- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Abstract and Applied Analysis
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 898015, 5 pages
Bogdanov-Takens Bifurcation of a Delayed Ratio-Dependent Holling-Tanner Predator Prey System
1College of Mathematics and Information Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, China
2Institute of Systems Biology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
Received 3 July 2013; Accepted 7 August 2013
Academic Editor: Luca Guerrini
Copyright © 2013 Xia Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
A delayed predator prey system with refuge and constant rate harvesting is discussed by applying the normal form theory of retarded functional differential equations introduced by Faria and Magalhães. The analysis results show that under some conditions the system has a Bogdanov-Takens singularity. A versal unfolding of the system at this singularity is obtained. Our main results illustrate that the delay has an important effect on the dynamical behaviors of the system.
It is well known that the multiple bifurcations will occur when a predator prey system (ODE) with more interior positive equilibria, such as Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation, Hopf bifurcation, and backward bifurcation; see [1–5] for example. However, when the predator prey systems with delay and Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation are researched relative few (see [6–8] and the reference therein) using similar methods as [6–8], the authors of [9–11] consider the Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation of some delayed single inertial neuron or oscillator models.
Motivated by the works of [5, 6], we mainly consider the Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation of the following system: where and stand for prey and predator population (or densities) at time , respectively. The predator growth is of logistic type with growth rate and carrying capacity in the absence of predation; and stand for the predator capturing rate and half saturation constant, respectively; is the intrinsic growth rate of predator; however, carrying capacity ( is the conversion rate of prey into predators) is the function on the population size of prey. The parameters , , , , , , and are all positive constants. is a constant number of prey using refuges; is the rate of prey harvesting.
Next, let , , and ; then system (2) takes the form (still denoting , , as , , ) where , , , , , and .
When , we have known that for some parameter values system (3) exhibits Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation (see ). Summarizing the methods used by  and the formulae in , the sufficient conditions which depend on delay to guarantee that system (3) has a Bogdanov-Takens singularity will be given. Therefore, the delay has effect on the occurrence of Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation.
In the next section we will compute the normal form and give the versal unfolding of system (3) at the degenerate equilibrium.
2. Bogdanov-Takens Bifurcation
System (3) can also be written as
In order to discuss the properties of system (4) in the neighborhood of the equilibrium , let , ; then is translated to , and system (4) becomes (still denoting , as , ) where denotes the higher order terms and
The characteristic equation of the linearized part of system (6) is Clearly, if then is double zero eigenvalue; if and , that is, , then is triple zero eigenvalue. We will mainly discuss the first case in this paper.
According to the normal form theory developed by Faria and Magalhães , first, rewrite system (4) as , where , , and . Take as the infinitesimal generator of system. Let , and denote by the invariant space of associated with the eigenvalue ; using the formal adjoint theory of RFDE in , the phase space can be decomposed by as . Define and as the bases for and , the space associated with the eigenvalue of the adjoint equation, respectively, and to be normalized such that , , and , where and are matrices.
Next we will find the and based on the techniques developed by .
Lemma 1 (see Xu and Huang ). The bases of and its dual space have the following representations: where , , and and , and , , which satisfy(1),(2),(3),(4),(5),(6).
After a series of transformations we obtain where , ; if , then .
Hence, we have the following theorem.
The Taylor expansion of system (16) at takes the form where
We decompose the enlarged phase space of system as . Then in system can be decomposed as with and . Hence, system is decomposed as whereTo compute the normal form of system at , consider ; together with (13) we obtain
Hence system (4) exist the following bifurcation curves in a small neighborhood of the origin in the plane.
Conflict of Interests
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
This paper is supported by NSFC (11226142), Foundation of Henan Educational Committee (2012A110012), and Foundation of Henan Normal University (2011QK04, 2012PL03, and 1001).
- D. Xiao and L. S. Jennings, “Bifurcations of a ratio-dependent predator-prey system with constant rate harvesting,” SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 737–753, 2005.
- D. Xiao, W. Li, and M. Han, “Dynamics in a ratio-dependent predator-prey model with predator harvesting,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 324, no. 1, pp. 14–29, 2006.
- L.-L. Wang, Y.-H. Fan, and W.-T. Li, “Multiple bifurcations in a predator-prey system with monotonic functional response,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 172, no. 2, pp. 1103–1120, 2006.
- R. P. Gupta and P. Chandra, “Bifurcation analysis of modified Leslie-Gower predator-prey model with Michaelis-Menten type prey harvesting,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 398, no. 1, pp. 278–295, 2013.
- X. Liu and Y. Xing, “Bifurcations of a ratio-dependent Holling-Tanner system with refuge and constant harvesting,” Abstract and Applied Analysis, vol. 2013, Article ID 478315, 10 pages, 2013.
- D. Xiao and S. Ruan, “Multiple bifurcations in a delayed predator-prey system with nonmonotonic functional response,” Journal of Differential Equations, vol. 176, no. 2, pp. 494–510, 2001.
- J. Xia, Z. Liu, R. Yuan, and S. Ruan, “The effects of harvesting and time delay on predator-prey systems with Holling type II functional response,” SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 1178–1200, 2009.
- J.-F. Zhang, W.-T. Li, and X.-P. Yan, “Multiple bifurcations in a delayed predator-prey diffusion system with a functional response,” Nonlinear Analysis. Real World Applications, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 2708–2725, 2010.
- X. He, C. D. Li, and Y. L. Shu, “Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation in a single inertial neuron model with delay,” Neurocomputing, vol. 89, pp. 193–201, 2012.
- J. Cao and R. Yuan, “Multiple bifurcations in a harmonic oscillator with delayed feedback,” Neurocomputing, vol. 122, pp. 172–180.
- J. Jiang and Y. Song, “Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation in an oscillator with negative damping and delayed position feedback,” Applied Mathematical Modelling, vol. 37, no. 16-17, pp. 8091–8105, 2013.
- Y. A. Kuznetsov, Elements of Applied Bifurcation Theory, vol. 112 of Applied Mathematical Sciences, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1995.
- T. Faria and L. T. Magalhães, “Normal forms for retarded functional-differential equations and applications to Bogdanov-Takens singularity,” Journal of Differential Equations, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 201–224, 1995.
- Y. Xu and M. Huang, “Homoclinic orbits and Hopf bifurcations in delay differential systems with T-B singularity,” Journal of Differential Equations, vol. 244, pp. 582–598, 2008.