- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Abstract and Applied Analysis
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 806537, 12 pages
Some Convergence and Stability Results for the Kirk Multistep and Kirk-SP Fixed Point Iterative Algorithms
1Department of Mathematics, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa Campus, Esenler, 34220 Istanbul, Turkey
2Department of Mathematical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa Campus, Esenler, 34210 Istanbul, Turkey
3Department of Mathematics, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405-7106, USA
Received 1 July 2013; Accepted 10 November 2013; Published 3 February 2014
Academic Editor: Micah Osilike
Copyright © 2014 Faik Gürsoy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new Kirk type iterative algorithm called Kirk multistep iteration and to study its convergence. We also prove some theorems related to the stability results for the Kirk multistep and Kirk-SP iterative processes by employing certain contractive-like operators. Our results generalize and unify some other results in the literature.
1. Introduction and Preliminaries
This paper is organized as follows. Section 1 outlines some known contractive mappings and iterative schemes and collects some preliminaries that will be used in the proofs of our main results. We then propose a new Kirk type iterative process called Kirk multistep iteration. Section 2 presents a result dealing with the convergence of this new iterative procedure, which unifies and extends some other iterative schemes in the existing literature. Also we prove some theorems related to the stability of the Kirk multistep and Kirk-SP iterative processes by employing certain contractive-like operators.
Fixed point iterations are commonly used to solve nonlinear equations arising in physical systems. Such equations can be transformed into a fixed point equation which is solved by some iterative processes of form , , that converges to a fixed point of . This is a reason, among a number of reasons, why there is presently a great deal of interest in the introduction and development of various iterative algorithms. Consequently iteration schemes abound in the literature of fixed point theory, for which fixed points of operators have been approximated over the years by various authors, for example, [1–10].
As a background to our exposition, we describe some iteration schemes and contractive type mappings.
Throughout this paper denotes the nonnegative integers, including zero. Let , , , and , , , be real sequences in satisfying certain conditions.
Rhoades and Şoltuz  introduced a multistep iterative algorithm by
By taking and in (1) we obtain the well-known Noor  and Ishikawa  iterative schemes, respectively. SP iteration  and a new two-step iteration  processes are obtained by taking and in (2), respectively. Both in (1) and in (2), if we take with and with , (const.), then we get the iterative procedures introduced in [10, 12], which are commonly known as the Mann and Krasnoselskii iterations, respectively. The Krasnoselskii iteration reduces to the Picard iteration  for .
The Kirk-SP iterative scheme  is defined by where , , and are fixed integers with and , , are sequences in satisfying , , , , , .
Let be an arbitrary Banach space and a mapping.
We will introduce and employ the following iterative scheme, which is called a Kirk multistep iteration: where , for ; , are sequences in satisfying , , , for and , for are fixed integers with .
By taking , , and with in (4) we obtain the Kirk-Noor , the Kirk-Ishikawa  and the Kirk-Mann , iterative schemes, respectively. Also, (4) gives the usual Kirk iterative process  for , with and . If we put and , in (4), then we have the usual multistep iteration (1) with , , , , . The Noor iteration , the Ishikawa iteration , the Mann iteration , the Krasnoselskii iteration , and the Picard iteration  schemes are special cases of the multistep iterative scheme (1), as explained above. So, we conclude that these are special cases of the Kirk multistep iterative scheme (4).
A particular fixed point iteration generates a theoretical sequence . In applications, various errors (e.g., round-off or discretization of the function etc.) occur during computation of the sequence . Because of these errors we cannot obtain the theoretical sequence , but an approximate sequence instead. We will say that the iterative process is -stable or stable with respect to if and only if converges to a fixed point of , then converges to .
Definition 1. Let be a complete metric space and a self-map of . Suppose that is the set of fixed points of . Let be a sequence generated by an iterative process defined by where is the initial approximation and is some function. Let be an arbitrary sequence and set , . Then, the iterative process (5) is said to be -stable or stable with respect to if and only if .
In the last three decades, a large literature has developed dealing with the stability of various well-known iterative schemes for different classes of operators. Several authors who have made contributions to the study of stability of fixed point iterative procedures are Ostrowski , Harder , Harder and Hicks [19, 20], Rhoades [23, 24], Berinde [25, 26], Osilike [27, 28], Osilike and Udomene , Olatinwo [16, 30, 31], Chugh and Kumar , and several references contained therein.
A pioneering result on the stability of iterative procedures established in metric space for the Picard iteration is due to Ostrowski , which states that: Let be a complete metric space and a Banach contraction mapping, that is, where . Let be the fixed point of , , and , . Suppose that is a sequence in and . Then
Using Definition 1, Harder and Hicks [19, 20] proved some stability theorems for well-known Picard, Mann, and Kirk's iterations by employing several classes of contractive type operators. Rhoades [23, 24] extended the results of Harder and Hicks  by utilizing the following two different classes of contractive operators of Ciric's type, respectively: there exists a such that for each pair
Later Osilike  further generalized and extended some of the results in  by using a large class of contractive type operators satisfying the following condition, which is more general than those of Rhoades [23, 24] and Harder and Hicks : for some , , and for all .
By employing the contractive condition (9), Osilike and Udomene proved some stability results for the Picard, Ishikawa, and Kirk's iteration in  where a new and shorter method than those mentioned above was used. Using the same method of proof as in , Berinde  again established the stability results in Harder and Hicks .
In , Imoru and Olatinwo extended some of the stability results of [20, 23, 24, 26, 27, 29] by employing a much more general class of operators satisfying the following contractive condition: where and is a monotone increasing function with .
Continuing the abovementioned trend, Olatinwo  studied the stability of the Kirk-Mann and Kirk-Ishikawa iterative processes by utilizing contractive condition (10). The results of  are generalizations of some of the results of [20, 23, 24, 26, 27, 29, 33–35].
We end this section with some lemmas which will be useful in proving our main results.
Lemma 3 (see ). If is a real number such that , and is a sequence of nonnegative numbers such that , then, for any sequence of positive numbers satisfying one has .
Remark 5. Note that in the inequality (12).
2. Main Results
For simplicity we assume in the following three theorems that is a normed linear space, is a self-map of satisfying the contractive condition (10) with , and is a subadditive monotone increasing function such that and , , .
Theorem 6. Let be a sequence generated by the Kirk multistep iterative scheme (4). Suppose that has a fixed point . Then the iterative sequence converges strongly to .
Proof. The uniqueness of follows from (12). We will now prove that .
Using (4) and Lemma 4, we get
By combining (13), (14), (15), and (16) we obtain
Continuing the above process we have
Using again (4) and Lemma 4, we get
Substituting (19) into (18) we derive
Now we show that . Since , , , and for , we obtain
By an application of Lemma 3 to (20), .
Proof. Let , , for , be arbitrary sequences in . Let , , where , , , and let . We will prove that .
It follows from (4) and Lemma 4 that
Combining (23), (24), and (25) we have
By induction we get
Again using (4) and Lemma 4, we obtain
Substituting (28) into (27) we derive
We now show that . Since , , , and for , we have that is, . Therefore, an application of Lemma 4 to (29) yields .
Now suppose that . Then we will show that .
Using Lemma 4 we have
It follows from the relation (32), (33), and (34) that
Thus, by induction, we get
Utilizing (4) and Lemma 4, we obtain
Substituting (37) into (36) gives
Hence (38) becomes
Using same argument as that of first part of the proof we obtain .
It therefore follows from assumption that as .
Proof. Let , , , , and . Assume that . We will prove that .
It follows from (3) and Lemma 4 that
Combining (41), (42), and (43) we get
Thus we can rewrite (44) as follows:
We now show that . Since , , , and for ,
Therefore, an application of Lemma 3 to (46) yields .
Now suppose that . Then we will show that .
Using Lemma 4 we have
It follows from (48), (49), and (50) that
Using same argument as that of first part of the proof we obtain and it thus follows from assumption that as .
Remark 9. Theorem 6 is a generalization and extension of both Theorems 1 and 2 of Berinde , Theorems 2 and 3 of Kannan , Theorem 3 of Kannan , Theorem 4 of Rhoades , Theorem 8 of Rhoades , Theorem 2.1 of Olatinwo , Theorem 2.6 of Hussain et al. , and Theorem 3.1 of Şoltuz and Grosan . Theorem 7 is a generalization and extension of Theorem 2 of Osilike , Theorems 2 and 5 of Osilike and Udomene  as well as Theorem 3 of Olatinwo et al. , Theorems 3.1 and 3.2 of Olatinwo , and Theorem 3.1 of Chugh and Kumar .
Conflict of Interests
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
The first two authors would like to thank Yildiz Technical University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Department under Project no. BAPK 2012-07-03-DOP02 for financial support during the preparation of this paper.
- B. E. Rhoades and S. M. Şoltuz, “The equivalence between Mann-Ishikawa iterations and multistep iteration,” Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications, vol. 58, no. 1-2, pp. 219–228, 2004.
- F. Gürsoy, V. Karakaya, and B. E. Rhoades, “Data dependence results of new multistep and Siterative schemes for contractive-like operators,” Fixed Point Theory and Applications, vol. 2013, article 76, 2013.
- G. Das and J. P. Debata, “Fixed points of quasinonexpansive mappings,” Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1263–1269, 1986.
- M. A. Noor, “New approximation schemes for general variational inequalities,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 251, no. 1, pp. 217–229, 2000.
- R. P. Agarwal, D. O'Regan, and D. R. Sahu, “Iterative construction of fixed points of nearly asymptotically nonexpansive mappings,” Journal of Nonlinear and Convex Analysis, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 61–79, 2007.
- S. Ishikawa, “Fixed points by a new iteration method,” Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, vol. 44, pp. 147–150, 1974.
- S. Thianwan, “Common fixed points of new iterations for two asymptotically nonexpansive nonself-mappings in a Banach space,” Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, vol. 224, no. 2, pp. 688–695, 2009.
- W. Phuengrattana and S. Suantai, “On the rate of convergence of Mann, Ishikawa, Noor and SP-iterations for continuous functions on an arbitrary interval,” Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, vol. 235, no. 9, pp. 3006–3014, 2011.
- W. Takahashi, “Iterative methods for approximation of fixed points and their applications,” Journal of the Operations Research Society of Japan, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 87–108, 2000.
- W. R. Mann, “Mean value methods in iteration,” Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, vol. 4, pp. 506–510, 1953.
- F. Gürsoy, V. Karakaya, and B. E. Rhoades, “The equivalence among new multistep iteration, siteration and some other iterative schemes,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.5701v3.
- M. A. Krasnoselkij, “Two remarks on the method of successive approximations,” Uspekhi Matematicheskikh Nauk, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 123–127, 1955.
- E. Picard, “Memoire sur la theorie des equations aux derivees partielles et la methode des approximations successives,” Journal de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées, vol. 6, pp. 145–210, 1890.
- N. Hussain, R. Chugh, V. Kumar, and A. Rafiq, “On the rate of convergence of Kirk-type iterative schemes,” Journal of Applied Mathematics, vol. 2012, Article ID 526503, 22 pages, 2012.
- R. Chugh and V. Kumar, “Stability of hybrid fixed point iterative algorithms of Kirk-Noor type in normed linear space for self and nonself operators,” International Journal of Contemporary Mathematical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 21–24, pp. 1165–1184, 2012.
- M. O. Olatinwo, “Some stability results for two hybrid fixed point iterative algorithms in normed linear space,” Matematichki Vesnik, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 247–256, 2009.
- W. A. Kirk, “On successive approximations for nonexpansive mappings in Banach spaces,” Glasgow Mathematical Journal, vol. 12, pp. 6–9, 1971.
- M. Urabe, “Convergence of numerical iteration in solution of equations,” Journal of Science of the Hiroshima University A, vol. 19, pp. 479–489, 1956.
- A. M. Harder and T. L. Hicks, “A stable iteration procedure for nonexpansive mappings,” Mathematica Japonica, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 687–692, 1988.
- A. M. Harder and T. L. Hicks, “Stability results for fixed point iteration procedures,” Mathematica Japonica, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 693–706, 1988.
- A. M. Ostrowski, “The round-off stability of iterations,” Zeitschrift für Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, vol. 47, pp. 77–81, 1967.
- A. M. Harder, Fixed point theory and stability results for fixed points iteration procedures [Ph.D. thesis], University of Missouri-Rolla, 1987.
- B. E. Rhoades, “Fixed point theorems and stability results for fixed point iteration procedures,” Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 1990.
- B. E. Rhoades, “Fixed point theorems and stability results for fixed point iteration procedures. II,” Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 691–703, 1993.
- V. Berinde, “Summable almost stability of fixed point iteration procedures,” Carpathian Journal of Mathematics, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 81–88, 2003.
- V. Berinde, “On the stability of some fixed point procedures,” Buletinul Ştiinţific al Universităţii Baia Mare, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 7–14, 2002.
- M. O. Osilike, “On stability results for fixed point iteration procedures,” Journal of the Nigerian Mathematical Society, vol. 14-15, pp. 17–29, 1996.
- M. O. Osilike, “Stability results for the Ishikawa fixed point iteration procedure,” Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 937–945, 1995.
- M. O. Osilike and A. Udomene, “Short proofs of stability results for fixed point iteration procedures for a class of contractive-type mappings,” Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1229–1234, 1999.
- M. O. Olatinwo, “Some stabilty results for two hybrid fixed point iterative algorithms of Kirk-Ishikawa and Kirk-Mann type,” Journal of Advanced Mathematical Studies, vol. 1, no. 1-2, pp. 87–96, 2008.
- M. O. Olatinwo, “Some unifying results on stability and strong convergence for some new iteration processes,” Acta Mathematica Academiae Paedagogicae Nyiregyhaziensis, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 105–118, 2009.
- C. O. Imoru and M. O. Olatinwo, “On the stability of Picard and Mann iteration processes,” Carpathian Journal of Mathematics, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 155–160, 2003.
- M. O. Olatinwo, O. O. Owojori, and C. O. Imoru, “On some stability results for fixed point iteration procedure,” Journal of Mathematics and Statistics, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 339–342, 2006.
- M. O. Olatinwo, O. O. Owojori, and C. O. Imoru, “Some stability results on Krasnolslseskij and Ishikawa fixed point iteration procedures,” Journal of Mathematics and Statistics, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 360–362, 2006.
- M. O. Olatinwo, O. O. Owojori, and C. O. Imoru, “Some stability results for fixed point iteration processes,” The Australian Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 1–7, 2006.
- V. Berinde, Iterative Approximation of Fixed Points, vol. 1912, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2nd edition, 2007.
- V. Berinde, “On the convergence of the Ishikawa iteration in the class of quasi contractive operators,” Acta Mathematica Universitatis Comenianae, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 119–126, 2004.
- R. Kannan, “Some results on fixed points,” Bulletin of the Calcutta Mathematical Society, vol. 60, pp. 71–76, 1968.
- R. Kannan, “Construction of fixed points of a class of nonlinear mappings,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 41, pp. 430–438, 1973.
- B. E. Rhoades, “Fixed point iterations using infinite matrices,” Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, vol. 196, pp. 161–176, 1974.
- B. E. Rhoades, “Comments on two fixed point iteration methods,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 741–750, 1976.
- M. O. Olatinwo, “Convergence and stability results for some iterative schemes,” Acta Universitatis Apulensis, no. 26, pp. 225–236, 2011.
- Ş. M. Şoltuz and T. Grosan, “Data dependence for Ishikawa iteration when dealing with contractive-like operators,” Fixed Point Theory and Applications, vol. 2008, Article ID 242916, 7 pages, 2008.