- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Abstract and Applied Analysis
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 414353, 7 pages
Improved ()-Expansion Method for the Space and Time Fractional Foam Drainage and KdV Equations
1Department of Mathematics, Education Faculty, Dicle University, 21280 Diyarbakır, Turkey
2Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409-0020, USA
3Department of Mathematics and Institute for Mathematical Research, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4Department of Mathematics, Science Faculty, Fırat University, 23119 Elazığ, Turkey
Received 10 June 2013; Accepted 17 July 2013
Academic Editor: Santanu Saha Ray
Copyright © 2013 Ali Akgül et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The fractional complex transformation is used to transform nonlinear partial differential equations to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The improved ()-expansion method is suggested to solve the space and time fractional foam drainage and KdV equations. The obtained results show that the presented method is effective and appropriate for solving nonlinear fractional differential equations.
The soliton solutions of nonlinear evolution equations have made a major impact in the flesh. These solitons appear in various areas of physical and biological sciences. They show up in nonlinear optics, plasma physics, fluid dynamics, biochemistry, and mathematical chemistry. Fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs) have received considerable interest in recent years and have been extensively investigated. These equations were applied for many real problems which are modeled in various areas, for example, in mathematical physics , fluid and continuum mechanics , viscoplastic and viscoelastic flow , biology, chemistry, acoustics, and psychology [4, 5]. Some FPDEs do not have exact solutions, so approximation and numerical techniques must be used. There are several approximation and numerical methods. The most commonly used ones are the homotopy perturbation method [6, 7], the Adomian decomposition method [8, 9], the variational iteration method [10–12], the homotopy analysis method [13, 14], the generalized differential transform method , the finite difference method , and the finite element method . In recent years, some authors have got exact solutions of FPDEs by using analytical methods. S. Zhang and H.-Q. Zhang  proposed to solve the nonlinear time fractional biological population model and -dimensional space-time fractional Fokas equation by using the fractional subequation method. Guo et al.  presented the improved subequation method to solve the space-time fractional Whitham-Broer-Kaup and the generalized Hirota-Satsuma coupled KdV equations. Tang et al.  used the generalized fractional subequation method to obtain exact solutions of the space-time fractional Gardner equation with variable coefficients. Lu  investigated the exact solutions of the nonlinear fractional Klein-Gordon equation, the generalized time fractional Hirota-Satsuma coupled KdV system, and the nonlinear fractional Sharma-Tasso-Olver equation. Bin  solved the time-space fractional generalized Hirota-Satsuma coupled KdV equations and the time fractional fifth-order Sawada-Kotera equation by using the -expansion method. Omran and Gepreel  used the improved -expansion method to calculate the exact solutions to the time-space fractional foam drainage and KdV equations. In this paper, we will apply the improved -expansion method to obtain the exact solutions for the time-space fractional foam drainage and KdV equations with the modified Riemann-Liouville derivative defined by Jumarie [24–27]: where is arbitrary constant. This paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we introduce some basic definitions of Jumarie’s modified Riemann-Liouville derivative. In Section 3, the main steps of the improved -expansion method are given. In Section 4, we construct the exact solutions of (1) and (2) by the proposed method. Some conclusions are given in Section 5.
There are several definitions for fractional differential equations. These definitions include Riemann-Liouville, Weyl, Grünwald-Letnikov, Riesz, and Jumarie fractional derivatives. The Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative of a constant is not zero. So the fractional derivative is only defined for differentiable function. In order to deal with nondifferentiable functions, Jumarie [24–27] presented a modification of the Riemann-Liouville definition which appears to provide a framework for a fractional calculus. This modification was successfully applied in the probability calculus, fractional Laplace problem, exact solutions of the nonlinear fractional differential equations, and many other types of linear and nonlinear fractional differential equations [28–30].
Definition 1. The Riemann-Liouville fractional integral is defined  as
Definition 2. Jumarie [24–27] defined the fractional derivative in the limit form by where should be a continuous (but not necessarily differentiable) function and denotes a constant discretization span. So, the modified form of the Riemann-Liouville derivative is defined as where , and .
Theorem 4. Assume that the continuous function has a fractional derivative of order ; then hold.
3. Description of the Improved -Expansion Method
In this section, we give the description of the improved -expansion method for solving the nonlinear FPDEs as where is an unknown function and is a polynomial of and its partial fractional derivatives, in which the highest order derivatives and nonlinear terms are involved. We offer an improved -expansion method . The essential steps of this method are described as follows.
Step 1. Li and He  and He and Li  presented a fractional complex transform to transform fractional differential equations into ordinary differential equations. So, all analytical methods devoted to advanced calculus can be easily dedicated to fractional calculus. The traveling wave variable is given as where , , and are nonzero arbitrary constants. So, (9) is reduced to (10): where .
Step 2. Suppose that (10) has the solution (11): where are real constants to be determined, the balancing number is a positive integer which can be determined by balancing the highest derivative terms with the highest power nonlinear terms in (10). More precisely, we define the degree of as , which gives rise to the degrees of other expressions, as follows: Therefore, we can obtain the value of in (11).
Step 3. is where expresses the solution of the following auxiliary ordinary differential equation where the prime denotes derivative with respect to . , , and are real parameters.
Step 4. Substituting (13) into (10), using (14), collecting all terms with the same order of together, and then equating each coefficient of the resulting polynomial to zero, we obtain a set of algebraic equations for , , , , , , and .
Case 1. If and , then
Case 2. If and , then
Case 3. If and , then
Case 4. If and , then where and , , , , and are real parameters.
We use the improved -expansion method on the time-space fractional nonlinear foam drainage equation and the time-space fractional nonlinear KdV equation in this section.
4.1. The Time and Space-Fractional Nonlinear Foam Drainage Equation
We apply the improved -expansion method to construct the exact solutions for the time-space fractional nonlinear foam drainage equation in this subsection. Foams are of great importance in many technological processes and applications. Their properties are subject of intensive studies from practical and scientific points of view [27, 35–37]. Liquid foam is an example of soft matter with a very well-defined structure, described by Joseph Plateau in the 19th century. Foams are common in foods and personal care products such as lotions and creams. They have important applications in food and chemical industries, mineral processing, fire fighting, and structural material sciences [27, 35–37]. This equation is numerically and analytically taken into account by different authors [38–40]. The space-time fractional nonlinear foam drainage equation is solved analytically only by Omran and Gepreel . We can see the fractional complex transform as where and are constants. So, (20) reduces to (21):
Balancing the highest order nonlinear term and the highest order linear term, we get . Thus, we obtain where and will be determined constants. Substituting (22) into (21), using (14), collecting all the terms of powers of , and setting each coefficient to zero, we have the following system of algebraic equations: Solving the set of the above algebraic equations, we get the following result:
Substituting this value in (22) and by Cases 1–4, we obtain the following exponential, hyperbolic and triangular function solutions of (1).(1) If we choose and , then the exponential function solutions can be found as where (2) If we choose and , then the triangular function solution will be where (3) If we choose and , then we get another triangular function solution where .(4) If we choose and , then we obtain the hyperbolic function solution where .
If we take and in (25), respectively, then we get
4.2. The Nonlinear Space-Time Fractional KdV Equation
The KdV equation is the most popular soliton equation, and it has been largely investigated. In addition, the space and time fractional KdV equations with initial conditions were widely worked by [27, 38, 39]. Integrating (2) with respect to and ignoring the integral constants leads to
Considering the homogeneous balance between the highest order derivatives and the nonlinear term in (32), we get . So, we can suppose that (32) has the following ansatz: where , , , , and are arbitrary constants to be determined later. Substituting (33) and (14), along with (13), into (32) and using Mathematica yields a system of Equations of : Solving the set of the above algebraic equations by use of Mathematica, we get the following results: Substituting (35) into (33) and according to (15)–(18), we obtain the following exponential function solutions, hyperbolic function solutions, and triangular function solutions of (2), respectively.(1) If we choose and , then the exponential function solution can be found as where .(2) If we choose and , then the triangular function solution will be where .(3) If we choose and , then the triangular function solution is given as where .(4) If we choose and , then the hyperbolic function solution is given as where . Equation (36) can be rewritten at ; so we get the other hyperbolic function solution of (2): Equation (36) becomes at .
Remark 5. Kudryashov et al. [41–44] have showed that every solution, which was obtained when soliton solutions have been found by some analytic methods, is not a new solution. They also showed that these methods are very similar. Furthermore, they mentioned that authors who used these methods should check the obtained results very carefully. The reason for using improved -expansion method in this work is to use nonlinear equation (14) instead of linear equation which was used in standard method and to obtain lots of different solutions.
In this paper, we introduced an improved -expansion method and carried it out to obtain new travelling wave solutions of the space-time fractional foam drainage equation and the space-time fractional KdV equation. This method gives new exact solutions for nonlinear FPDEs. These solutions include the hyperbolic function solution, the exponential function solution, the triangular function solution, and the trigonometric function solution. These solutions are useful to understand the mechanisms of the complicated nonlinear physical phenomena.
- I. Podlubny, Fractional Differential Equations, vol. 198 of Mathematics in Science and Engineering, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 1999, An introduction to fractional derivatives, fractional differential equations, to methods of their solution and some of their applications.
- C. Li, A. Chen, and J. Ye, “Numerical approaches to fractional calculus and fractional ordinary differential equation,” Journal of Computational Physics, vol. 230, no. 9, pp. 3352–3368, 2011.
- X. Yang, “Local fractional integral transforms,” Progress in Nonlinear Science, no. 4, pp. 1–225, 2011.
- S. Momani and Z. Odibat, “A novel method for nonlinear fractional partial differential equations: combination of DTM and generalized Taylor's formula,” Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, vol. 220, no. 1-2, pp. 85–95, 2008.
- J. Sabatier, A. Oustaloup, J. C. Trigeasson, and N. Maamri, “A Lyapunov approach to the stability of fractional differential equations,” Signal Processing, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 437–445, 2011.
- J.-H. He, “Homotopy perturbation technique,” Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, vol. 178, no. 3-4, pp. 257–262, 1999.
- J.-H. He, “Homotopy perturbation method with an auxiliary term,” Abstract and Applied Analysis, vol. 2012, Article ID 857612, 7 pages, 2012.
- V. Daftardar-Gejji and S. Bhalekar, “Solving multi-term linear and non-linear diffusion-wave equations of fractional order by Adomian decomposition method,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 202, no. 1, pp. 113–120, 2008.
- V. Daftardar-Gejji and H. Jafari, “Solving a multi-order fractional differential equation using Adomian decomposition,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 189, no. 1, pp. 541–548, 2007.
- J. He, “Variational iteration method for delay differential equations,” Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 235–236, 1997.
- J. H. He, “Variational iteration method for delay differential equations,” Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, vol. 25, pp. 3–17, 2007.
- M. Inc, “The approximate and exact solutions of the space- and time-fractional Burgers equations with initial conditions by variational iteration method,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 345, no. 1, pp. 476–484, 2008.
- S. Liao, “On the homotopy analysis method for nonlinear problems,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 147, no. 2, pp. 499–513, 2004.
- M. Ganjiani, “Solution of nonlinear fractional differential equations using homotopy analysis method,” Applied Mathematical Modelling, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1634–1641, 2010.
- J. Liu and G. Hou, “Numerical solutions of the space- and time-fractional coupled Burgers equations by generalized differential transform method,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 217, no. 16, pp. 7001–7008, 2011.
- M. Cui, “Compact finite difference method for the fractional diffusion equation,” Journal of Computational Physics, vol. 228, no. 20, pp. 7792–7804, 2009.
- H. Zhan, Q. Huang, and G. Huang, “Finite element solution for the fractional advection-dispersion equation,” Advances in Water Resources, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 1578–1589, 2008.
- S. Zhang and H.-Q. Zhang, “Fractional sub-equation method and its applications to nonlinear fractional PDEs,” Physics Letters A, vol. 375, no. 7, pp. 1069–1073, 2011.
- S. Guo, L. Mei, Y. Fang, and Z. Qiu, “Compacton and solitary pattern solutions for nonlinear dispersive KdV-type equations involving Jumarie's fractional derivative,” Physics Letters A, vol. 376, no. 3, pp. 158–164, 2012.
- B. Tang, Y. He, L. Wei, and X. Zhang, “A generalized fractional sub-equation method for fractional differential equations with variable coefficients,” Physics Letters A, vol. 376, no. 38-39, pp. 2588–2590, 2012.
- B. Lu, “The first integral method for some time fractional differential equations,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 395, no. 2, pp. 684–693, 2012.
- Z. Bin, “-expansion method for solving fractional partial differential equations,” Communications in Theoretical Physics, vol. 58, pp. 623–630, 2012.
- S. Omran and K. A. Gepreel, “Exact solutions for nonlinear partial fractional differential equations,” Chinese Physics B, vol. 21, Article ID 110204, 2012.
- G. Jumarie, “Modified Riemann-Liouville derivative and fractional Taylor series of nondifferentiable functions further results,” Computers & Mathematics with Applications, vol. 51, no. 9-10, pp. 1367–1376, 2006.
- G. Jumarie, “New stochastic fractional models for Malthusian growth, the Poissonian birth process and optimal management of populations,” Mathematical and Computer Modelling, vol. 44, no. 3-4, pp. 231–254, 2006.
- J. Guy, “Lagrange characteristic method for solving a class of nonlinear partial differential equations of fractional order,” Applied Mathematics Letters of Rapid Publication, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 873–880, 2006.
- G. Jumarie, “Table of some basic fractional calculus formulae derived from a modified Riemann-Liouville derivative for non-differentiable functions,” Applied Mathematics Letters of Rapid Publication, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 378–385, 2009.
- A. Golbabai and K. Sayevand, “Analytical treatment of differential equations with fractional coordinate derivatives,” Computers & Mathematics with Applications, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 1003–1012, 2011.
- A. Golbabai and K. Sayevand, “Analytical modelling of fractional advection-dispersion equation defined in a bounded space domain,” Mathematical and Computer Modelling, vol. 53, no. 9-10, pp. 1708–1718, 2011.
- A. Golbabai and K. Sayevand, “Solitary pattern solutions for fractional Zakharov-Kuznetsov equations with fully nonlinear dispersion,” Applied Mathematics Letters of Rapid Publication, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 757–766, 2012.
- K. Sayevand, A. Golbabai, and A. Yildirim, “Analysis of differential equations of fractional order,” Applied Mathematical Modelling, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 4356–4364, 2012.
- Z. Li, X. Liu, and W. Zhang, “Application of improved -expansion method to traveling wave solutions of two nonlinear evolution equations,” Advances in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 122–131, 2012.
- Z. B. Li and J. H. He, “Converting fractional differential equations into partial differential equations,” Thermal Science, vol. 16, pp. 331–334, 2012.
- J. H. He and Z. B. Li, “Application of the fractional complex transform to fractional differential equations,” Nonlinear Science Letters A, vol. 2, pp. 121–126, 2011.
- M. P. Brenner, J. Eggers, S. A. Koehler, and H. A. Stone, “Dynamics of foam drainage,” Physical Review E, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 2097–2106, 1998.
- S. Hutzler and D. L. Weaire, The Physics of Foams, oxford university press, Oxford, UK, 2000.
- J. Banhart and W. Brinkers, “Fatigue behavior of aluminum foams,” Journal of Materials Science Letters, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 617–619, 1999.
- A. Fereidoon, H. Yaghoobi, and M. Davoudabadi, “Application of the homotopy perturbation method for solving the foam drainage equation,” International Journal of Differential Equations, vol. 2011, Article ID 864023, 13 pages, 2011.
- M. A. Helal and M. S. Mehanna, “The tanh method and Adomian decomposition method for solving the foam drainage equation,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 190, no. 1, pp. 599–609, 2007.
- F. Khani, S. Hamedi-Nezhad, M. T. Darvishi, and S.-W. Ryu, “New solitary wave and periodic solutions of the foam drainage equation using the Exp-function method,” Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1904–1911, 2009.
- N. A. Kudryashov and M. B. Soukharev, “Popular ansatz methods and solitary wave solutions of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation,” Regular and Chaotic Dynamics, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 407–419, 2009.
- N. A. Kudryashov, “Seven common errors in finding exact solutions of nonlinear differential equations,” Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, vol. 14, no. 9-10, pp. 3507–3529, 2009.
- N. A. Kudryashov, “A note on the -expansion method,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 217, no. 4, pp. 1755–1758, 2010.
- N. A. Kudryashov and N. B. Loguinova, “Be careful with the Exp-function method,” Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1881–1890, 2009.