- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Abstract and Applied Analysis
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 128458, 6 pages
On an Extension of Kummer's Second Theorem
1Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36 (123), Alkhoud, Muscat, Oman
2Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41511, Egypt
3Department of Mathematics, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Central University of Kerala, Riverside Transit Campus, Padennakkad P.O. Nileshwar, Kasaragod, Kerala 671 328, India
Received 4 December 2012; Accepted 26 February 2013
Academic Editor: Adem Kiliçman
Copyright © 2013 Medhat A. Rakha et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The aim of this paper is to establish an extension of Kummer's second theorem in the form = + , where + , . For , we recover Kummer's second theorem. The result is derived with the help of Kummer's second theorem and its contiguous results available in the literature. As an application, we obtain two general results for the terminating series. The results derived in this paper are simple, interesting, and easily established and may be useful in physics, engineering, and applied mathematics.
The generalized hypergeometric function with numerator and denominator parameters is defined by  where denotes Pochhammer’s symbol (or the shifted or raised factorial, since ) defined by
Using the fundamental properties of Gamma function , can be written in the form where is the familiar Gamma function.
It is not out of place to mention here that whenever a generalized hypergeometric or hypergeometric function reduces to Gamma function, the results are very important from the applicative point of view. Thus, the classical summation theorem for the series such as those of Gauss, Gauss second, Kummer, and Bailey plays an important role in the theory of hypergeometric series. For generalization and extensions of these classical summation theorems, we refer to [2, 3].
By employing the above mentioned classical summation theorems, Bailey  had obtained a large number of very interesting results (including results due to Ramanujan, Gauss, Kummer, and Whipple) involving products of generalized hypergeometric series.
On the other hand, from the theory of differential equations, Kummer  established the following very interesting and useful result known in the literature as Kummer's second theorem:
Bailey  established the result (4) by employing the Gauss second summation theorem, and Choi and Rathie  established the result (4) (of course, by changing to ) by employing the classical Gauss summation theorem. From (4), Rainville  deduced the following two useful and classical results:
In 2010, Kim et al.  have generalized the Kummer's second theorem and obtained explicit expressions of for by employing the generalized Gauss second summation theorem obtained earlier by Lavoie et al. . We, however, would like to mention one of their results which we will require in our present investigation:
Very recently Rakha  rederived the result (11) in its equivalent form by employing the classical Gauss summation theorem, and Kim et al.  derived (11) in a very elementary way and, as an application, obtained the following two elegant results:
It is interesting to mention here that the right-hand side of (12) is independent of , where .
Remark 1. (a) In (12) and (13), if we set , we recover (5) and (6), respectively.
(b) Using (12) and (13), Kim et al.  have obtained the following extension of transformation (7) due to Kummer: for .
The aim of this paper is to establish another extension of Kummer’s second Theorem (4) by employing the known results (4), (8), and (10). As an application, we mention two interesting results for the terminating series. The results established in this paper are simple, interesting, and easily established and may be useful in physics, engineering, and applied mathematics.
2. Main Result
The result to be established in this paper is as follows: where and is given by .
Now, it is not difficult to see that we have
Separating (18) into three terms, we have
For the second and third terms on the right-hand side of (19), changing to and to , respectively, and making use of the following results: we have, after some simplification,
Now, summing up the series with the help of (1), we have
Finally, observing the right-hand side of (22), we see that the first, second, and third expressions can now be evaluated with the help of the results (10), (8), and (4), respectively, and, after some simplification, we arrive at the desired result (15). This completes the proof of (15).
3. New Results for Terminating
In this section, from our newly obtained result (15), we will establish two new results for the terminating series. These are where , and .
Using the identity we have, after some simplification,
Expressing the inner series in the last result, we get
Now, separating the into even and odd powers of and making use of the results: we finally have
Also, it is not difficult to see that
Remark 2. (a) Setting in (15), we immediately recover Kummer’s second Theorem (4). Thus, (15) can be regarded as the extension of (4).
(b) Also, if we take in (12) and (13), we again at once get the result (5) and (6), respectively. Thus, our results (12) and (13) can be regarded as extensions of (5) and (6).
4. Extension of a Transformation due to Kummer
In this section, we will establish a natural extension of Kummer’s transformation: for and is given by
Applying the generalized Binomial theorem we have
Using , we have changing to and using (25), we have
Using we have
Expressing the inner series, as , we find
from which, we have
Using the the following identities: together with the result, we have with
This completes the proof of (34).
All authors contributed equally to this paper. They read and approved the final paper.
The authors would like to express their sincere gratitude to the referees for their valuable comments and suggestions. They are so much appreciated to the College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, for supporting the publication charge of this paper.
- Y. S. Kim, M. A. Rakha, and A. K. Rathie, “Generalizations of Kummer's second theorem with application,” Journal of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 387–402, 2010.
- Y. S. Kim, M. A. Rakha, and A. K. Rathie, “Extensions of certain classical summation theorems for the series 2, 3, and 4 with applications in Ramanujan's summations,” International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, vol. 2010, Article ID 309503, 26 pages, 2010.
- M. A. Rakha and A. K. Rathie, “Generalizations of classical summation theorems for the series 2 and 3 with applications,” Integral Transforms and Special Functions, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 823–840, 2011.
- W. N. Bailey, “Products of generalized hypergeometric series,” Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 242–250, 1928.
- E. E. Kummer, “Über die hypergeometridche Reihe,” Journal für Die Reine Und Angewandte Mathematik, vol. 15, pp. 39–83, 1836.
- J. Choi and A. K. Rathie, “Another proof of Kummer's second theorem,” Communications of the Korean Mathematical Society, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 933–936, 1998.
- E. D. Rainville, Special Functions, The Macmillan Company, New York, NY, USA, 1960.
- A. K. Rathie and V. Nagar, “On Kummer's second theorem involving product of generalized hypergeometric series,” Le Matematiche, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 35–38, 1995.
- J.-L. Lavoie, F. Grondin, and A. K. Rathie, “Generalizations of Watson's theorem on the sum of a 3,” Indian Journal of Mathematics, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 23–32, 1992.
- A. K. Rathie and T. K. Pogány, “New summation formula for 3 and a Kummer-type II transformation of 2,” Mathematical Communications, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 63–66, 2008.
- M. A. Rakha, “A note on Kummer-type II transformation for the generalized hypergeometric function 2,” Mathematical Notes, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 154–156, 2012.
- Y. S. Kim, J. Choi, and A. K. Rathie, “Two results for the terminating 3 with applications,” Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 621–633, 2012.