About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Abstract and Applied Analysis
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 303626, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/303626
Research Article

Fixed Point Results in Quasi-Cone Metric Spaces

School of Mathematical Sciences Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

Received 23 November 2012; Accepted 22 February 2013

Academic Editor: Douglas Anderson

Copyright © 2013 Fawzia Shaddad and Mohd Salmi Md Noorani. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The main aim of this paper is to prove fixed point theorems in quasi-cone metric spaces which extend the Banach contraction mapping and others. This is achieved by introducing different kinds of Cauchy sequences in quasi-cone metric spaces.

1. Introduction and Preliminaries

The Banach contraction principle is a fundamental result in fixed point theory. Due to its importance, several authors have obtained many interesting extensions and generalizations (see, e.g., [112]).

A quasi-metric is a distance function which satisfies the triangle inequality but is not symmetric: it can be regarded as an “asymmetric metric.” In fact, quasi-metric space is more comprehensive than metric space. As metric space is important and has numerous applications, Huang and Zhang [13] have announced the concept of the cone metric spaces, replacing the set of real numbers by an ordered Banach space. They have proved some fixed point theorems for contractive-type mappings on cone metric spaces, whereas Rezapour and Hamlbarani [14] omitted the assumption of normality in cone metric spa ces, which is a milestone in developing fixed point theory in cone metric spaces. Since then, numerous authors have started to generalize fixed point theorems in cone metric spaces in many various directions. For some recent results (see, e.g., [1525]) and for a current survey of the latest results in cone metric spaces, see Janković et al. [26].

Very recently, some authors generalized the contractive conditions in the literature by replacing the constants with functions. Using these generalizations, they have proved the existence and uniqueness of the fixed point in cone metric spaces; for more details see [27, 28]. Because quasi-metric space is more general than metric space and is a subject of intensive research in the context of topology and theoretical computer science, Abdeljawad and Karapinar [29] and Sonmez [30] have given a definition of quasi-cone metric space which extends the quasi-metric space.

In this paper, we also introduce the concept of a quasi-cone metric space which is somewhat different from that of Abdeljawad and Karapinar [29] and Sonmez [30]. Then we establish four kinds of Cauchy sequences in this space according to Reilly et al. [31]. Furthermore, we extend and generalize the Banach contraction principle and some results in the literature to this space. We support our results by examples. In this paper we do not impose the normality condition for the cones, and the only assumption is that the cone is, solid; that is . Now we recall some known notions, definitions, and results which will be used in this work.

Definition 1. Let be a real Banach space and be a subset of . is called a cone if and only if (i) is closed, , ; (ii)for all , where ; (iii) and .

For a given cone , we define a partial ordering with respect to by the following: for , we say that if and only if . Also, we write for , where denotes the interior of . The cone is called normal if there is a number such that for all The least positive number satisfying this is called the normal constant of . The cone is called regular if every increasing sequence which is bounded above is convergent; that is, if is a sequence such that for some , then there is such that as . Equivalently, the cone is regular if every decreasing sequence which is bounded below is convergent (for details, see [13]). In this paper, we always suppose that is a real Banach space, is a cone in with , and is a partial ordering with respect to .

Definition 2 (see [13]). Let be a nonempty set. Suppose the mapping satisfies (d1) for all , and if and only if ; (d2) for all ; (d3) for all .
Then, is called a cone metric on , and is called a cone metric space.

Now, we state our definition which is more general than cone metric space.

Definition 3. Let be a nonempty set. Suppose the mapping satisfies(q1) for all ; (q2) if and only if ; (q3) for all .
Then, is called a quasi-cone metric on , and is called a quasi-cone metric space.

Remark 4. Note that in [30] Sonmez defined the quasi-cone metric space as follows.
A quasi-cone metric space on a nonempty is a function such that for all ; (1) , (2) .
A quasi-cone metric space is a pair such that is a nonempty set and is a quasi-cone metric on .
In fact, it has not mentioned that takes value in , but in this paper we require this condition.

Remark 5. Abdeljawad and Karapinar’s definition of quasi-cone metric space [29] is as follows.
Let be a nonempty set. Suppose that the mapping satisfies the following: (q1) for all ; (q2) ; (q3) for all .
Then is said to be a quasi-cone metric on , and the pair is called a quasi-cone metric space.
The following example indicates that our definition is more general than the one given in [29].

Example 6. Let , , , and defined by Then satisfies our definition of a quasi-cone metric space but not the definition in [29] because if then or .

Remark 7. Note that any cone metric space is a quasi-cone metric space.

2. Necessary Facts and Statements

By considering the established notions in metric spaces [31], we introduce the appropriate generalization in cone metric spaces.

Definition 8. Let be a quasi-cone metric space. A sequence in is said to be (a) -Cauchy or bi-Cauchy if for each , there is such that for all ; (b)left (right) Cauchy if for any , there is such that ( , resp.) for all ; (c)weakly left (right) Cauchy if for each , there is such that ( , resp.) for all ; (d)left (right) -Cauchy if for every , there exist and such that ( , resp.) for all .

Remark 9. These notions in quasi-cone metric space are related in the following way: (i) -Cauchy left (right) Cauchy weakly left (right) Cauchy left (right) -Cauchy; (ii)a sequence is -Cauchy if and only if it is both left and right Cauchy.

In this paper, we use the notion of left Cauchy.

Definition 10. Let be a quasi-cone metric space. Let be a sequence in . We say that the sequence left converges to if . One denotes this by

We will utilize the word converges instead of left converges for simplicity.

Example 11. Let , , , and defined by where . is a quasi-cone metric on . Considering a sequence , then is left Cauchy and is convergent to due to On the other hand, it is not right Cauchy.

Definition 12. A quasi-cone metric space is called left complete if every left Cauchy sequence in converges.

Definition 13. Let be a quasi-cone metric space. A function is called (1) continuous if for any convergent sequence in with , the sequence is convergent and ;(2) contractive if there exists some such that and if , then is nonexpansive.

The following example shows that there exists a contractive function in quasi-cone metric space which is not continuous.

Example 14. Let , , , and defined by and defined by Then is a quasi-cone metric space and is a contractive map but not continuous due to .

3. Fixed Point Theorems

In this section, we prove some fixed point results in quasi-cone metric space. Also, we generalize the contractive conditions in the literature by replacing the constants with functions. First, we state the following useful lemma.

Lemma 15. Let be a quasi-cone metric space and a sequence in . Suppose there exist a sequence of nonnegative real numbers such that , in which for some , and for all . Then the sequence is left Cauchy sequence in .

Proof. For , we get Let and choose such that where . Since , there exists a natural number such that for all , also . Since is open, therefore ; that is . Thus, for and so Thus, is a left Cauchy sequence.

We are now in a position to state the main fixed point theorem in the context of quasi-cone metric spaces. We will need the notion of Hausdorff in quasi-cone metric space. A quasi-cone metric space is Hausdorff if for each pair of distinct points of , there exist neighborhoods and of and , respectively, that are disjoint.

Theorem 16. Let be a left complete Hausdorff quasi-cone metric space and let be a continuous function. Suppose that there exist functions which satisfy the following for : (1) and ; (2) ; (3) .
Then, has a unique fixed point.

Proof. Let be arbitrary and fixed, and we consider the sequence for all . If we take and in (3) we have So, where . Thus, by Lemma 15, is left Cauchy in . Because of completeness of and continuity of , there exists such that and . Since is Hausdorff, .
Uniqueness. Let be another fixed point of , then Therefore, due to . Similarly, . Hence, .

Corollary 17. Let be a left complete Hausdorff quasi-cone metric space and let be a continuous function. Suppose that there exist functions which satisfy the following for : (1) and ; (2) ; (3) .
Then, has a unique fixed point.

Proof. We can prove this result by applying Theorem 16 to and .

Corollary 18. Let be a left complete Hausdorff quasi-cone metric space, and let be a continuous function and for all and with . Then, has a unique fixed point.

Proof. We can prove this result by applying Theorem 16 to and .

The following corollaries generalize some results of [14] in cone metric spaces to quasi-cone metric spaces.

Corollary 19. Let be a left complete Hausdorff quasi-cone metric space, and let be a continuous function and for all and . Then, has a unique fixed point.

Corollary 20. Let be a left complete Hausdorff quasi-cone metric space, and let be a continuous function and for all and . Then, has a unique fixed point.

Corollary 21. Let be a left complete Hausdorff quasi-cone metric space, and let be a continuous function and for all and with . Then, has a unique fixed point.

The next corollary is a generalization of Banach contraction principle.

Corollary 22. Let be a left complete Hausdorff quasi-cone metric space, and let be a continuous function and for all and . Then, has a unique fixed point.

The example in [31] shows that the Hausdorff condition is necessary for quasi-metric spaces and is so for quasi-cone metric spaces. Now, we present two examples. The first one fulfills Theorem 16in which is normal. The second example satisfies Corollary 18 without normality of .

Example 23. Let , , such that where . Suppose and . Then for all , we have the following.(1) ,   , , , and . (2) . (3)Condition of Theorem 16 is satisfied. For , we have due to and for it is trivial.
Therefore, is a fixed point.

Example 24. Let , , , and defined by where . Suppose . If we take , and , then all the assumptions of Corollary 18 are satisfied. Thus, is a fixed point.

Theorem 25. Let be a left complete Hausdorff quasi-cone metric space, and let be a continuous function and for all where , and . Then, has a unique fixed point.

Proof. Let be arbitrary and fixed and for all . If we take and in , we have Rewriting this inequality as implies that Since , we have Therefore, we obtain due to , and , and we get . Therefore, Thus, by Lemma 15, is left Cauchy in . Because of completeness of and continuity of , there exists such that and . Since is Hausdorff, .
Uniqueness. Let be another fixed point. Putting and in , we obtain Hence, Similarly, applying with and , we have Adding up the above two inequalities, we get Subsequently, we obtain Thus, Hence, due to . Therefore, and .

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support received from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia under the research Grant ERGS/1/2011/STG/UKM/01/13.

References

  1. O. Kada, T. Suzuki, and W. Takahashi, “Nonconvex minimization theorems and fixed point theorems in complete metric spaces,” Mathematica Japonica, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 381–391, 1996. View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  2. L.-J. Lin and W.-S. Du, “Ekeland's variational principle, minimax theorems and existence of nonconvex equilibria in complete metric spaces,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 323, no. 1, pp. 360–370, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  3. T. Suzuki, “Generalized distance and existence theorems in complete metric spaces,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 253, no. 2, pp. 440–458, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  4. T. Suzuki, “Several fixed point theorems concerning τ-distance,” Fixed Point Theory and Applications, vol. 2004, pp. 195–209, 2004. View at MathSciNet
  5. D. Tataru, “Viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations with unbounded nonlinear terms,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 163, no. 2, pp. 345–392, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  6. I. Vályi, “A general maximality principle and a fixed point theorem in uniform space,” Periodica Mathematica Hungarica, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 127–134, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. Włodarczyk and R. Plebaniak, “A fixed point theorem of Subrahmanyam type in uniform spaces with generalized pseudodistances,” Applied Mathematics Letters, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 325–328, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  8. K. Włodarczyk and R. Plebaniak, “Quasigauge spaces with generalized quasipseudodistances and periodic points of dissipative set-valued dynamic systems,” Fixed Point Theory and Applications, vol. 2011, Article ID 712706, 23 pages, 2011. View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  9. K. Włodarczyk and R. Plebaniak, “Kannan-type contractions and fixed points in uniform spaces,” Fixed Point Theory and Applications, vol. 2011, article 90, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  10. K. Włodarczyk and R. Plebaniak, “Contractivity of Leader type and fixed points in uniform spaces with generalized pseudodistances,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 387, no. 2, pp. 533–541, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  11. K. Włodarczyk and R. Plebaniak, “Generalized uniform spaces, uniformly locally contractive set-valued dynamic systems and fixed points,” Fixed Point Theory and Applications, vol. 2012, article 104, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  12. K. Włodarczyk and R. Plebaniak, “Leader type contractions, periodic and fixed points and new completivity in quasi-gauge spaces with generalized quasi-pseudodistances,” Topology and its Applications, vol. 159, no. 16, pp. 3504–3512, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  13. L.-G. Huang and X. Zhang, “Cone metric spaces and fixed point theorems of contractive mappings,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 332, no. 2, pp. 1468–1476, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  14. Sh. Rezapour and R. Hamlbarani, “Some notes on the paper Cone metric spaces and fixed point theorems of contractive mappings,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 345, no. 2, pp. 719–724, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  15. A. G. B. Ahmad, Z. M. Fadail, M. Abbas, Z. Kadelburg, and S. Radenović, “Some fixed and periodic points in abstract metric spaces,” Abstract and Applied Analysis, vol. 2012, Article ID 908423, 15 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. C. M. Chen, T. H. Chang, and K. S. Juang, “Common fixed point theorems for the stronger Meir-Keeler cone-type function in cone ball-metric spaces,” Applied Mathematics Letters, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 692–697, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  17. W.-S. Du, “A note on cone metric fixed point theory and its equivalence,” Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 2259–2261, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  18. H. Kunze, D. la Torre, F. Mendivil, and E. R. Vrscay, “Generalized fractal transforms and self-similar objects in cone metric spaces,” Computers & Mathematics with Applications, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 1761–1769, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  19. D. Wardowski, “On set-valued contractions of Nadler type in cone metric spaces,” Applied Mathematics Letters, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 275–278, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  20. W. Shatanawi, “Some coincidence point results in cone metric spaces,” Mathematical and Computer Modelling, vol. 55, no. 7-8, pp. 2023–2028, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  21. K. Włodarczyk and R. Plebaniak, “Maximality principle and general results of Ekeland and Caristi types without lower semicontinuity assumptions in cone uniform spaces with generalized pseudodistances,” Fixed Point Theory and Applications, vol. 2010, Article ID 175453, 35 pages, 2010. View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  22. K. Włodarczyk, R. Plebaniak, and M. Doliński, “Cone uniform, cone locally convex and cone metric spaces, endpoints, set-valued dynamic systems and quasi-asymptotic contractions,” Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications, vol. 71, no. 10, pp. 5022–5031, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  23. K. Włodarczyk and R. Plebaniak, “Periodic point, endpoint, and convergence theorems for dissipative set-valued dynamic systems with generalized pseudodistances in cone uniform and uniform spaces,” Fixed Point Theory and Applications, vol. 2010, Article ID 864536, 32 pages, 2010. View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  24. K. Włodarczyk, R. Plebaniak, and C. Obczyński, “Convergence theorems, best approximation and best proximity for set-valued dynamic systems of relatively quasi-asymptotic contractions in cone uniform spaces,” Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 794–805, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  25. K. Włodarczyk and R. Plebaniak, “Fixed points and endpoints of contractive set-valued maps in cone uniform spaces with generalized pseudodistances,” Fixed Point Theory and Applications, vol. 2012, article 176, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  26. S. Janković, Z. Kadelburg, and S. Radenović, “On cone metric spaces: a survey,” Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications, vol. 74, no. 7, pp. 2591–2601, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  27. Z. M. Fadail, A. G. B. Ahmad, and L. Paunović, “New fixed point results of single-valued mapping for c-distance in cone metric spaces,” Abstract and Applied Analysis, vol. 2012, Article ID 639713, 12 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH
  28. W. Sintunavarat, Y. J. Cho, and P. Kumam, “Common fixed point theorems for c-distance in ordered cone metric spaces,” Computers & Mathematics with Applications, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 1969–1978, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  29. T. Abdeljawad and E. Karapinar, “Quasicone metric spaces and generalizations of Caristi Kirk's Theorem,” Fixed Point Theory and Applications, vol. 2009, no. 1, Article ID 574387, 9 pages, 2009. View at Zentralblatt MATH
  30. A. Sonmez, “Fixed point theorems in partial cone metric spaces,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1101.2741.
  31. I. L. Reilly, P. V. Subrahmanyam, and M. K. Vamanamurthy, “Cauchy sequences in quasipseudometric spaces,” Monatshefte für Mathematik, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 127–140, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet