- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents

Abstract and Applied Analysis

Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 613270, 10 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/613270

## Ulam-Hyers Stability for Cauchy Fractional Differential Equation in the Unit Disk

Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 11 January 2012; Accepted 18 April 2012

Academic Editor: Bing Xu

Copyright © 2012 Rabha W. Ibrahim. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

We prove the Ulam-Hyers stability of Cauchy fractional differential equations in the unit disk for the linear and non-linear cases. The fractional operators are taken in sense of Srivastava-Owa operators.

#### 1. Introduction

A classical problem in the theory of functional equations is that if a function approximately satisfies functional equation , when does there exists an exact solution of which approximates. In 1940, Ulam [1, 2] imposed the question of the stability of the Cauchy equation, and in 1941, Hyers solved it [3]. In 1978, Rassias [4] provided a generalization of Hyers, theorem by proving the existence of unique linear mappings near approximate additive mappings. The problem has been considered for many different types of spaces (see [5–7]). The Ulam-Hyers stability of differential equations has been investigated by Alsina and Ger [8] and generalized by Jung [9–11]. Recently, Li and Shen [12] have investigated the Ulam-Hyers stability of the linear differential equations of second order, Abdollahpour and Najati [13] have studied the Ulam-Hyers stability of the linear differential equations of third order, and Lungu and Popa have imposed the Ulam-Hyers stability of a first-order partial differential equation [14].

The analysis on stability of fractional differential equations is more complicated than the classical differential equations, since fractional derivatives are nonlocal and have weakly singular kernels. Recently, Li and Zhang [15] provided an overview on the stability results of the fractional differential equations. Particularly, Li et al. [16] devoted to study the Mittag-Leffler stability and the Lyapunov’s methods, Deng [17] derived sufficient conditions for the local asymptotical stability of nonlinear fractional differential equations, and Li et al. studied the stability of fractional-order nonlinear dynamic systems using the Lyapunov direct method and generalized Mittag-Leffler stability [18]. Furthermore, there are few works on the Ulam stability of fractional differential equations, which maybe provide a new way for the researchers to investigate the stability of fractional differential equations from different perspectives. First the Ulam stability and data dependence for fractional differential equations with Caputo derivative have been posed by Wang et al. [19] and Ibrahim [20] with Riemann-Liouville derivative in complex domain. Moreover, Wang et al. [21–24] considered and established the Ulam stability for various types of fractional differential equation. Finally, the author generalized the Ulam-Hyers stability for fractional differential equation including infinite power series [25, 26].

In this work, we continue our study by imposing the Ulam-Hyers stability for the Cauchy fractional differential equations in complex domain. The operators are taken in sense of the Srivastava-Owa fractional derivative and integral.

#### 2. Fractional Calculus

The theory of fractional calculus has found interesting applications in the theory of analytic functions. The classical definitions of fractional operators and their generalizations have fruitfully been applied in obtaining, for example, the characterization properties, coefficient estimates [27], distortion inequalities [28], and convolution structures for various subclasses of analytic functions and the works in the research monographs. In [29], Srivastava and Owa gave definitions for fractional operators (derivative and integral) in the complex -plane as follows.

*Definition 2.1. *The fractional derivative of order is defined, for a function , by
where the function is analytic in simply connected region of the complex -plane containing the origin and the multiplicity of is removed by requiring to be real when .

*Definition 2.2. *The fractional integral of order is defined, for a function , by
where the function is analytic in simply connected region of the complex -plane containing the origin and the multiplicity of is removed by requiring to be real when .

*Remark 2.3. *From Definitions 2.1 and 2.2, we have

We need the following preliminaries in the sequel.

Let be the open unit disk in the complex plane and denote the space of all analytic functions on . Also for and , let be the subspace of consisting of functions of the form Let be the class of functions , analytic in and normalized by the conditions . A function is called univalent if it is one-one in .

Lemma 2.4 (see [28]). *Let the function be in the class . Then
*

Lemma 2.5 (see [28]). *Let the function be in the class . Then
*

#### 3. Ulam-Hyers Stability for Fractional Problems

In this section, we will study the Ulam-Hyers stability for two different types of fractional Cauchy problems involving the differential operator in Definition 2.1. The first initial value problem is where (the space of analytic function on the unit disk). While the second problem is where is analytic in . Finally, we consider the problem where and is analytic in .

*Definition 3.1. *Problem (3.1) has the Ulam-Hyers stability if there exists a positive constant with the following property: for every , , if
then there exists some satisfying
with such that

*Definition 3.2. *Problem (3.2) has the Ulam-Hyers stability if there exists a positive constant with the following property: for every , if
then there exists some satisfying
with such that

*Definition 3.3. *Problem (3.3) has the Ulam-Hyers stability if there exists a positive constant with the following property: for every , if
then there exists some satisfying
with such that
We start with the following result.

Theorem 3.4. *Let , such that
**
where
**
If , then problem (3.1) has the Ulam-Hyers stability.*

* Proof. *For every , we let
with . In view of Lemma 2.4, we obtain
consequently, we have
hence we impose that
Obviously, is a solution of the problem (3.1) and yields
Hence (3.1) has the Ulam-Hyers stability.

Corollary 3.5. *Let , where is a convex domain, satisfying one of the following conditions:*(1)*,
*(2)*,
*(3)*. ** If and , then problem (3.1) has the Ulam-Hyers stability.*

* Proof. *Assume that satisfying one of the conditions , then is a univalent function in the unit disk; that is, (see [30]). Thus, in view of Theorem 3.4, problem (3.1) has the Ulam-Hyers stability.

*Remark 3.6. *A function is called bounded turning function if it satisfies the following inequality:
A function is called star-like if it satisfies the following inequality:
A function is called convex if it satisfies the following inequality
These subclasses of analytic functions in the unit disk play an important role in the theory of geometric function (see [30]).

Next, we consider the Ulam-Hyers stability for the nonlinear problems (3.2) and (3.3).

Theorem 3.7. *Let , such that , where
**
If
**
then problem (3.2) has the Ulam-Hyers stability.*

* Proof. * For every , we let
with . In view of Lemma 2.4, it implies that
therefore, we pose
that is,
It is clear that
yields
Hence (3.2) has the Ulam-Hyers stability.

Now by applying Lemma 2.5, we study the Ulam-Hyers stability for the nonlinear problems (3.3).

Theorem 3.8. *Let , such that , where
**
If , then problem (3.3) has the Ulam-Hyers stability.*

* Proof. * Since is a contraction mapping, then the Banach fixed-point theorem implies that problem (3.3) has a unique solution. For every , we let
with . In view of Lemma 2.5, we impose
and consequently we have
hence we receive
It is clear that for some yields
Thus (3.3) has the Ulam-Hyers stability.

#### 4. Conclusion

From above, the Ulam-Hyers stability is considered for different types of fractional Cauchy problems in the unit disk and in the puncture unit disk. We have observed that the problems (3.1) and (3.2) have the Ulam-Hyers stability when and (univalent solution). While the Ulam-Hyers stability for higher-order fractional Cauchy problem of the form (3.3) is studied in Theorem 3.8, for and . This leads to a set of questions:(1) Is the fractional Cauchy problem (linear and nonlinear) has the Ulam-Hyers stability for all ? (under what conditions).(2) Is the higher-order fractional Cauchy problem has the Ulam-Hyers stability for all ? (under what conditions). More specific,(3)does the higher-order fractional Cauchy problem of the form have the Ulam-Hyers stability?(4)If we extend our study to complex Banach space, does the last problem have the Ulam-Hyers stability?(5)If the study in complex Banach space, does the problem have the Ulam-Hyers stability?

More generalization(6) If the study in complex Banach space, does the problem have the Ulam-Hyers stability?

Another special case(7) If the study in complex Banach space, does the problem have the Ulam-Hyers stability?

#### References

- S.M. Ulam,
*A Collection of Mathematical Problems*, Interscience, New York, NY, USA, 1961. - S. M. Ulam,
*Problems inModern Mathematics*, Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1964. - D. H. Hyers, “On the stability of the linear functional equation,”
*Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America*, vol. 27, pp. 222–224, 1941. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - T. M. Rassias, “On the stability of the linear mapping in Banach spaces,”
*Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society*, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 297–300, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - D. H. Hyers, “The stability of homomorphisms and related topics,” in
*Global Analysis—Analysis on Manifolds*, vol. 57 of*Teubner Texts in Mathematics*, pp. 140–153, Teubner, Leipzig, Germany, 1983. View at Zentralblatt MATH - D. H. Hyers and T. M. Rassias, “Approximate homomorphisms,”
*Aequationes Mathematicae*, vol. 44, no. 2-3, pp. 125–153, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - D. H. Hyers, G. Isac, and T. M. Rassias,
*Stability of Functional Equations in Several Variables*, Birkhäuser Boston, Basel, Switzerland, 1998. - C. Alsina and R. Ger, “On some inequalities and stability results related to the exponential function,”
*Journal of Inequalities and Applications*, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 373–380, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - S.-M. Jung, “Hyers-Ulam stability of linear differential equations of first order,”
*Applied Mathematics Letters*, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1135–1140, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - S.-M. Jung, “Hyers-Ulam stability of linear differential equations of first order I,”
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, vol. 311, no. 1, pp. 139–146, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - S.-M. Jung, “Hyers-Ulam stability of linear differential equations of first order II,”
*Applied Mathematics Letters*, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 854–858, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - Y. Li and Y. Shen, “Hyers-Ulam stability of linear differential equations of second order,”
*Applied Mathematics Letters*, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 306–309, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - M. R. Abdollahpour and A. Najati, “Stability of linear differential equations of third order,”
*Applied Mathematics Letters*, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 1827–1830, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - N. Lungu and D. Popa, “Hyers-Ulam stability of a first order partial differential equation,”
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, vol. 385, no. 1, pp. 86–91, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - C. P. Li and F. R. Zhang, “A survey on the stability of fractional differential equations,”
*The European Physical Journal Special Topics*, vol. 193, pp. 27–47, 2011. - Y. Li, Y. Chen, and I. Podlubny, “Mittag-Leffler stability of fractional order nonlinear dynamic systems,”
*Automatica*, vol. 45, pp. 1965–1969, 2009. - W. Deng, “Smoothness and stability of the solutions for nonlinear fractional differential equations,”
*Nonlinear Analysis. Series A*, vol. 72, no. 3-4, pp. 1768–1777, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - Y. Li, Y. Chen, and I. Podlubny, “Stability of fractional-order nonlinear dynamic systems: Lyapunov direct method and generalized Mittag-Leffler stability,”
*Computers & Mathematics with Applications*, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 1810–1821, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - J. Wang, L. Lv, and Y. Zhou, “Ulam stability and data dependence for fractional differential equations with Caputo derivative,”
*Electronic Journal of Qualitative Theory of Differential Equations*, vol. 63, 10 pages, 2011. - R. W. Ibrahim, “Approximate solutions for fractional differential equation in the unit disk,”
*Electronic Journal of Qualitative Theory of Differential Equations*, vol. 64, 11 pages, 2011. - J. R. Wang, L. L. Lv, and Y. Zhou, “New concepts and results in stability of fractional differential equations,”
*Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation*, vol. 17, pp. 2530–2538, 2012. - J. R. Wang and Y. Zhou, “Mittag-Leffler-Ulam stabilities of fractional evolution equations,”
*Applied Mathematics Letters*, vol. 25, pp. 723–728, 2012. - J. Wang, X. Dong, and Y. Zhou, “Existence, attractiveness and stability of solutions for quadratic Urysohn fractional integral equations,”
*Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation*, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 545–554, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - J. R. Wang, X. W. Dong, and Y. Zhou, “Analysis of nonlinear integral equations with Erdlyi-Kober fractional operator,”
*Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation*, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 3129–3139, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - R. W. Ibrahim, “Ulam stability for fractional differential equation in complex domain,”
*Abstract and Applied Analysis*, vol. 2012, Article ID 649517, 8 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - R. W. Ibrahim, “Generalized Ulam-Hyers stability for fractional differential equations,”
*International Journal of Mathematics*, vol. 23, no. 5, 9 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - M. Darus and R. W. Ibrahim, “Radius estimates of a subclass of univalent functions,”
*Matematichki Vesnik*, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 55–58, 2011. - H. M. Srivastava, Y. Ling, and G. Bao, “Some distortion inequalities associated with the fractional derivatives of analytic and univalent functions,”
*Journal of Inequalities in Pure and Applied Mathematics*, vol. 2, no. 2, 6 pages, 2001. View at Zentralblatt MATH - H. M. Srivastava and S. Owa,
*Univalent Functions, Fractional Calculus, and Their Applications*, Halsted Press, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1989. - P. L. Duren,
*Univalent Functions*, vol. 259 of*Grundlehren der Mathematischen Wissenschaften*, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1983.