists another -linear mapping such that for all . Then
Therefore, for all , as desired.

Similarly we can show that there exist unique -linear mappings defined by
Furthermore,
for all .

It remains to prove that is an -derivation. Writing in the place of and in the place of in (3.4), we obtain
This yields that
for all . Thus, mappings and satisfy (2.2). The proof is completed.

*Remark 3.2. * If there exists such that and the map are continuous at point , then is continuous on . Namely, if was not continuous, then there would exist an integer and a sequence such that and , . Let . Then
since is continuous at point . Thus, there exists an integer such that for every we have
Therefore,
for every . Letting and using the continuity of the map at point , we get a contradiction.

Let and . Applying Theorem 3.1 for the case

Corollary 3.3. *Let and be mappings with . Suppose that (3.1), (3.2), (3.3), and (3.4) hold true for all and , where a function is defined as above. Then there exist unique -linear mappings satisfying
**
for all and a unique -linear -derivation such that
*

*Proof . *Note that for all and

*Remark 3.4. *Recall that we can actually take any map in the form
where . In this case we have

Before stating our next result, let us write one well-known lemma about the continuity of measurable functions (see, e.g., [27]).

Lemma 3.5. *If a measurable function satisfies for all , then is continuous. *

Now we are in the position to state a result for normed algebras which are spanned by a subset of . For example, can be a -algebra spanned by the unitary group of or the positive part of

Theorem 3.6. * Let be a normed algebra which is spanned by a subset of and , mappings with . Suppose that there exists a function such that for all and (3.1), (3.2), (3.3) holds true for all and . Moreover, suppose that (3.4) holds true for all . If for all the functions , , and are continuous on , then there exist unique -linear mappings satisfying
**
for all and a unique -linear -derivation such that
**
for all . *

We will give just a sketch of the proof since most of the steps are the same as in the proof of Theorem 3.1.

*Proof. *As in the proof of Theorem 3.1, we can show that there exists a unique additive mapping defined by , . Moreover, for all .

Writing , in (3.1), we get
Therefore,
This yields that
for all . In the next step we will show that is -linear, that is,
for all and all .

Since is additive, we have for every and all rational numbers . Let us fix elements and , where denotes the dual space of . Then we can define a function by
Firstly, we would like to prove that is continuous. Recall that
for all . Furthermore,
for all . Set
Obviously, is a sequence of continuous functions and is its pointwise limit. This yields that is a Borel function and, by Lemma 3.5 it is continuous. Therefore, we have for all . This implies . Since was an arbitrary element from , we proved that is -linear.

Now, let . Then for some real numbers . Using (3.31), we have
for all . This means that is -linear.

Similarly we can show that there exist unique -linear mappings satisfying
for all . Moreover, (2.2) holds true for all . Since is linearly generated by , we conclude that is an -derivation on . The proof is completed.

*Remark 3.7. *As above, we can apply Theorem 3.6 for the case
where and .

*Remark 3.8. *If and , then we can use in Theorem 3.1 as well as in Theorem 3.6 a function given by
In this case

#### References

- S. M. Ulam,
*A Collection of the Mathematical Problems*, Interscience, New York, NY, USA, 1960. - S. M. Ulam,
*Problems in Modern Mathematics*, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1964. - D. H. Hyers, “On the stability of the linear functional equation,”
*Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America*, vol. 27, pp. 222–224, 1941. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - T. Aoki, “On the stability of the linear transformation in Banach spaces,”
*Journal of the Mathematical Society of Japan*, vol. 2, pp. 64–66, 1950. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - T. M. Rassias, “On the stability of the linear mapping in Banach spaces,”
*Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society*, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 297–300, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - P. Găvruţa, “A generalization of the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of approximately additive mappings,”
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, vol. 184, no. 3, pp. 431–436, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - S. Czerwik,
*Functional Equations and Inequalities in Several Variables*, World Scientific Publishing, River Edge, NJ, USA, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - D. H. Hyers, G. Isac, and T. M. Rassias,
*Stability of Functional Equations in Several Variables*, Birkhäuser, Boston, Mass, USA, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - S.-M. Jung,
*Hyers-Ulam-Rassias Stability of Functional Equations in Nonlinear Analysis*, vol. 48 of*Springer Optimization and Its Applications*, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - K.-W. Jun and D.-W. Park, “Almost derivations on the Banach algebra ${C}^{n}[0,1]$,”
*Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society*, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 359–366, 1996. View at Google Scholar - M. Amyari, C. Baak, and M. S. Moslehian, “Nearly ternary derivations,”
*Taiwanese Journal of Mathematics*, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 1417–1424, 2007. View at Google Scholar - R. Badora, “On approximate derivations,”
*Mathematical Inequalities & Applications*, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 167–173, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - M. E. Gordji and M. S. Moslehian, “A trick for investigation of approximate derivations,”
*Mathematical Communications*, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 99–105, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - S. Hejazian, H. Mahdavian Rad, and M. Mirzavaziri, “$(\delta ,\u03f5)$-double derivations on Banach algebras,”
*Annals of Functional Analysis*, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 103–111, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - M. Mirzavaziri and M. S. Moslehian, “Automatic continuity of $\sigma $-derivations on ${C}^{*}$-algebras,”
*Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society*, vol. 134, no. 11, pp. 3319–3327, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - T. Miura, H. Oka, G. Hirasawa, and S.-E. Takahasi, “Superstability of multipliers and ring derivations on Banach algebras,”
*Banach Journal of Mathematical Analysis*, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 125–130, 2007. View at Google Scholar - M. S. Moslehian, “Ternary derivations, stability and physical aspects,”
*Acta Applicandae Mathematicae*, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 187–199, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - C.-G. Park, “Linear derivations on Banach algebras,”
*Nonlinear Functional Analysis and Applications*, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 359–368, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - M. S. Moslehian, “Approximate $(\sigma ,\tau )$-contractibility,”
*Nonlinear Functional Analysis and Applications*, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 805–813, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - M. Ashraf and Nadeem-ur-Rehman, “On $(\sigma ,\tau )$-derivations in prime rings,”
*Archivum Mathematicum (BRNO)*, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 259–264, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - S. Ali and A. Fošner, “On generalized $(m,n)$-derivations and generalized $(m,n)$-Jordan derivations in rings,”
*Algebra Colloquium*. In press. - A. Fošner, “On the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of module left $(m,n)$-derivations,”
*Aequationes Mathematicae*. In press. - A. Fošner and J. Vukman, “On some functional equation arising from $(m,n)$-Jordan derivations and commutativity of prime rings,”
*Rocky Mountain Journal of Mathematics*. In press. - J. Vukman, “On $(m,n)$-Jordan derivations and commutativity of prime rings,”
*Demonstratio Mathematica*, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 773–778, 2008. View at Google Scholar - J. Vukman and I. Kosi-Ulbl, “On some equations related to derivations in rings,”
*International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences*, no. 17, pp. 2703–2710, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - C.-G. Park, “Homomorphisms between Poisson $J{C}^{*}$-algebras,”
*Bulletin of the Brazilian Mathematical Society*, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 79–97, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - W. Rudin,
*Fourier Analysis on Groups*, Interscience, New York, NY, USA, 1962. View at Zentralblatt MATH