Advances in Aerospace Engineering http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Active Vibration Control of the Smart Plate Using Artificial Neural Network Controller Mon, 27 Jul 2015 11:48:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aae/2015/137068/ The active vibration control (AVC) of a rectangular plate with single input and single output approach is investigated using artificial neural network. The cantilever plate of finite length, breadth, and thickness having piezoelectric patches as sensors/actuators fixed at the upper and lower surface of the metal plate is considered for examination. The finite element model of the cantilever plate is utilized to formulate the whole strategy. The compact RIO and MATLAB simulation software are exercised to get the appropriate results. The cantilever plate is subjected to impulse input and uniform white noise disturbance. The neural network is trained offline and tuned with LQR controller. The various training algorithms to tune the neural network are exercised. The best efficient algorithm is finally considered to tune the neural network controller designed for active vibration control of the smart plate. Mohit, Deepak Chhabra, and Suresh Kumar Copyright © 2015 Mohit et al. All rights reserved. Scalar Method of Fault Diagnosis of Inertial Measurement Unit Tue, 16 Jun 2015 11:52:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aae/2015/264564/ The scalar method of fault diagnosis systems of the inertial measurement unit (IMU) is described. All inertial navigation systems consist of such IMU. The scalar calibration method is a base of the scalar method for quality monitoring and diagnostics. In accordance with scalar calibration method algorithms of fault diagnosis systems are developed. As a result of quality monitoring algorithm verification is implemented in the working capacity monitoring of IMU. A failure element determination is based on diagnostics algorithm verification and after that the reason for such failure is cleared. The process of verifications consists of comparison of the calculated estimations of biases, scale factor errors, and misalignments angles of sensors to their data sheet certificate, kept in internal memory of computer. As a result of such comparison the conclusion for working capacity of each IMU sensor can be made and also the failure sensor can be determined. Vadym Avrutov Copyright © 2015 Vadym Avrutov. All rights reserved. On the Importance of Nonlinear Aeroelasticity and Energy Efficiency in Design of Flying Wing Aircraft Sun, 18 Jan 2015 11:32:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aae/2015/613962/ Energy efficiency plays important role in aeroelastic design of flying wing aircraft and may be attained by use of lightweight structures as well as solar energy. NATASHA (Nonlinear Aeroelastic Trim And Stability of HALE Aircraft) is a newly developed computer program which uses a nonlinear composite beam theory that eliminates the difficulties in aeroelastic simulations of flexible high-aspect-ratio wings which undergoes large deformation, as well as the singularities due to finite rotations. NATASHA has shown that proper engine placement could significantly increase the aeroelastic flight envelope which typically leads to more flexible and lighter aircraft. The areas of minimum kinetic energy for the lower frequency modes are in accordance with the zones with maximum flutter speed and have the potential to save computational effort. Another aspect of energy efficiency for High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) drones stems from needing to minimize energy consumption because of limitations on the source of energy, that is, solar power. NATASHA is capable of simulating the aeroelastic passive morphing maneuver (i.e., morphing without relying on actuators) and at as near zero energy cost as possible of the aircraft so as the solar panels installed on the wing are in maximum exposure to sun during different time of the day. Pezhman Mardanpour and Dewey H. Hodges Copyright © 2015 Pezhman Mardanpour and Dewey H. Hodges. All rights reserved. Global Modeling of CO2 Discharges with Aerospace Applications Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aae/2014/847097/ We developed a global model aiming to study discharges in CO2 under various conditions, pertaining to a large spectrum of pressure, absorbed energy, and feeding values. Various physical conditions and form factors have been investigated. The model was applied to a case of radiofrequency discharge and to helicon type devices functioning in low and high feed conditions. In general, main charged species were found to be for sufficiently low pressure cases and O− for higher pressure ones, followed by , CO+, and in the latter case. Dominant reaction is dissociation of CO2 resulting into CO production. Electronegativity, important for radiofrequency discharges, increases with pressure, arriving up to 3 for high flow rates for absorbed power of 250 W, and diminishes with increasing absorbed power. Model results pertaining to radiofrequency type plasma discharges are found in satisfactory agreement with those available from an existing experiment. Application to low and high flow rates feedings cases of helicon thruster allowed for evaluation of thruster functioning conditions pertaining to absorbed powers from 50 W to 1.8 kW. The model allows for a detailed evaluation of the CO2 potential to be used as propellant in electric propulsion devices. Chloe Berenguer and Konstantinos Katsonis Copyright © 2014 Chloe Berenguer and Konstantinos Katsonis. All rights reserved. Cold Plasma Pretreatment of Carbon Fibre Composite Substrates to Improve Adhesive Bonding Performance Tue, 11 Nov 2014 09:26:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aae/2014/325729/ The purpose of the paper is to investigate the effects of low pressure plasma treatment on wettability of carbon fibre reinforced polymer samples and on shear properties of adhesive bonded joints based on these substrates. In particular, two plasma process parameters, exposure time and power input, were optimized, performing contact angle evaluation on lap-shear tests. The plasma treatment was also compared with a conventional mechanical abrasion and untreated and only degreased specimens. The experimental results show that choosing the optimal parameters is possible to improve the wettability of composite substrates and reduce the contact angle. Chiara Mandolfino, Enrico Lertora, and Carla Gambaro Copyright © 2014 Chiara Mandolfino et al. All rights reserved. Advances in Hypergolic Propellants: Ignition, Hydrazine, and Hydrogen Peroxide Research Mon, 15 Sep 2014 05:51:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aae/2014/729313/ A review of the literature pertaining to hypergolic fuel systems, particularly using hydrazine or its derivatives and hydrogen peroxide, has been conducted. It has been shown that a large effort has been made towards minimizing the risks involved with the use of a toxic propellant such as the hydrazine. Substitution of hydrazines for nontoxic propellant formulations such as the use of high purity hydrogen peroxide with various types of fuels is one of the major areas of study for future hypergolic propellants. A series of criteria for future hypergolic propellants has been recommended, including low toxicity, wide temperature range applicability, short ignition delay, high specific impulse or density specific impulse, and storability at room temperature. Stephen M. Davis and Nadir Yilmaz Copyright © 2014 Stephen M. Davis and Nadir Yilmaz. All rights reserved. Robust Adaptive Fuzzy Control for Planetary Rovers While Climbing up Deformable Slopes with Longitudinal Slip Wed, 03 Sep 2014 06:20:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aae/2014/620890/ Mobility control is one of the most essential parts of planetary rovers’ research and development. The goal of this research is to let the planetary rovers be able to achieve demand of motion from upper level with satisfied control performance under the rough and deformable planetary terrain that often lead to longitudinal slip. The longitudinal slip influences the mobility efficiency obviously, especially on the major deformable slopes. Compared with the past works on normal stiff terrains, properties of soil and interaction between wheels and soil should be considered additionally. Therefore, to achieve the final goal, in this paper, wheel-soil dynamic model for six-wheel planetary rovers while climbing up deformable slopes with longitudinal slip is first built and control based in order to account for slip phenomena. These latter effects are then taken into account within terramechanics theory, relying upon nonlinear control techniques; finally, a robust adaptive fuzzy control strategy with longitudinal slip compensation is developed to reduce the effects induced by slip phenomena and modeling error. Capabilities of this control scheme are demonstrated via full scale simulations carried out with a six-wheel robot moving on sloped deformable terrain, whose real time was computed relying uniquely upon RoSTDyn, a dynamic software. Li Zhengcai and Wang Yang Copyright © 2014 Li Zhengcai and Wang Yang. All rights reserved. Accurate Solution of Navigation Equations in GPS Receivers for Very High Velocities Using Pseudorange Measurements Sun, 29 Jun 2014 11:29:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aae/2014/435891/ GPS is a satellite-based navigation system that is able to determine the exact position of objects on the Earth, sky, or space. By increasing the velocity of a moving object, the accuracy of positioning decreases; meanwhile, the calculation of the exact position in the movement by high velocities like airplane movement or very high velocities like satellite movement is so important. In this paper, seven methods for solving navigation equations in very high velocities using least squares method and its combination with the variance estimation methods for weighting observations based on their qualities are studied. Simulations on different data with different velocities from 100 m/s to 7000 m/s show that proposed method can improve the accuracy of positioning more than 50%. N. Rahemi, M. R. Mosavi, A. A. Abedi, and S. Mirzakuchaki Copyright © 2014 N. Rahemi et al. All rights reserved. A Computational Investigation of Unsteady Aerodynamics of Insect-Inspired Fixed Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle’s 2D Airfoil Tue, 17 Jun 2014 12:33:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aae/2014/504049/ A Micro air vehicle (MAV) is defined as class of unmanned air vehicle (UAV) having a linear dimension of less than 15 centimeters and a mass of less than 100 grams with flight speeds of 6 to 12 meters per second. MAVs fall within a Reynolds number (Re) range of 50,000 and 120,000, in which many causes of unsteady aerodynamic effects are not fully understood. The research field of low Reynolds number aerodynamics is currently an active one, with many defence organizations, universities, and corporations working towards a better understanding of the physical processes of this aerodynamic regime. In the present work, it is proposed to study the unsteady aerodynamic analysis of 2D airfoil using CFD software and Xfoil panel code method. The various steps involved in this work are geometric modelling using CATIA V5R17, meshing using ICEM CFD, and solution and postprocessing through FLUENT. The finite control volume analysis and Xfoil panel code method has been carried out to predict aerodynamic characteristics such as lift coefficients, drag coefficients, moment coefficients, pressure coefficients, and flow visualization. The lift and drag coefficients were compared for all the simulations with experimental results. It was observed that for the 2D airfoil, lift and drag both compared well for the midrange angle of attack from −10 to 15 degree AOA. Somashekar V Copyright © 2014 Somashekar V. All rights reserved.