- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents

Abstract and Applied Analysis

Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 593645, 4 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/593645

*α*-Coupled Fixed Points and Their Application in Dynamic Programming

Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Campus de Tafira Baja, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain

Received 17 June 2014; Accepted 26 July 2014; Published 19 August 2014

Academic Editor: Erdal Karapinar

Copyright © 2014 J. Harjani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

We introduce the definition of *α*-coupled fixed point in the space of the bounded functions on a set *S* and we present a result about the existence and uniqueness of such points. Moreover, as an application of our result, we study the problem of existence and uniqueness of solutions for a class of systems of functional equations arising in dynamic programming.

#### 1. Introduction

The Banach contraction mapping principle is one of the pivotal results of analysis. It is widely considered as the source of metric fixed point theory. Also, its significance lies in its vast applicability in a great number of branches of mathematics and other sciences.

Generalizations of the above principle have been a heavily investigated branch of research. Particularly, one of these generalizations uses the so-called comparison functions. These functions are defined as functions which are increasing and satisfy when for , where denotes the -iteration of . Examples of such functions are with , , , and , among others.

The above-mentioned generalization of the Banach contraction mapping principle is the following result and it appears in [1, 2].

Theorem 1. *Let be a complete metric space and let be a mapping satisfying , for any , where is a comparison function. Then has a unique fixed point.*

In this paper, we consider a nonempty set and by we denote the set of all bounded real functions defined on . According to the ordinary addition of functions and scalar multiplication and endowing with the norm , is a Banach space.

Notice that the distance in is defined as , for .

The aim of this paper is to present a result about the existence and uniqueness of an -coupled fixed point (see Section 2) in and, as an application of this result, we will study the problem of existence and uniqueness of solutions of the following system of functional equations arising in dynamic programming: under certain assumptions.

For further information about the functional equations appearing in dynamic programming, we refer the reader to [3–6].

#### 2. Generalized Coupled Fixed Point Theorem in

Our starting point in this section is the definition of -coupled fixed point in . For this purpose, suppose that is a nonempty set and a mapping.

*Definition 2. *An element is called an -coupled fixed point of a mapping if and .

The following theorem is the main result of the paper and it gives us a sufficient condition for the existence and uniqueness of an -coupled fixed point.

Theorem 3. *Suppose that and are two mappings. If satisfies
**
for any , where is a comparison function, then has a unique -coupled fixed point.*

* Proof. *Consider the Cartesian product endowed with the distance defined by
It is easily seen that is a complete metric space.

Now, we consider the mapping defined by
Notice that if then .

Next, we check that satisfies assumptions of Theorem 1. In fact, according to (2), we have that for any

Now, taking into account the definition of the distance on , we have
and, by a similar argument, we have . Therefore, from (5) and (6), we get .

Therefore, Theorem 1 gives us the existence of a unique such that or, equivalently, and .

This completes the proof.

#### 3. Application to Dynamic Programming

The following types of systems of functional equations appear in the study of dynamic programming (see [7]), where and is a state space, is a decision space, , , , and are given mappings.

The following theorem gives us a sufficient condition for the existence and uniqueness of solutions to problem (7).

Theorem 4. *Suppose the following assumptions: *(i)* and are bounded functions;*(ii)*there exists a comparison function such that for any , and , .**Then, problem (7) has a unique solution .*

As a previous result for the proof of Theorem 4, we need the next lemma.

Lemma 5. *Suppose that are two bounded functions. Then
*

*Proof. *Obviously, this result is true when .

If we suppose that (same argument works if we suppose that ) then for any
and, consequently,

Since , for any , it follows
and this proves our claim.

*Proof of Theorem 4. *Consider the operator defined on as
for and . By assumptions (i) and (ii), we have

According to assumption (i) and, since , we obtain that . Therefore, .

Now, we check that satisfies condition (2) of Theorem 3. In fact, for any , we have

Then, from assumption (ii) and Lemma 5 and using the fact that is an increasing function, for any , we have

Therefore, condition (2) of Theorem 3 is satisfied and, consequently, has a unique -coupled fixed point . This means that and or, equivalently, for ,
This completes the proof.

In order to illustrate our results, we present the following example.

Consider the following system of functional equations, where :

This system appears in dynamic programming, where the state space is and the decision space is .

Notice that the system (17) is a particular case of (7), where , , is defined as , is given by , is , and is defined as

Notice that and .

Therefore, assumption (i) of Theorem 4 is satisfied.

On the other hand, for and , we have where we have used the nondecreasing character of the function and the fact that , for any .

It is easily seen that , for , is a comparison function and, therefore, assumption (ii) of Theorem 4 is satisfied.

By Theorem 4, the system (17) has a unique solution .

#### Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

#### References

- J. Matkowski, “Integrable solutions of functional equations,”
*Dissertationes Mathematicae*, vol. 127, pp. 1–68, 1975. View at Google Scholar - V. Berinde,
*Iterative Approximation of Fixed Points*, vol. 1912 of*Lecture Notes in Mathematics*, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2nd edition, 2007. View at MathSciNet - Z. Liu, R. P. Agarwal, and S. M. Kang, “On solvability of functional equations and system of functional equations arising in dynamic programming,”
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, vol. 297, no. 1, pp. 111–130, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus - Z. Liu, J. S. Ume, and S. M. Kang, “Some existence theorems for functional equations and system of functional equations arising in dynamic programming,”
*Taiwanese Journal of Mathematics*, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 1517–1536, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus - Z. Liu, J. S. Ume, and S. M. Kang, “On properties of solutions for two functional equations arising in dynamic programming,”
*Fixed Point Theory and Applications*, vol. 2010, Article ID 905858, 19 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - Deepmala, “Existence theorems for solvability of a functional equation arising in dynamic programming,”
*International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences*, vol. 2014, Article ID 706585, 9 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - R. Bellman and E. S. Lee, “Functional equations in dynamic programming,”
*Aequationes Mathematicae*, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1–18, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus