- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents

Abstract and Applied Analysis

Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 908676, 5 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/908676

## The Representations and Continuity of the Metric Projections on Two Classes of Half-Spaces in Banach Spaces

College of Fundamental Studies, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620, China

Received 20 October 2013; Accepted 31 December 2013; Published 17 February 2014

Academic Editor: Khalil Ezzinbi

Copyright © 2014 Zihou Zhang and Chunyan Liu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

We show a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of metric projection on a class of half-space in Banach space. Two representations of metric projections and are given, respectively, where stands for dual half-space of in dual space . By these representations, a series of continuity results of the metric projections and are given. We also provide the characterization that a metric projection is a linear bounded operator.

#### 1. Introduction

The metric projection in Banach space is an enduring question for study or discussion. It has been used in many areas of mathematics such as the theories of optimization and approximation, fixed point theory, nonlinear programming, and variational inequalities. On continuity of the metric projection, many mathematicians, for example, Nevesenko [1], Oshman [2], Wang [3], Fang and Wang [4], and Zhang and Shi [5] have done profound research. In practical application, giving the representations of metric projection is very necessary. Generally speaking, this is very difficult. In recent years, Wang and Yu [6] gave a representation of single-valued metric projection on a class of hyperplanes in reflexive, smooth, and strictly convex Banach space . Song and Cao [7] gave a representation of metric projection on a class of half-space in the reflexive, smooth, and strictly convex Banach space . Wang [8] and Ni [9] extended the result of Wang and Yu to general Banach space, respectively. Wang [8] also discussed continuity of the metric projection on the hyperplane in Banach space.

In this paper, let be a Banach space and let be the dual of . Let and be the unit sphere and unit ball of , respectively. Let , let , let , let , let , let , and let . It is easily proved that , , and for all . For , the metric projection is defined by , where . Obviously, is a set-valued mapping. If for each , then is said to be proximinal. It is well known that is single-valued when is strictly convex and is proximal.

Cabrera and Sadarangani [10] introduced the geometrical properties of Banach spaces as follows.

A Banach space is called nearly strictly convex (resp., weakly nearly strictly convex) whenever, for any , the set is compact (resp., weakly compact). A Banach space is called nearly smooth (resp., weakly nearly smooth) whenever, for any , the set is compact (resp., weakly compact).

The metric projection is said to be norm-norm (resp., norm-weakly) upper semicontinuous if, for all in and for all norm (resp., weakly) open set , there exists a norm neighborhood of such that .

In this paper, firstly, we established a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of metric projection on a class of half-space in Banach space. Secondly, we give two representations of the metric projections and by using a different method from the literatures [5–9]. Thirdly, by these representations, we prove that if is weakly nearly strictly convex (resp., weakly nearly smooth), then metric projection (resp., ) is norm-weakly upper semicontinuous. Finally, the characterization of the metric projection from to a subspace to be a linear bounded operator is given. We extend the corresponding results in [5–9].

#### 2. The Representations of the Metric Projection on Two Classes of Half-Spaces in Banach Spaces

Lemma 1. *Let be a Banach space and let ; then for all .*

*Proof. *Firstly, suppose that . Let . For any , since
we deduce that

On the other hand, for any , there exists in such that . Set . Then
Consequently, and
It follows that
By arbitrariness of , we deduce that
This means that
Secondly, for and , since
from (7), we may obtain that

*Remark 2. *For given and , by Lemma 1, we have that
for any .

Theorem 3. *Let be a Banach space, let , and let ; then for any if and only if .*

*Proof. *On necessity: take ; then there exists a . Set ; by Lemma 1, we have that
Hence, .

On the other hand,
This shows that , that is, and .

On sufficiency: take such that . We discuss that in two cases.*Case 1*. If , then .*Case 2*. If , since
then we have that . By Lemma 1,
It follows that .

Theorem 4. *Let be a Banach space, let , let attain its norm on , and let . Then
*

*Proof. *Take . We discuss that in two cases.*Case 1*. If , then .*Case 2*. If , we arbitrarily take . Let . Similar to the proof of Theorem 3, we may obtain that . Therefore,

On the other hand, we arbitrarily take . Let ; similar to the proof of Theorem 3, we may obtain that . Therefore,
that is,

By Case 1 and Case 2, we have
for any .

*By the similar proof to that in Lemma 1, we can obtain the following result.*

*Lemma 5. Let be a Banach space, let , and let . Then
for any .*

*By a similar proof to that in Theorem 4, we can also prove the following result according to Lemma 5.*

*Theorem 6. Let be a Banach space, let , and let . Then
for any .*

*3. Continuity of the Metric Projection on the Two Classes of Half-Spaces in Banach Spaces*

*Theorem 7. Let , let attain its norm on , and let . If is weakly nearly strictly convex, then the metric projection is norm-weakly upper semicontinuous.*

*Proof. *Let , , and let as . Our proof will be divided into two cases.*Case 1.* Suppose that . Since is a closed set, . Clearly, .*Case 2*. Suppose that .

If there are an infinite number of for which , then we can choose a subsequence with . Therefore, as .

If there are an infinite number of for which , without loss of generality, we may assume that . Taking , by Theorem 4, we have

We assume that , where . Since is weakly nearly strictly convex, we know that has a weakly convergent subsequence with as . Consequently,

Noting and , we know that . Therefore,
where . This shows that .

Now, we will show that is norm-weakly upper semicontinuous at . Otherwise, there exist a weakly open set and a sequence with as , but for all . Taking , , similar to previous arguments, we can observe the fact that there exists a subsequence of such that as and . This means that there exists for some large enough, which is a contradiction.

*Similar to the proof of Theorem 8, we may prove the following theorem.*

*Theorem 8. Let be a Banach space. (1)Let , let attain its norm on , and let . If is nearly strictly convex, then the metric projection is norm-norm upper semicontinuous.(2)Let and let . If is weakly nearly smooth, then the metric projection is norm-weakly upper semicontinuous.(3)Let and let . If is nearly smooth, then the metric projection is norm-norm upper semicontinuous.*

*Lemma 9 (see [11]). Let be a proximal subspace. Then for any , one has the decomposition
where and
If is a Chebyshev subspace, the decomposition is unique, and
*

*Lemma 10. Let be a strictly convex Banach space and let be a proximal subspace. Then, for any , one has
*

*Proof. *Let , for any , we have that . Consider
By the definition of , we obtain . Since is strictly convex, we know that is single-valued, and hence we have .

*Similar to the proof Theorem in [6], we can prove the following result by Lemmas 9 and 10.*

*Lemma 11. Let be a strictly convex Banach space and let be a proximal subspace. is single-valued operator from into , and is a metric projection from into . Then if and only if the following conditions are satisfied:(1);
(2). *

*Theorem 12. Let be a strictly convex Banach space and let be a proximal subspace. Then the metric projection is a linear bounded operator if and only if is a linear subspace.*

*Proof. *On necessity: let be a linear operator. Since is strictly convex and is proximal, then is single valued. By Lemma 11, for any , , , then
and hence . This shows that is a linear subspace.

On sufficiency: let be a linear subspace and let be a metric projection; since is strictly convex, by Lemma 11, is also a linear subspace. For any , we have that
By Lemma 11, we have that
It follows that . Note that is homogeneous; we obtain that is a linear operator. In addition, for any , since , we have that
This shows that is a bounded operator.

*Conflict of Interests*

*Conflict of Interests*

*The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.*

*Acknowledgments*

*Acknowledgments*

*This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 11271248) and Scientific Research Foundation of Shanghai University of Engineering Science (Grant nos. A-0501-12-43, nhky-2012-13).*

*References*

*References*

- N. V. Nevesenko, “Continuity of the diameter of a metric projection,”
*Matematicheskie Zapiski*, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 72–82, 131–132, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - E. V. Oshman, “Continuity of the metric projection,”
*Matematicheskie Zametki*, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 200–2011, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - J. H. Wang, “Convergence theorems for best approximations in a nonreflexive Banach space,”
*Journal of Approximation Theory*, vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 480–490, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - X. N. Fang and J. H. Wang, “Convexity and the continuity of metric projections,”
*Mathematica Applicata*, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 47–51, 2001 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - Z. Zhang and Z. Shi, “Convexities and approximative compactness and continuity of metric projection in Banach spaces,”
*Journal of Approximation Theory*, vol. 161, no. 2, pp. 802–812, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - Y. W. Wang and J. F. Yu, “The character and representation of a class of metric projection in Banach space,”
*Acta Mathematica Scientia A, Chinese Edition*, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 29–35, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - W. Song and Z. J. Cao, “The generalized decomposition theorem in Banach spaces and its applications,”
*Journal of Approximation Theory*, vol. 129, no. 2, pp. 167–181, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - J. H. Wang, “The metric projections in nonreflexive Banach spaces,”
*Acta Mathematica Scientia A, Chinese Edition*, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 840–846, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - R. X. Ni, “The representative of metric projection on the linear manifold in Banach spaces,”
*Journal of Mathematical Research and Exposition*, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 99–103, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - J. Cabrera and B. Sadarangani, “Weak near convexity and smoothness of Banach spaces,”
*Archiv der Mathematik*, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 126–134, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - Y. W. Wang and H. Wang, “Generalized orthogonal decomposition theorem in Banach space and generalized orthogonal complemented subspace,”
*Acta Mathematica Sinica, Chinese Series*, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 1045–1050, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet

*
*