- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Abstract and Applied Analysis
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 390476, 8 pages
Exponential Attractor for Coupled Ginzburg-Landau Equations Describing Bose-Einstein Condensates and Nonlinear Optical Waveguides and Cavities
College of Mathematics and Information Science, Qujing Normal University, Qujing, Yunnan 655011, China
Received 4 February 2013; Accepted 6 March 2013
Academic Editor: de Dai
Copyright © 2013 Gui Mu and Jun Liu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The existence of the exponential attractors for coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations describing Bose-Einstein condensates and nonlinear optical waveguides and cavities with periodic initial boundary is obtained by showing Lipschitz continuity and the squeezing property.
Inertial set was introduced (see [1–5]) in order to overcome some of the theoretical difficulties that are associated with inertial manifolds. An inertial set, by definition, contains the global attractor and attracts all trajectories at a uniform exponential rate. Consequently, it contains the slow transients as well as the global attractor. In the theory of dynamical systems the slow transients correspond to slowly converging stable manifolds that are in some sense close to central manifolds. Numerical simulations of infinite dimensional dynamical systems often capture both slow transients and parts of the attractor. After a large but finite time the state of the system obtained from the numerical calculation may often be at a finite distance from the global attractor but at an infinitesimal distance to the inertial set. In this sense, we propose to call the inertial set an exponential attractor to be consistent with the physical intuition .
An exponential attractor is an exponentially attracting compact set with finite fractal dimension that is positively invariant under the forward semiflow. The notion of exponential attractors was introduced by Eden et al.  and has been shown to be one of the very important notions in the study of long time behavior of solutions to nonlinear diffusion equations . The easiest way of obtaining an exponential attractor is by taking the intersection of an absorbing set with an inertial manifold.
In the area of hyperbolic evolutionary equations, the existence of exponential attractors has been proved for many equations. In this paper, we will prove the existence of exponential attractor for coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations with the periodic boundary conditions and initial value Its physical realizations include systems from nonlinear optics and a double-cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate with a negative scattering length. In particular, in the case of the optical systems, and are amplitudes of electromagnetic waves in two cores of the system, the evolutional variable is either time or propagation distance in the dual-core optical fiber, and is the transverse coordinate in the cavity or the reduced time in the application to the fibers .
This paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we give a description of preliminaries with existence of exponential attractor and the properties of solutions and bounded absorbing sets of (1). In Section 3, the existence of the exponential attractor in type exponential attractor is proved. In Section 4, we give some conclusions for this paper.
Let be two Hilbert spaces, and let be dense in and compactly imbedded into . Let be a continuous map from , into itself. We study where is a bounded open set in , is smooth, and is a positive self-adjoint operator with a compact inverse. Letting denote the complete set of eigenvectors of , the corresponding eigenvalues are We assume that the nonlinear semigroup defined in (4)–(6) possesses a compact attractor of -type; namely, there exists a compact set in , and attracts all bounded subsets in and is invariant under the action of .
Let be a compact subset of . leaves the set invariant and set that is, for on , is the global attractor.
Definition 1. A compact set is called an exponential attractors for if(i);(ii), for every ;(iii) has finite fractal dimension ;(iv)There exist constants and such that where
Definition 2. If there exists a bounded function independent and such that for every , then we say is Lipschitz continuous in and is Lipschitz constant for in .
Definition 3. A continuous semigroup is said to satisfy the squeezing property on if there exists such that satisfies the following.
For every , there exists an orthogonal projection of rank equal to such that for every and in if holds, then we also have where .
Theorem 4 (see ). Suppose (4)–(6) satisfy the following conditions.(1)There exist nonlinear semigroup and a compact attractor .(2)There exists a compact set in which is positively invariant for .(3) is Lipschitz continuous and is squeezing in .Then (4)–(6) admit an exponential attractor in for and where Moreover, where , are defined as in , , , are the constants independent of , and is a positive constant.
Proposition 5. There exists such that is a compact positively invariant set in and is absorbing set for all bounded subsets in , where is a closed absorbing set in for .
Proposition 6. Let , be bounded and closed absorbing sets for (4)–(6) in , respectively. Then there exists a compact attractor of -type. For the proof of Proposition 5 and Proposition 6, we refer the reader to .
Denoting by the norm in , , for simplicity, we denote by and the norm in the case and , respectively. Suppose that , (), where is a Hilbert space for the scalar product The norm of is defined by .
We now establish some time-uniform a priori estimates on in and , respectively.
Lemma 7. Assume that ; then Thus there exists such that whenever .
Lemma 8. Assume that ; then Thus there exists such that whenever .
Theorem 9. Assume that all the parameters of (1) are positive. For given in (), there exists a unique solution And also Furthermore, the solution operator of the system is a continuous semigroup on which possesses bounded absorbing sets , for .
Let then is a compact invariant subset in ; we know that semigroup defined by problem (31)–(34) possesses a -type compact attractor. According to Theorem 4, we need only to show the Lipschitz continuity and the squeezing property of the dynamical system in , respectively. That is what we proceed to do in the following sections.
In this section, we show the existence of the exponential attractor in for problem (1)-(2). In order to prove the Lipschitz continuity and the squeezing property, we need to extend Hölder inequality where , and Gagliardo-Nirenberg (G-N) inequality where and the Young's inequality
Proof. Letting , , from (1)-(2), we have
with periodic initial value
Taking and , then we get
Substituting (37) and (38) into (36), we get
Substituting (39) into (32), we obtain
To prove the Theorem 4, we take the following four steps.
Step 1. Taking the inner product of (40) with and (41) with , respectively, we have using Thus, then taking the imaginary part of (42) and (43), respectively, by using the extend Hölder inequality, we can obtain Combining (46) and (47), then we infer that Step 2. Taking the inner product of (40) with and (41) with , respectively, we have Note that then taking the imaginary part of (50) and (51), respectively, Note the following inequalities: Combining (53) and (54), one can obtain Step 3. Taking the inner product of (40) with and (41) with , respectively, we have using where then taking the imaginary part of (50) and (51), respectively, Note the following inequalities: Combining (60) and (61), one can obtain Step 4. Combining (49), (56) and (63), we get Taking , and noting that so (64) can be reduced to By Gronwall's inequality that is, Meanwhile, it indicates that the Lipschitz constant . This completes the proof.
Now, we intend to show the squeezing property for semigroup . To this end, we introduce the operator from to with domain Obviously, is an unbounded self-adjoint positive operator and the inverse is compact. Thus, there exists an orthonormal basis of consisting of eigenvectors of such that For all denote by the projector . In the following, we will use Decompose as Applying to (32) and (33) we find that Take the inner product of (73) with and (74) with , respectively. Then like Step , we can get Take the inner product of (73) with and (74) with , respectively. Then like Step 2, we can get Take the inner product of (73) with and (74) with , respectively. Then like Step 3, we can get Combining (75), (76), and (77), we get Using the G-N inequality from (78), we have By Gronwall lemma we get Letting be fixed we take and assume that Then we choose large enough so that that is, From (82) and (84), we obtain This shows that when is fixed, Lipschitz constant for in is equal to and satisfies We have So when This completes the proof of Theorem 4.
Theorem 12. Suppose that problem (1)-(2) satisfies Theorem 9; there exist and N large enough such that Then for the nonlinear semigroup defined in (4) and (5), ; admits an exponential attractor in and where , , are constants independent of the solution of the equation.
In this paper, we have studied the coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations which describe Bose-Einstein condensates and nonlinear optical waveguides and cavities with periodic initial boundary; the existence of the exponential attractors is obtained by showing Lipschitz continuity and the squeezing property. For exponential attractor, is only large enough such that
This work was supported by Chinese Natural Science Foundation Grant no. 11061028.
- I. S. Aranson and L. Kramer, “The world of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation.,” Reviews of Modern Physics, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 99–143, 2002.
- B. A. Malomed, “Complex Ginzburg-Landau equation,” in Encyclopedia of Nonlinear Science, A. Scott, Ed., pp. 157–160, Routledge, New York, NY, USA, 2005.
- A. Eden, C. Foias, B. Nicolaenko, and K. Temam, Exponential Attractors for Dissipative Evolution Equations, vol. 37, John Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1994.
- Z. Dai and B. Guo, “Inertial fractal sets for dissipative Zakharov system,” Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 279–288, 1997.
- Z. Dai and B. Guo, Inertial ManiFolds and Approximate Inertial Mani-Folds, Science Press, Beijing, China, 2000.
- Z. Dai, Y. Huang, and X. Sun, “Long-time behavior of solution for coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations describing Bose-Einstein condensates and nonlinear optical waveguides and cavities,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 362, no. 1, pp. 125–139, 2010.
- H. Sakaguchi and B. A. Malomed, “Stable solitons in coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations describing Bose-Einstein condensates and nonlinear optical waveguides and cavities,” Physica D, vol. 183, no. 3-4, pp. 282–292, 2003.