- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents

Abstract and Applied Analysis

Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 710150, 9 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/710150

## Stability Analysis of Impulsive Stochastic Functional Differential Equations with Delayed Impulses via Comparison Principle and Impulsive Delay Differential Inequality

^{1}School of Mathematical Sciences, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, China^{2}School of Electrical Engineering and Information, Anhui University of Technology, Ma’anshan 243000, China^{3}College of Computer and Information, Hohai University, Changzhou 213022, China

Received 25 July 2013; Revised 26 November 2013; Accepted 10 December 2013; Published 16 February 2014

Academic Editor: Yuriy Rogovchenko

Copyright © 2014 Pei Cheng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

The problem of stability for nonlinear impulsive stochastic functional differential equations with delayed impulses is addressed in this paper. Based on the comparison principle and an impulsive delay differential inequality, some exponential stability and asymptotical stability criteria are derived, which show that the system will be stable if the impulses’ frequency and amplitude are suitably related to the increase or decrease of the continuous stochastic flows. The obtained results complement ones from some recent works. Two examples are discussed to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of our results.

#### 1. Introduction

Impulsive dynamical equations have received considerable attention during the recent decades since they provide a natural framework for mathematical modeling of many real world evolutionary processes where the states undergo abrupt changes at certain instants (see [1–7]). In particular, more researchers have given special interests to the stability and stabilization analysis of impulsive functional differential equations (IFDEs) and there are extensive literatures in this field (see [8–14] and reference therein).

In the current literature concerning IFDEs, the impulses are assumed to take the form , which indicates that the state “jump” at the impulse times is only related to the present state variables. But in most cases, it is more applicable that the state variables on the impulses that we add are also related to the past ones. For example, in the transmission of the impulse information, input delays are often encountered (see, e.g., [15, 16]). So, it is more meaningful if the above impulses are modified as . Recently, there have been several attempts in the literature to study the stability and control problems of IFDEs with delayed impulse (IFDEs-DI). For example, by using Lyapunov functions couples with Razumikhin techniques, some Razumikhin-type asymptotic stability and exponential stability criteria for IFDEs-DI were established in [17–19], and some Lyapunov-based sufficient conditions for the exponential stability of the equations were derived in [20].

On the other hand, stochastic perturbations are unavoidable in real equations (see [21, 22] and reference therein). In recent years, the stability analysis of impulsive stochastic functional equations which include delay equations is interesting to many investigators, and many results of stability criteria of these equations have been reported (see, e.g., [23–29]). Very recently, [30, 31] took environment noise into account and generalized delayed impulses to stochastic equations. In particular, applying the Lyapunov functions couples with Razumikhin techniques, [30] investigates both moment and almost sure exponential stability of impulsive stochastic functional differential equations with delayed impulses (ISFDEs-DI), and several Razumikhin-type criteria on the exponential stability and uniform stability in terms of two measures for the equations were established in [31]. But it is worth noting that the stability analysis in [30] and the effects of time delay on the impulses have been ignored. And in [30, 31], the authors only consider the case that the impulsive stabilization. Moreover, it is well known that the Razumikhin techniques are very effective in the study of stability problems for ordinary and functional differential equations. However, when we use the Razumikhin techniques, we need to choose an appropriate minimal class of functionals relative to which the derivative of the Lyapunov function or Lyapunov functional is estimated, which is not entirely convenient.

Motivated by the above discussion, in this paper, we will further investigate the stability of ISFDEs-DI. By using the comparison principle and an impulsive delay differential inequality, some exponential and asymptotical stability criteria are derived, which are more convenient to be applied than those Razumikhin-type conditions. Our results complement ones from some recent works and show that the ISFDE-ID will be stable if the impulses’ frequency and amplitude are suitably related to the increase or decrease of the corresponding continuous stochastic flows. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, some relevant notations and definitions are presented. In Section 3, the comparison principle, an impulsive delay differential inequality, and several criteria on the exponential stability and asymptotical stability are established. Section 4 provides two illustrative examples to demonstrate the applications of the obtained results. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section 5.

#### 2. Preliminaries

Throughout this paper, unless otherwise specified, we let be a complete probability space with a filtration satisfying the usual conditions; that is, it is right continuous and contains all -null sets. Let be a -dimensional Brownian motion defined on the probability space. Let denote the set of positive integers, the -dimensional real Euclidean space, and the space of real matrices. stands for the identity matrix of appropriate dimensions. For , denotes the Euclidean norm. For , denotes spectral norm of the matrix . Denote by the minimum eigenvalue of a matrix. If is a vector or matrix, its transpose is denoted by .

Let and for all , exist and let for all but at most a finite number of points be with the norm , where and denote the right-hand and left-hand limits of function at , respectively. Denote = *∈* for all .

For and , let denote the family of all -measurable -valued random variables such that , where stands for the mathematical expectation operator with respect to the given probability measure . And denote the family of all measurable -valued random variables , such that . Let be the family of all bounded -valued functions, and let be the family of all measurable -valued functions.

Consider the following ISFDE-DI: where the initial value , , . Both and are Borel measurable. represents the impulsive perturbation of at time . The fixed moments of impulse times satisfy (as ). are the impulse input delays satisfying .

As a standing hypothesis, we assume that for any there exists a unique stochastic process satisfying (1) denoted by , which is continuous on the right-hand side and limitable on the left-hand side (see [32]). Moreover, we assume that , , and for all , ; then (1) admits a trivial solution .

We introduce the following scalar IFDE-DI as the comparison system: where the initial value ; is defined as , . is continuous, Lebesgue measurable, and nondecreasing with respect to the last argument; , are continuous and nondecreasing. Assume that , , and ; then system (2) admits a trivial solution . We further assume that for any , there exists a unique solution to system (2) on denoted by (see [5, 6]) which is continuous on the right-handside and limitable on the left-hand side.

For convenience, we introduce the following function classes:= , continuous and strictly increasing, . . . .

At the end of this section, let us introduce the following definitions.

*Definition 1 (see [23, 26]). *The trivial solution of (1) is said to be as follows.(i)th moment stable if, for any , there exists such that
whenever .(ii)th moment asymptotically stable if it is th moment stable and there exists such that
whenever .(iii)th moment globally exponentially stable if there is a pair of positive constants , such that
for all . When , it is usually said to be globally exponentially stable in mean square.

*Definition 2 (see [26]). *A function belongs to class if (i) is continuous on each of the sets and for each , , and , exists;(ii) is continuously once differentiable in and twice in in each of the sets , .

If , define an operator from to by where

#### 3. Main Results

In this section, we will develop an impulsive delay differential inequality and comparison principles and establish some criteria on th moment exponential stability and asymptotical stability for (1).

Lemma 3 (impulsive delay differential inequality). *Assume that , , , , , , , and*(i)* for each ;*(ii)*, where .**Then any solution of the scalar impulsive delay differential inequality problem
**
satisfies
**
where is the unique positive solution of .*

*Proof . *Set , . For each , by the second inequality of (8), we have
where .

On the other hand, for any , ,
For , integrating inequality (11) from to , we obtain
this implies that
For , by the same method, together with (10), (11), and (13), we have
By induction, we have, for , ,
Thus, for , we get

Let be impulse points in , . In view of condition (i), we get
where is the first impulsive point before and satisfies . Submitting this into inequality (16), then, for ,
Let . Then condition (ii) implies . Moreover, and . Hence has a unique positive solution . Next, we claim that
Since
So we only need to prove (19) for . Suppose not, then there exists a such that
Thus from (18), (22), and , we see that
which is a contradiction. Therefore, (19) holds. This completes the proof.

*Lemma 4 (comparison principle). Assume that there exists a function such that(i) for any , ;(ii) for all , .Then,
provided , , where is the solution process to (1).*

*Proof. *For any and sufficiently small satisfying , by the Itô formula together with condition (i), we have
this implies that

Write simply. Now supposing that for each , , we claim that

Consider the system
where is a constant. We claim that for .

In fact, if this is not true, then from the continuity of and in , we know that there exist a and a sufficiently small constant such that and
Thus . On the other hand, by condition (i), we obtain that
This is a contradiction. So holds for all . Let ; then , and hence inequality (27) holds.

Noting that and are nondecreasing, by (27) and condition (ii), we get
Thus, it follows from (27) and (31) that
Similar to the previous process, we have when . By induction, it follows that , . The proof is complete.

*Theorem 5. Assume that there exist functions , , and such that (i) for any ;(ii) for any , ;(iii) for all , .Then the stability properties of the trivial solution of IFDE-DI (2) imply the corresponding stability properties of the trivial solution of ISFDE-DI (1). Moreover, if condition (i) is replaced by(i*)there exist positive constants , , and such that for all then the global exponential stability of the trivial solution of IFDE-DI (2) implies that th moment global exponential stability of ISFDE-DI (1).*

*Proof. *Firstly, assume that the trivial solution of IFDE-DI (2) is stable. Let ; then for given , there exists such that and

Let , . From conditions (ii) and (iii) and Lemma 4, we get that
Let and ; then by condition (i) and , we have . Hence, by (34) and (35), we have

If , then by conditions (i) and (36), we have
that is, the trivial solution of ISFDE-DI (1) is stable.

Next, let us suppose that the trivial solution of IFDE-DI (2) is asymptotically stable. This implies that the trivial solution of ISFDE-DI (1) is stable. Let , . Since is attractive, for any , there exist and such that
Choose . Note the fact that implies . Then by (35) and (37), we get
which implies that the trivial solution of ISFDE-DI (1) is asymptotically stable.

Thirdly, let us suppose that the trivial solution of IFDE-DI (2) is globally exponentially stable and condition holds. Then, there exists a couple of positive constants and such that
Let , . Then by (35) and (40), we get for all . Thus, by condition (i*), it yields that
Hence, the trivial solution of ISFDE-DI (1) is th moment globally exponentially stable. The proof is complete.

*Theorem 6. Assume that there exist a function , positive constants , , , and , constants and , and such that (i) for any ;(ii) for any , ;(iii) for all , ;(iv) for each ;(v) where . Then the trivial solution of ISFDE-DI (1) is th moment globally exponentially stable.*

*Proof. *Let , , , and . We obtain the comparison system (2). It is easy to verify that all conditions of Theorem 5 are satisfied and so the global exponential stability of the trivial solution of IFDE-DI (2) implies that th moment global exponential stability of ISFDE-DI (1).

Furthermore, let be the unique positive solution of . Using conditions (ii) and (iii), we find
Thus from conditions (iv) and (v) and Lemma 3, we obtain that
which implies that the trivial solution of IFDE-DI (2) is globally exponentially stable. The proof of Theorem 6 is complete.

*Remark 7. *An impulsive stochastic dynamical system can be viewed as a hybrid one comprised of two components: a continuous stochastic dynamic and a discrete dynamic. Theorem 6 can be used to deal will all three cases: the system with stable continuous stochastic dynamic and unstable discrete dynamic, the system with unstable continuous stochastic dynamic and stable discrete dynamic, and the system with stable continuous stochastic dynamic and stable discrete dynamic. When , the continuous stochastic dynamic of (1) may be stable. In this case, in order to ensure the stability of the entire system, the delayed impulses’ frequency and amplitude , should be suitably related to the decrease of continuous flows; that is, conditions (iv) and (v) hold. In this sense, Theorem 6 can be used to deal with the robust stabling of continuous stochastic dynamic subject to delayed impulsive perturbations. When , the continuous stochastic dynamic of (1) may be unstable and the stability of the entire system is determined by the delayed impulse effects. In this case, we need to require that the delayed impulses’ frequency and amplitude should be suitablly related to the decrease of of continuous flows.

*Remark 8. *It is noted that the exponential stability analysis in [30, 31] only considers the case of impulsive stabilization. In this sense, Theorem 6 has a wider adaptive range.

*4. Examples*

*In this section, the effectiveness and advantages of the results derived in the preceding section will be illustrated by two examples.*

*Example 1. *Consider the two-dimensional nonlinear impulsive stochastic delay equation in the form
where , , . If there exists a positive constant such that
then (44) is globally exponentially stable for any bounded impulsive input delays .

Denote . Choose the Lyapunov function ; then for any , we have
for .

Take , , , , , , , . It is easy to check that all conditions of Theorem 6 are satisfied under conditions (45), which means that (44) is globally mean square exponentially stable for any bounded impulsive input delays .

*Remark*. It is noted that (44) without impulses is globally mean square exponentially stable and the impulses are destabilizing since . Hence, the existing stability theorems in [30, 31] fail to work. This shows that our results have a wider adaptive range.

*Example 2. *Consider the following impulsive stochastic delayed neural network:
where
with .

It is noted that (47) without impulse is not stable, and its simulation with delay and initial data and are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

*In the following, applying Theorem 5, we will show that under impulsive control law, (47) is mean square exponentially stable if .*

*Denote . Choose . Then condition (i) of Theorem 5 holds with ,
for .*

*Thus, the comparison system is
which according to case (iii) of Corollary 1 in [19] is globally exponentially stable for any bounded impulsive input delays if . Hence, we conclude by Theorem 6 that system (47) is mean square exponentially stable if . With the same initial value, the simulations of the impulsive stochastic delay neural network (47) under the delayed impulsive control law , , are shown in Figures 3 and 4.*

*5. Conclusions*

*This paper has investigated the exponential stability of ISFDEs-DI based on the comparison approach and an impulsive delay differential inequality. Some criteria on the th moment global exponential stability are established. The obtained results complement some recent works. Two examples have been given to illustrate the effectiveness and the advantages of the results obtained. One of the drawbacks of the proposed method is perhaps that our results require the condition and thus cannot deal with the time delay system with . There will be future work to establish a criterion for the above system. *

*Conflict of Interests*

*The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.*

*Acknowledgments*

*This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11226247, 11301004), the 211 Project of Anhui University (32030018/33010205), the Anhui Provincial Nature Science Foundation (1308085QA15/1308085MA01), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20130239), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20130094120015), the Key Foundation of Anhui Education Bureau (KJ2012A019), and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (20103401120002).*

*References*

- V. Lakshmikantham, D. D. Bainov, and P. S. Simeonov,
*Theory of Impulsive Differential Equations*, vol. 6 of*Series in Modern Applied Mathematics*, World Scientific, Singapore, 1989. View at MathSciNet - A. M. Samoilenko and M. O. Perestyk,
*Impulsive Differential Equations*, vol. 28 of*Series on Advances in Mathematics for Applied Sciences*, World Scientific, Singapore, 1995. View at MathSciNet - K. Gopalsamy and B. G. Zhang, “On delay differential equations with impulses,”
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, vol. 139, no. 1, pp. 110–122, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - Y. V. Rogovchenko, “Impulsive evolution systems: main results and new trends,”
*Dynamics of Continuous, Discrete and Impulsive Systems*, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 57–88, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - G. Ballinger and X. Z. Liu, “Existence and uniqueness results for impulsive delay differential equations,”
*Dynamics of Continuous, Discrete and Impulsive Systems*, vol. 5, no. 1–4, pp. 579–591, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - G. Ballinger and X. Z. Liu, “Existence, uniqueness and boundedness results for impulsive delay differential equations,”
*Applicable Analysis*, vol. 74, no. 1-2, pp. 71–93, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - W. M. Haddad, V. S. Chellaboina, and S. G. Nersesov,
*Impulsive and Hybrid Dynamical Systems: Stability, Dissipativity, and Control*, Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA, 2006. View at MathSciNet - A. V. Anokhin, L. Berezansky, and E. Braverman, “Exponential stability of linear delay impulsive differential equations,”
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, vol. 193, no. 3, pp. 923–941, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - I. M. Stamova and G. T. Stamov, “Lyapunov-Razumikhin method for impulsive functional differential equations and applications to the population dynamics,”
*Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics*, vol. 130, no. 1-2, pp. 163–171, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - Z. G. Luo and J. H. Shen, “New Razumikhin type theorems for impulsive functional differential equations,”
*Applied Mathematics and Computation*, vol. 125, no. 2-3, pp. 375–386, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - Q. Wang and X. Liu, “Impulsive stabilization of delay differential systems via the Lyapunov-Razumikhin method,”
*Applied Mathematics Letters*, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 839–845, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - W. H. Chen and W. X. Zheng, “Robust stability and ${H}_{\infty}$-control of uncertain impulsive systems with time-delay,”
*Automatica*, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 109–117, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - X. L. Fu and X. D. Li, “Razumikhin-type theorems on exponential stability of impulsive infinite delay differential systems,”
*Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics*, vol. 224, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - X. D. Li, “New results on global exponential stabilization of impulsive functional differential equations with infinite delays or finite delays,”
*Nonlinear Analysis—Real World Applications*, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 4194–4201, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - F. L. Lian, J. Moyne, and D. Tilbury, “Modelling and optimal controller design of networked control systems with multiple delays,”
*International Journal of Control*, vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 591–606, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - A. Khadra, X. Z. Liu, and X. M. Shen, “Analyzing the robustness of impulsive synchronization coupled by linear delayed impulses,”
*IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control*, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 923–928, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - Y. Zhang and J. T. Sun, “Stability of impulsive functional differential equations,”
*Nonlinear Analysis—Theory, Methods & Applications*, vol. 68, no. 12, pp. 3665–3678, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - P. Cheng, Z. Wu, and L. L. Wang, “New results on global exponential stability of impulsive functional differential systems with delayed impulses,”
*Abstract and Applied Analysis*, vol. 2012, Article ID 376464, 13 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - D. W. Lin, X. D. Li, and D. O'Regan, “Stability analysis of generalized impulsive functional differential equations,”
*Mathematical and Computer Modelling*, vol. 55, no. 5-6, pp. 1682–1690, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - W. H. Chen and W. X. Zheng, “Exponential stability of nonlinear time-delay systems with delayed impulse effects,”
*Automatica*, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1075–1083, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - X. R. Mao,
*Stochastic Differential Equations and Applications*, Horwood, Chichester, UK, 1997. - A. M. Samoilenko and O. M. Stanzhytskiy,
*Qualitative and Asymptotic Analisis of Differential Equations with Random Peryurbations*, vol. 78 of*World Scientific Series on Nonlinear Science, Series A*, 2011. - S. G. Peng and B. G. Jia, “Some criteria on
*p*th moment stability of impulsive stochastic functional differential equations,”*Statistics & Probability Letters*, vol. 80, no. 13-14, pp. 1085–1092, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - P. Cheng and F. Q. Deng, “Global exponential stability of impulsive stochastic functional differential systems,”
*Statistics & Probability Letters*, vol. 80, no. 23-24, pp. 1854–1862, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - C. X. Li, J. T. Sun, and R. Y. Sun, “Stability analysis of a class of stochastic differential delay equations with nonlinear impulsive effects,”
*Journal of the Franklin Institute*, vol. 347, no. 7, pp. 1186–1198, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - S. G. Peng and Y. Zhang, “Razumikhin-type theorems on
*p*th moment exponential stability of impulsivestochastic delay differential equations,”*IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control*, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 1085–1092, 2010. View at Google Scholar - L. J. Pan and J. D. Cao, “Exponential stability of impulsive stochastic functional differential equations,”
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, vol. 382, no. 2, pp. 672–685, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - F. Q. Yao and F. Q. Deng, “Exponential stability in terms of two measures of impulsive stochastic functional differential systems via comparison principle,”
*Statistics & Probability Letters*, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 1151–1159, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - F. Q. Yao and F. Q. Deng, “Stability of impulsive stochastic functional differential systems in terms of two measures via comparison approach,”
*Science China Information Sciences*, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1313–1322, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - J. Liu, X. Z. Liu, and W. C. Xie, “Impulsive stabilization of stochastic functional differential equations,”
*Applied Mathematics Letters*, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 264–269, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - F. Q. Yao, F. Q. Deng, and P. Cheng, “Exponential stability of impulsive stochastic functional differential systems with delayed impulses,”
*Abstract and Applied Analysis*, vol. 2013, Article ID 548712, 8 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - M. S. Alwan, X. Z. Liu, and W. C. Xie, “Existence, continuation, and uniqueness problems of stochastic impulsive systems with time delay,”
*Journal of the Franklin Institute*, vol. 347, no. 7, pp. 1317–1333, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet

*
*