- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents

Abstract and Applied Analysis

Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 401923, 14 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/401923

## Positive Solutions for Neumann Boundary Value Problems of Second-Order Impulsive Differential Equations in Banach Spaces

Department of Mathematics, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China

Received 8 September 2011; Revised 28 December 2011; Accepted 6 January 2012

Academic Editor: Yuriy Rogovchenko

Copyright © 2012 Xiaoya Liu and Yongxiang Li. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

The existence of positive solutions for Neumann boundary value problem of second-order impulsive differential equations , , , , , , in an ordered Banach space was discussed by employing the fixed point index theory of condensing mapping, where is a constant, , , , , and is the cone of positive elements in . Moreover, an application is given to illustrate the main result.

#### 1. Introduction

The theory of impulsive differential equations is a new and important branch of differential equation theory, which has an extensive physical, chemical, biological, engineering background and realistic mathematical model, and hence has been emerging as an important area of investigation in the last few decades; see [1]. Correspondingly, boundary value problems of second-order impulsive differential equations have been considered by many authors, and some basic results have been obtained; see [2–7]. But many of them obtained extremal solutions by monotone iterative technique coupled with the method of upper and lower solutions; see [2–4]. The research on positive solutions is seldom and most in real space ; see [5–7].

In this paper, we consider the existence of positive solutions to the second-order impulsive differential equation Neumann boundary value problem in an ordered Banach space : where is a constant, , ;; is an impulsive function, . denotes the jump of at that is, , where and represent the right and left limits of at , respectively.

In the special case where , , , NBVP (1.1) has been proved to have positive solutions; see [8, 9]. Motivated by the aforementioned facts, our aim is to study the positive solutions for NBVP (1.1) in a Banach space by fixed point index theory of condensing mapping. Moreover, an application is given to illustrate the main result. As far as we know, no work has been done for the existence of positive solutions for NBVP (1.1) in Banach spaces.

#### 2. Preliminaries

Let be an ordered Banach space with the norm and partial order ≤, whose positive cone is normal with normal constant . Let ; , , . Let is continuous at , and left continuous at , and exists, . Evidently, is a Banach space with the norm , where ; see [2]. An abstract function is called a solution of NBVP (1.1) if satisfies all the equalities of (1.1).

Let denote the Banach space of all continuous -value functions on interval with the norm . Let denote the Kuratowski measure of noncompactness of the bounded set. For the details of the definition and properties of the measure of noncompactness, see [10, 11]. For any and , set . If is bounded in , then is bounded in , and .

Now, we first give the following lemmas in order to prove our main results.

Lemma 2.1 (see [12]). * Let be equicontinuous. Then is continuous on , and
*

Lemma 2.2 (see [13]). * Let be a bounded and countable set. Then is Lebesgue integral on , and
*

Lemma 2.3 (see [14]). *Let be bounded. Then there exists a countable set , such that .*

To prove our main results, for any , we consider the Neumann boundary value problem (NBVP) of linear impulsive differential equation in : where .

Lemma 2.4. * For any , and , the linear NBVP (2.3) has a unique solution given by
**
where
*

*Proof. *Suppose that is a solution of (2.3); then

Let ; then
Integrating (2.7) from 0 to , we have
Again, integrating (2.7) from to , where , then
Repeating the aforementioned procession, for , we have
Hence,
For , integrating (2.11) from 0 to , we have
Notice that ; thus, for , we have
In view of that , we have
Substituting (2.15) into (2.13), for , we obtain

Inversely, we can verify directly that the function defined by (2.4) is a solution of the linear NBVP (2.3). Therefore, the conclusion of Lemma 2.4 holds.

By (2.5), it is easy to verify that has the following property:

Evidently, is also an ordered Banach space with the partial order ≤ reduced by the positive cone . is also normal with the same normal constant .

Define an operator as follows: Clearly, is continuous, and the positive solution of NBVP (1.1) is the nontrivial fixed point of operator . However, the integral operator is noncompactness in general Banach space. In order to employ the topological degree theory and the fixed point theory of condensing mapping, there demands that the nonlinear and impulsive function satisfy some noncompactness measure condition. Thus, we suppose the following.

For any and are bounded and where is arbitrarily countable set, and are counsants and satisfy .

Lemma 2.5. *Suppose that condition is satisfied; then is condensing.*

*Proof. * Since is bounded and equicontinuous for any bounded and nonrelative compact set , by Lemma 2.3, there exists a countable set , such that
By assumption and Lemma 2.1,
Since is equicontinuous, by Lemma 2.1, we have
Combining (2.20) and , we have
Hence, is condensing.

Let be a cone in defined by where .

Lemma 2.6. * For any ,.*

*Proof. *For any , by (2.18) and the second inequality of (2.17), we have
By this, (2.18), and the first inequality of (2.17), we have
Hence, .

Thus, for any is condensing mapping; the positive solution of NBVP (1.1) is equivalent to the nontrivial fixed point of in . For , let , and , which is the relative boundary bound of in . Denote that ; then the fixed point of in is the positive solution of NBVP (1.1). We will use the fixed point theory of condensing mapping to find the fixed point of in

Let be a Banach space and let be a cone in . Assume that is a bounded open subset of and let be its bound. Let be a condensing mapping. If for every , then the fixed point index is defined. If , then has a fixed point in . As the fixed point index theory of completely continuous mapping, see [10, 11], we have the following lemmas that are needed in our argument for condensing mapping.

Lemma 2.7. * Let be condensing mapping; if
**
then .*

Lemma 2.8. * Let be condensing mapping; if there exists , such that
**
then .*

#### 3. Main Results

(i) There exist , , such that for all and , , , and .(ii) There exist , , and , such that for all and , , , and . (i) There exist , , such that for all and , , , and .(ii) There exist , , and , such that for all and , , , and .Theorem 3.1. *Let be an ordered Banach space, whose positive cone is normal, , and . Suppose that conditions and or are satisfied; then the NBVP (1.1) has at least one positive solution.*

*Proof. *We show, respectively, that the operator defined by (2.18) has a nontrivial fixed point in two cases that is satisfied and is satisfied.*Case 1. *Assume that is satisfied; let , where is the constant in condition , to prove that satisfies
If (3.1) is not true, then there exist and , such that ; by the definition of , satisfies
Integrating (3.2) from 0 to 1, using of assumption , we have
Since , for any , by the definition of , we have , , and thus
that is; . So we obtain that in , which contracts with . Hence (3.1) is satisfied; by Lemma 2.7, we have
Let , , and obviously . We show that if is large enough, then
In fact, if there exist , such that , then ; by the definition of satisfies
By of assumption , we have
Integrating on and using of assumption , we have
If , for any , by the definition of , we have ; ; thus
By and the normality of cone , we have
If , then for any , by the definition of , we have , ; thus
By , and the normality of , we have

Let ; then (3.6) is satisfied; by Lemma 2.8, we have
Combining (3.5), (3.14), and the additivity of fixed point index, we have
Therefore has a fixed point in , which is the positive solution of NBVP (1.1).*Case 2. *Assume that is satisfied; let , where is the constant in condition , to proof that satisfies
where . In fact, if there exists and , such that , then satisfies (3.7) and of condition , and we have
Integrating on and using of assumption , we have

If , for any , by the definition of , we have , for all, and thus
By , we obtain that , which contracts with . Hence (3.16) is satisfied.

If , for any , by the definition of , we have , , for all , and thus
By , we obtain that , which contracts with . Hence (3.16) is satisfied.

Hence, by Lemma 2.8, we have

Next, we show that if is large enough, then
In fact, if there exists and such that , then satisfies (3.2). Integrating (3.2) on , and using of , we have
For any , by the definition of , we have , , for all, and thus
By , we have
By the normality of , we have
Thus

Let ; then (3.22) is satisfied; by Lemma 2.7, we have

Combining (3.21), (3.28), and the additivity of fixed index, we have

Therefore has a fixed point in , which is the positive solution of NBVP (1.1).

*Remark 3.2. *The conditions and are a natural extension of suplinear condition and sublinear condition in Banach space . Hence if , then Theorem 3.1 improves and extends the main results in [8, 9].

#### 4. Example

We provide an example to illustrate our main result.

*Example 4.1. * Consider the following problem:
where ,,, and is a constant.

*Conclusion*

Problem (4.1) has at least one positive solution.

*Proof. *Let and ; then is a Banach space with norm , and is a positive cone of . Let ; then the problem (4.1) can be transformed into the form of NBVP (1.1), where , , and . Evidently is a Banach space with norm , and is positive cone of . Let , where ; then is a cone in , and for any , we have .

Next, we will verify that the conditions and in Theorem 3.1 are satisfied.

It is easy to verify that for any , and are bounded. Let ; then is completely continuous. So for any countable bounded set , we have
and for , and , by simple calculations, . So condition is satisfied.

Let ; then for , we have
Let , ; by simple calculations, we have . So of condition is satisfied.

Let , for ; we have . For , , we have . Hence, let , ; then for any , we have
Let , and ; by simple calculations, we have , so of condition is satisfied.

By Theorem 3.1, Problem (4.1) has at least one positive solution.

#### Acknowledgment

This work was supported by NNSF of China (no. 10871160, 11061031).

#### References

- V. Lakshmikantham, D. D. Baĭnov, and P. S. Simeonov,
*Theory of Impulsive Differential Equations*, vol. 6 of*Series in Modern Applied Mathematics*, World Scientific, Teaneck, NJ, USA, 1989. - X. Liu and D. Guo, “Method of upper and lower solutions for second-order impulsive integro-differential equations in a Banach space,”
*Computers & Mathematics with Applications*, vol. 38, no. 3-4, pp. 213–223, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - W. Ding and M. Han, “Periodic boundary value problem for the second order impulsive functional differential equations,”
*Applied Mathematics and Computation*, vol. 155, no. 3, pp. 709–726, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - M. Yao, A. Zhao, and J. Yan, “Periodic boundary value problems of second-order impulsive differential equations,”
*Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications*, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 262–273, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - Y. Tian, D. Jiang, and W. Ge, “Multiple positive solutions of periodic boundary value problems for second order impulsive differential equations,”
*Applied Mathematics and Computation*, vol. 200, no. 1, pp. 123–132, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - X. Lin and D. Jiang, “Multiple positive solutions of Dirichlet boundary value problems for second order impulsive differential equations,”
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, vol. 321, no. 2, pp. 501–514, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - Q. Li, F. Cong, and D. Jiang, “Multiplicity of positive solutions to second order Neumann boundary value problems with impulse actions,”
*Applied Mathematics and Computation*, vol. 206, no. 2, pp. 810–817, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - D.-q. Jiang and H.-z. Liu, “Existence of positive solutions to second order Neumann boundary value problems,”
*Journal of Mathematical Research and Exposition*, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 360–364, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - J.-P. Sun and W.-T. Li, “Multiple positive solutions to second-order Neumann boundary value problems,”
*Applied Mathematics and Computation*, vol. 146, no. 1, pp. 187–194, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - K. Deimling,
*Nonlinear Functional Analysis*, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1985. - D. J. Guo,
*Nonlinear Functional Analysis*, Shandong Science and Technology, Jinan, China, 1985. - D. J. Guo and J. X. Sun,
*Ordinary Differential Equations in Abstract Spaces*, Shandong Science and Technology, Jinan, China, 1989. - H.-P. Heinz, “On the behaviour of measures of noncompactness with respect to differentiation and integration of vector-valued functions,”
*Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications*, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 1351–1371, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - Y. X. Li, “Existence of solutions to initial value problems for abstract semilinear evolution equations,”
*Acta Mathematica Sinica*, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1089–1094, 2005 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar