- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents

Abstract and Applied Analysis

Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 763139, 14 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/763139

## Application of Homotopy Perturbation and Variational Iteration Methods for Fredholm Integrodifferential Equation of Fractional Order

^{1}Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, 71800 Nilai, Malaysia^{2}Department of Mathematics and Institute for Mathematical Research, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Received 20 May 2012; Revised 4 September 2012; Accepted 4 September 2012

Academic Editor: Dumitru Bǎleanu

Copyright © 2012 Asma Ali Elbeleze et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

This paper presents the application of homotopy perturbation and variational iteration methods as numerical methods for Fredholm integrodifferential equation of fractional order with initial-boundary conditions. The fractional derivatives are described in Caputo sense. Some illustrative examples are presented.

#### 1. Introduction

Fractional differential equations have attracted much attention, recently, see for instance [1–4]. This is mostly due to the fact that fractional calculus provides an efficient and excellent instrument for the description of many practical dynamical phenomena arising in engineering and scientific disciplines such as, physics, chemistry, biology, economy, viscoelasticity, electrochemistry, electromagnetic, control, porous media and many more, see for example, [5, 6].

During the past decades, the topic of fractional calculus has attracted many scientists and researchers due to its applications in many areas, see [4, 7–9]. Thus several researchers have investigated existence results for solutions to fractional differential equations, see [10, 11]. Further, many mathematical formulation of physical phenomena lead to integrodifferential equations, for example, mostly these type of equations arise in fluid dynamics, biological models and chemical kinetics, and continuum and statistical mechanics, for more details see [12–16]. Integrodifferential equations are usually difficult to solve analytically, so it is required to obtain an efficient approximate solution. The homotopy perturbation method and variational iteration method which are proposed by He [17–26] are of the methods which have received much concern. These methods have been successfully applied by many authors, such as the works in [19, 27, 28].

In this work, we study the Integrodifferential equations which are combination of differential and Fredholm-Volterra equations that have the fractional order. In particular, we applied the HPM and VIM for fractional Fredholm Integrodifferential equations with constant coefficients under the initial-boundary conditions where is constant, and , and is the fractional derivative in the Caputo sense.

For the geometrical applications and physical understanding of the fractional Integrodifferential equations, see [14, 26]. Further, we also note that fractional integro-differential equations were associated with a certain class of phase angles and suggested a new way for understanding of Riemann's conjecture, see [29].

In present paper, we apply the HPM and VIM to solve the linear and nonlinear fractional Fredholm Integrodifferential equations of the form (1.1). The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, some basic definitions and properties of fractional calculus theory are given. In Section 3, the basic idea of HPM exists. In Section 4, also is the basic idea of VIM. In Sections 5 and 6, analysis of HPM and VIM exsists, respectively. some examples are given in Section 7. Concluding remarks are listed in Section 8.

#### 2. Preliminaries

In order to modeling the real world application the fractional differential equations are considered by using the fractional derivatives. Thus, in this section, we give some basic definitions and properties of fractional calculus theory which is used in this paper. There are many different starting points for the discussion of classical fractional calculus, see for example, [30]. One can begin with a generalization of repeated integration. If is absolutely integrable on , as in [31] then where , and . On writing , an immediate generalization in the form of the operation defined for is where is the Gamma function and is called the convolution product of and . Equation (2.2) is called the Riemann-Liouville fractional integral of order for the function . Then, we have the following definitions.

*Definition 2.1. *A real function is said to be in space if there exists a real number , such that , where , and it is said to be in the space if , .

*Definition 2.2. *The Riemann-Liouville fractional integral operator of order of a function , is defined as
In particular, .

For and , some properties of the operator : (1),
(2),
(3).

*Definition 2.3. *The Caputo fractional derivative of , is defined as

Lemma 2.4. *If then the following two properties hold *(1)*,
*(2)*. *

Now, if is expanded to the block pulse functions, then the Riemann-Liouville fractional integral becomes Thus, if can be integrated, then expanded in block pulse functions, the Riemann-Liouville fractional integral is solved via the block pulse functions. Thus, one notes on that Kronecker convolution product can be expanded in order to define the Riemann-Liouville fractional integrals for matrices by using the Block Pulse operational matrix as follows: where see [32].

#### 3. Homotopy Perturbation Method

To illustrate the basic idea of this method, we consider the following nonlinear differential equation: with boundary conditions where is a general differential operator; is a boundary operator; is a known analytic function, and is the boundary of the domain .

In general, the operator can be divided into two parts and , where is linear, while is nonlinear. Equation (3.1) therefor, can be rewritten as follows: By the homotopy technique [33–35], we construct a homotopy which satisfies or where is an embedding parameter, and is an initial approximation of (3.1) which satisfies the boundary conditions. From (3.2) and (3.3) we have the changing in the process of from zero to unity is just that of from to . In topology, this called deformation, and and are called homotopic. Now, assume that the solution of (3.2) and (3.3) can be expressed as Setting results in the approximate solution of (3.1).

Therefore,

#### 4. The Variational Iteration Method

To illustrate the basic concepts of VIM, we consider the following differential equation where is a linear operator; is nonlinear operator, and is an nonhomogeneous term. According to VIM, one constructs a correction functional as follows: where is a general Lagrange multiplier, and denotes restricted variation that is .

#### 5. Analysis of Homotopy Perturbation Method

To illustrate the basic concepts of HPM for Fredholm Integrodifferential equation (1.1) with boundary conditions (1.2) and (1.3). We use the view of He in [19, 20], where the following homotopy was constructed for (1.1) as the following: or where is an embedding parameter. If , (5.2) becomes linear fractional differential equation and when , the (5.2) turn out to be the original equation. In view of basic assumption of HPM, solution of (1.1) can be expressed as a power series in when , we get the approximate solution of (5.4) The convergence of series (5.5) has been proved in [21]. Substitution (5.4) into (5.2), and equating the terms with having identical power of , we obtain the following series of equations: with the initial-boundary conditions The initial approximation can be chosen in the following manner. Note that the (5.6) can be solved by applying the operator and by some computation, we approximate the series solution of HPM by the following -term truncated series which is the approximate solution of (1.1)–(1.3).

#### 6. Analysis of VIM

To solve the fractional Integrodifferential equation by using the variational iteration method, with boundary conditions (1.2) and (1.3) we construct the following correction functional: or where is a general Lagrange multiplier, and and are considered as restricted variation, that is, and .

Making the above correction functional stationary, the following condition can be obtained It's boundary condition can be obtained as follows: The Lagrange multipliers can be identified as follows: We obtain the following iteration formula by substitution of (6.5) in (6.2): That is, This yields the following iteration formula: The initial approximation can be chosen by the following manner which satisfies initial-boundary conditions (1.2)-(1.3) We can obtain the following first-order approximation by substitution of (6.9) in (6.8) Finally, by substituting the constant values of and in (6.10) we have the results as the approximate solutions of (1.1)–(1.3), see the further details in [36–40].

#### 7. Applications

In this section, we have applied homotopy perturbation method and variational iteration method to fractional Fredholm Integrodifferential equations with known exact solution.

*Example 7.1. *Consider the following linear Fredholm Integrodifferential equation:
with initial boundary conditions
the exact solution is . Now we construct
Substitution of (5.4) in (7.3) and then equating the terms with same powers of , we get the series
Now applying the operator to the equations (7.4) and using initial-boundary conditions yields
Then by solving (7.5)–(7.8), we obtain as
Now, we can form the 2 term approximation as follows:
where can be determined by imposing initial-boundary conditions (7.2) on . Table 1 shows the values of for different values of .

Now, we solve (7.1)-(7.2) by variational iteration method. According to variational iteration method, the formula (6.8) for (7.1) can be expressed in the following form: Then, in order to avoid the complex and difficult fractional integration, we can consider the truncated Taylor expansions for exponential term in (7.6)–(7.8) for example, and further, suppose that an initial approximation has the following form which satisfies the inial-boundary conditions Now by iteration formula (7.12), the first approximation takes the following form: By imposing initial-boundary conditions (7.2) on , we can obtain the values of for different which we show in Table 2.

*Example 7.2. * Consider the following linear Fredholm Integrodifferential equation:
with initial boundary conditions
then the exact solution is . By applying the HPM, we have
Substitution of (5.4) in (7.15) and then equating the terms with same powers of , we get the following series expressions:
Applying the operator to (7.18) and using initial-boundary conditions, then we get
Thus, by solving (7.19), we obtain
Now, we can form the 3 term approximation
where can be determined by imposing initial-boundary conditions (7.16) on . Thus, we have Table 3.

Similarly, by variational iteration method we have the following form:
where we suppose that an initial approximation has the following form which satisfies the initial-boundary conditions . Now by using the iteration formula, the first approximation takes the following form:
By imposing initial-boundary conditions, we can obtain the following Table 4.

#### 8. Conclusion

In this work, homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and variational iteration method (VIM) have been applied to linear and nonlinear initial-boundary value problems for fractional Fredholm Integrodifferential equations. Two examples are presented in order to illustrate the accuracy of the present methods. Comparisons of HPM and VIM with exact solution have been given in the Tables 1–4.

#### Acknowledgment

The authors would like to thank the referee(s) for the very constructive comments and valuable suggestions including attention to [12, 17–26] that improved the paper very much.

#### References

- A. A. Kilbas, H. M. Srivastava, and J. J. Trujillo,
*Theory and Applications of Fractional Differential Equations*, vol. 204 of*North-Holland Mathematics Studies*, Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2006. - V. Lakshmikantham, S. Leela, and J. V. Devi,
*Theory of Fractional Dynamic Systems*, Cambridge Scientific, 2009. - K. S. Miller and B. Ross,
*An Introduction to the Fractional Calculus and Fractional Differential Equations*, A Wiley-Interscience Publication, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1993. - I. Podlubny,
*Fractional Differential Equations*, vol. 198 of*Mathematics in Science and Engineering*, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 1999. - K. Diethelm and A. D. Freed, “On the solution of nonlinear fractional order differential equations used in the modeling of viscoelasticity,” in
*Scientific Computing in Chemical Engineering II-Computational Fluid Dynamics, Reaction Engineering and Molecular Properties*, F. Keil, W. Mackens, H. Voss, and J. Werther, Eds., pp. 217–224, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 1999. - R. Metzler, W. Schick, H.-G. Kilian, and T. F. Nonnenmacher, “Relaxation in filled polymers: a fractional calculus approach,”
*Journal of Chemical Physics*, vol. 103, no. 16, pp. 7180–7186, 1995. View at Scopus - L. Gaul, P. Klein, and S. Kemple, “Damping description involving fractional operators,”
*Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing*, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 81–88, 1991. View at Scopus - W. G. Glockle and T. F. Nonnenmacher, “A fractional calculus approach of self-similar protein dynamics,”
*Biophysical Journal*, vol. 68, pp. 46–53, 1995. - R. Hilfert,
*Applications of Fractional Calculus in Physics*, World Scientific, River Edge, NJ, USA, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - R. P. Agarwal, M. Benchohra, and S. Hamani, “A survey on existence results for boundary value problems of nonlinear fractional differential equations and inclusions,”
*Acta Applicandae Mathematicae*, vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 973–1033, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - Z. Bai and H. Lü, “Positive solutions for boundary value problem of nonlinear fractional differential equation,”
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, vol. 311, no. 2, pp. 495–505, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - D. Baleanu, K. Diethelm, E. Scalas, and J. J. Trujillo,
*Fractional Calculus*, vol. 3 of*Series on Complexity, Nonlinearity and Chaos*, World Scientific, Hackensack, NJ, USA, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - P. K. Kythe and P. Puri,
*Computational Methods for Linear Integral Equations*, Birkhäuser, Boston, Mass, USA, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - Z.-B. Li and J.-H. He, “Fractional complex transform for fractional differential equations,”
*Mathematical & Computational Applications*, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 970–973, 2010. View at Zentralblatt MATH - F. Mainardi, “Fractional calculus: some basic problems in continuum and statistical mechanics,” in
*Fractals and Fractional Calculus in Continuum Mechanics*, vol. 378 of*CISM Courses and Lectures*, pp. 291–348, Springer, Vienna, Austria, 1997. View at Zentralblatt MATH - A.-M. Wazwaz, “A comparison study between the modified decomposition method and the traditional methods for solving nonlinear integral equations,”
*Applied Mathematics and Computation*, vol. 181, no. 2, pp. 1703–1712, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - J.-H. He, “Variational iteration method—a kind of non-linear analytical technique: some examples,”
*International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics*, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 699–708, 1999. View at Scopus - J.-H. He, “Homotopy perturbation method: a new nonlinear analytical technique,”
*Applied Mathematics and Computation*, vol. 135, no. 1, pp. 73–79, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - J.-H. He, “Homotopy perturbation technique,”
*Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering*, vol. 178, no. 3-4, pp. 257–262, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - J.-H. He, “A coupling method of a homotopy technique and a perturbation technique for non-linear problems,”
*International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics*, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - J. H. He,
*Non-Pertubation methods for strongly nonlinear problems [dissertation]*, Internet Gmbh, Berlin, Germany, 2006. - J.-H. He, “Approximate analytical solution for seepage flow with fractional derivatives in porous media,”
*Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering*, vol. 167, no. 1-2, pp. 57–68, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - J.-H. He, “A short remark on fractional variational iteration method,”
*Physics Letters A*, vol. 375, no. 38, pp. 3362–3364, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - J.-H. He, “Homotopy perturbation method with an auxiliary term,”
*Abstract and Applied Analysis*, vol. 2012, Article ID 857612, 7 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - H. E. Ji-Huan, “A Note on the homotopy perturbation method,”
*Thermal Science*, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 565–568, 2010. View at Scopus - J.-H. He, S. K. Elagan, and Z. B. Li, “Geometrical explanation of the fractional complex transform and derivative chain rule for fractional calculus,”
*Physics Letters A*, vol. 376, no. 4, pp. 257–259, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - S. Abbasbandy, “An approximation solution of a nonlinear equation with Riemann-Liouville's fractional derivatives by He's variational iteration method,”
*Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics*, vol. 207, no. 1, pp. 53–58, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - O. Abdulaziz, I. Hashim, and S. Momani, “Application of homotopy-perturbation method to fractional IVPs,”
*Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics*, vol. 216, no. 2, pp. 574–584, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - A. Le Méhauté, L. Nivanen, and A. El Kaabouchi, “Contribution of Non Integer Integro-differential operators (NIDO) to the geometrical understanding of Riemann's conjecture-(I),” in
*Proceedings of the 2nd IFAC Workshop on Fractional Differentiation and Its Applications (FDA '06)*, pp. 230–233, 2006. View at Scopus - B. Ross,
*Fractional Calculus and Its Applications*, vol. 457 of*Lecture Notes in Mathematics*, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1975. - U. Sumita, “The matrix Laguerre transform,”
*Applied Mathematics and Computation*, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1–28, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - A. Kilicman and Z. A. A. Al Zhour, “Kronecker operational matrices for fractional calculus and some applications,”
*Applied Mathematics and Computation*, vol. 187, no. 1, pp. 250–265, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - S. J. Liao, “An approximate solution technique not depending on small parameters: a special example,”
*International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics*, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 371–380, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - S.-J. Liao, “Boundary element method for general nonlinear differential operators,”
*Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements*, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 91–99, 1997. View at Scopus - A. Yıldırım, “Solution of BVPs for fourth-order integro-differential equations by using homotopy perturbation method,”
*Computers & Mathematics with Applications*, vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 3175–3180, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - H. Jafari, A. Kadem, D. Baleanu, and T. Yilmaz, “Solutions of the fractional Davey-Stewartson Equations with variational iteration method,”
*Romanian Reports in Physics*, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 337–346, 2012. - A. Kadem and A. Kiliçman, “The approximate solution of fractional Fredholm integrodifferential equations by variational iteration and homotopy perturbation methods,”
*Abstract and Applied Analysis*, vol. 2012, Article ID 486193, 10 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - Y. Nawaz, “Variational iteration method and homotopy perturbation method for fourth-order fractional integro-differential equations,”
*Computers & Mathematics with Applications*, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 2330–2341, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - Z. Odibat and S. Momani, “The variational iteration method: an efficient scheme for handling fractional partial differential equations in fluid mechanics,”
*Computers & Mathematics with Applications*, vol. 58, no. 11-12, pp. 2199–2208, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - N. H. Sweilam, “Fourth order integro-differential equations using variational iteration method,”
*Computers & Mathematics with Applications*, vol. 54, no. 7-8, pp. 1086–1091, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH