Advances in Anatomy The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Bifid Median Nerve in the Bulgarian Population: An Anatomical and Clinical Study Tue, 10 Nov 2015 11:15:53 +0000 High division of the median nerve proximal to the carpal tunnel, also known as a bifid median nerve, is a rare anatomical variant with an incidence between 1 and 3%. In order to study the incidence of this anatomical variation in the Bulgarian population, we examined the upper limbs of 51 formol-carbol fixed human cadavers and also 154 upper limbs undergoing carpal tunnel decompression. We detected one case of bifid median nerve during anatomical dissections and two cases in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. In one of the clinical cases, the anatomical variation was detected preoperatively by MRI. We discuss different variations of this nerve and emphasize their potential clinical implications. Georgi P. Georgiev, Svetoslav A. Slavchev, Iva N. Dimitrova, and Boycho Landzhov Copyright © 2015 Georgi P. Georgiev et al. All rights reserved. Morphometry of the Orbit in East-European Population Based on Three-Dimensional CT Reconstruction Thu, 29 Oct 2015 11:35:32 +0000 Objectives. To determine safe distances within the orbit outlining reliable operative area on the basis of multislice computed tomography (MSCT) scans. Patients and Methods. MSCT of orbits of 50 Caucasian patients (26 males and 24 females, mean age 56) were analysed. Native scans resolutions were in all cases 0.625 mm. Measurements were done in postprocessing workstation with 2D and 3D reconstructions. The safe distances values were calculated by subtracting three standard deviations from the arithmetical average . This method was chosen because this range covers 99.86% of every population. Results. The results of the measurements in men and women, respectively, are as follows (1) distance from optic canal to supraorbital foramen, mean 46,49 mm and 43,29 mm, (2) distance from the optic canal to maxillozygomatic suture at the inferior margin of the orbit mean 45,24 mm and 42,8 mm, (3) distance from the optic canal to frontozygomatic suture 46,15 mm and 43,58 mm, (4) distance from the optic canal to anterior lacrimal crest 40,40 mm and 38,39 mm, (5) distance from superior orbital fissure to the frontozygomatic suture 34,06 mm and 32,62 mm, and (6) distance from supraorbital foramen to the superior orbital fissure 42,32 mm and 39,39 mm. Conclusion. The most probable safe distances calculated by adopted formula were for the superior orbital fissure 23,39–30,58 mm and for the orbital opening of the optic canal 31,9–38,0 mm from the bony structures of the orbital entrance depending on the orbital quadrant. Stanisław Nitek, Leopold Bakoń, Mansoor Sharifi, Maciej Rysz, Lechosław P. Chmielik, and Iwona Sadowska-Krawczenko Copyright © 2015 Stanisław Nitek et al. All rights reserved. Placental Anthropometric Features: Maternal and Neonate Characteristics in North Central Nigeria Tue, 11 Aug 2015 08:31:02 +0000 The objectives of the study were to determine placental weight as well as factors associated with low placental weight and to determine its impact on some anthropometrical parameters in the newborn. A total of 300 freshly delivered placentas were examined in this longitudinal-prospective study. Sobi Specialist Hospital, Alagbado, Ilorin, and Surulere Medical Centre, Eruda, Ilorin, were used for sample collections. Informed consent was obtained from patients and institutional ethical clearance was obtained from Kwara State Ministry of Health (MOH/KS/ECI/777/82). Semistructured questionnaire was used to gather data on the patients and newborns demographic indices. Analysis of variance, Student’s -test, regression analysis, and Pearson moment correlation statistical analysis were employed to analyze the data. The mean wet placental weight for normal pregnancies was 529 g (SD = 84.01). Placental weight to birth weight ratio of 1 : 5.83 was generated, 529 g impact on newborn head circumference (mean: male = 35.30 cm, female = 34.90 cm) having a linear correlation. Regression analysis showed negative association between female babies (2.99 kg) placental weight (; ), birth weight, and cord length (mean = 58.4 cm). Placental weight correlation with male newborn weight (3.14 kg) had placental birth weight ratio of 0.679 between 90th and 10th percentile with head circumference (, ), lower limit placental diameter 22.80 ± 1.76 cm (SD = 4.8), BMI ≤ 19.50, and Apgar score of 7/10. It is concluded that blood holding capacity of the placenta (relative to weight) and the maternal-dietary have influence on placental weight. Differences in hormonal environment in utero and pathologic adaptation of placenta, due to racial factors, significantly contributed to the size of newborn baby. Adam Moyosore Afodun, Moyosore Salihu Ajao, and Bernard Ufuoma Enaibe Copyright © 2015 Adam Moyosore Afodun et al. All rights reserved. Nasofacial Anthropometric Study among University Students of Three Races in Malaysia Thu, 22 Jan 2015 13:31:59 +0000 Objective. Anthropometric data of the nasofacial dimensions is vital in nasofacial surgery, forensics medicine, and diagnostic comprehension. Nasofacial anthropometry is “ethnic sensitive” and has distinct sexual dimorphism. This study is aimed to observe the variations of length and width of face and nose among university students of three races in Ipoh, Malaysia. Material and Method. A cross-sectional study was done on 200 college students aged between 18 and 21 years, using convenient sampling method. The facial length and width and nasal length and width were measured. The data were analysed using the SPSS software. Result. The mean facial index of Malay subjects showed 88.82 ± 6.63 with nasal index of 81.00 ± 7.48, showing dominance of the leptoprosopic face type and mesorrhine nose type. Chinese subjects showed facial index and nasal index of 85.65 ± 6.50 and 79.56 ± 8.62, respectively, having mesoprosopic face type and mesorrhine nose type. Indian students had facial index of 92.57 ± 7.19 and nasal index of 76.27 ± 7.39, having leptoprosopic face type and mesorrhine nose type. The differences in means of facial and nasal indices between the three races were statistically significant (). Conclusion. The result of our study has confirmed that there was sexual dimorphism of facial and nasal parameters and also significant differences of facial and nasal indices amongst the three Malaysian race groups. Mar Mar Wai, San San Thwin, Tahamida Yesmin, Aqlan Ahmad, Atina Shahida Adnan, Auni Azrawati Hassan, Nabilah Ahmad, and Nurul Izzati Zakariah Copyright © 2015 Mar Mar Wai et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Variation of the Lateral Sacral Artery in relation to Sciatic Neuropathy” Sun, 21 Dec 2014 00:10:01 +0000 Waseem Al Talalwah, Shorok Ali Al Dorazi, and Roger Soames Copyright © 2014 Waseem Al Talalwah et al. All rights reserved. Human Bodies Bequest Program: A Wake-Up Call to Tanzanian Medical Schools Tue, 18 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Introduction. Studying anatomy through dissection of human cadavers requires a regular supply of human bodies. Tanzanian medical schools depend entirely on collecting unclaimed bodies in hospital mortuaries. This method is no longer reliable. This study aimed at evaluating sources and profile of cadavers in Tanzanian medical schools and addressing challenges and suggests appropriate lasting solutions. Methods. Seven spreadsheets were sent electronically to seven medical schools in Tanzania to capture data related to sources and profiles of cadavers received. Only 2 out of 7 responded timely. Results. 100% of all cadavers in Tanzanian medical schools are unclaimed bodies of black population. Female cadavers accounted for 0–20%. About 9 days elapse before embalmment of cadavers. Conclusion. It is the time to jump onto body bequest wagon. Erick J. Mazyala, Makaranga Revocatus, Mange Manyama, Sifael Msuya, Peter Rambau, Emmanuel Kimwaga, Ndulu Magelle, Yanga Machimu, Mathayo Joshua, and Cassian C. Magori Copyright © 2014 Erick J. Mazyala et al. All rights reserved. Variation of the Lateral Sacral Artery in relation to Sciatic Neuropathy Thu, 13 Nov 2014 10:26:17 +0000 The lateral sacral artery usually originates from the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery. The current study of 342 specimens from 171 cadavers (79 male, 92 female) investigated the origin and course of the lateral sacral artery. It was observed to arise from the posterior trunk in 79.1%. Occasionally it originated from the anterior trunk that occurred in 1%. It arose from the sciatic artery in 8.8%, from the superior gluteal artery in 16.8%, and from the inferior gluteal artery in 5.4%. Conversely, the lateral sacral artery is congenital absence in 0.3%. In addition, the lateral sacral artery was single, double, triple, and quadruple in 77.2%, 19.8%, 2.3%, and 0.3%, respectively. Consequently, variability of the lateral sacral artery origin is due to vascular demand as the lateral sacral artery plexus does arise from the earlier trunk development. With variability of the lateral sacral artery origin, there is a variability of the sciatic nerve supply. Knowing the variability of origins, surgeons have to avoid prolonged ligation of the internal iliac artery or its posterior trunk during surgical procedures which may lead to sciatic neuropathy. Therefore, the lateral sacral artery origin, course, and branches are important for clinicians to improve their knowledge and patient management. Waseem Al Talalwah, Shorok Ali Al Dorazi, and Roger Soames Copyright © 2014 Waseem Al Talalwah et al. All rights reserved. Retroesophageal Right Subclavian Artery Thu, 02 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 During routine dissection of head and neck region in a 65-year-old female cadaver variation in the origin of right subclavian artery was found. The right subclavian artery originated as a direct branch of arch of aorta distal to the origin of left subclavian artery and it was found passing behind esophagus (retroesophageal) and ascending upwards to the right side while the left subclavian artery originated normally from arch of aorta distal to the origin of left common carotid artery. Anomalous variations in the origin and course of arteries have serious implications in angiographic and surgical procedures; hence it is of great importance to be aware of such possibilities of variations. Neelesh Kanaskar, P. Vatsalaswamy, Preeti Sonje, and Vaishali Paranjape Copyright © 2014 Neelesh Kanaskar et al. All rights reserved. A Study of Ischiopubic Index Using X-Ray Films in Lagos State of Nigeria Thu, 25 Sep 2014 06:25:29 +0000 The ischiopubic index was studied in adult pelvic X-ray films of subjects aged eighteen to seventy years. A total of 120 X-ray films made of 60 males and 60 females were collected from LUTH, Lagos State. The ischiopubic index was calculated by dividing the pubic length by ischial length and by multiplying by 100. The mean ischiopubic index for males was 101.05 ± 16.65 and that of the females was 115.99 ± 18.5. Sex differences of these indices were statistically significant () for both sexes. The mean length of the females pubis was significantly longer than that for males (), and similarly the mean length of ischium in males was significantly longer than that of the females (). Using X-ray films, sex could be assigned using demarking points to 47% and 50% females in Lagos State. In conclusion, this research has provided evidence that the ischiopubic index and the demarking points are reliable in sexing the hip bones of Nigerians (using X-ray films). Thus the ischiopubic index may be of value in forensic and archaeological analyses and in solving medicolegal cases. Theresa B. Ekanem, Ekaette J. Akpan, and Otu E. Mesembe Copyright © 2014 Theresa B. Ekanem et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Ultrahigh Frequency Radiation Emitted from 2G Cell Phone on Developing Lens of Chick Embryo: A Histological Study Wed, 17 Sep 2014 07:13:28 +0000 A Mobile phone in operation emits a pulsed radiofrequency electromagnetic field which is absorbed into the user’s body particularly the head region. Contradictory scientific reports on the health effect of nonionizing radiations on biological tissues have prompted to undertake the present study to evaluate the damage in the developing lens of a chick embryo following exposure to radiation emitted from a 2G cell phone. Fertilized chick embryos were incubated in two groups in a standard egg incubator. The experiment group was exposed to radiation emitted from a 2G cell phone. On completion of scheduled duration, the embryos were collected and processed for routine histological studies. The 9th to 12th day chick embryo eyes were processed for assessment of DNA damage using the alkaline comet assay technique. The lens thickness and the equatorial diameter were measured using oculometer and statistically compared for both groups. In the present study, the exposure of chick embryos to a 2G cell phone caused structural changes in lens epithelial cells, formation of cystic cells and spaces, distortion of lens fibers, and formation of posterior aberrant nuclear layer. The DNA damage in the developing eyes of the experiment group assessed by comet assay was highly significant. Mary Hydrina D'Silva, Rijied Thompson Swer, J. Anbalagan, and Rajesh Bhargavan Copyright © 2014 Mary Hydrina D'Silva et al. All rights reserved. Terminal Branch of Recurrent Human Laryngeal Nerve Tue, 16 Sep 2014 09:46:30 +0000 The importance of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in surgery on the anterior region of the neck has motivated many published papers on critical points of its pathway, relationship with the inferior thyroid artery, penetration in the larynx, division outside the larynx, and branches communicating with the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. We analyze the terminal branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and their distribution through the laryngeal muscles. 44 laryngeal nerves had been dissected. Most frequently, the recurrent laryngeal nerve presents a division below or at the level of the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage (outside the larynx). One of these branches forms the communication with the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, and the other penetrates the laryngeal space. Above the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage, the inferior laryngeal nerve issues a variable number of branches to muscles (3 to 7): to the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle; to the oblique and transversal arytenoid muscles; and to the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle and the thyroarytenoid muscle. Andréa Aparecida Ferreira Pascoal, Juliana Ruiz Fernandes, Cristiane Regina Ruiz, Osmar Clayton Person, and Sergio Ricardo Rios Nascimento Copyright © 2014 Andréa Aparecida Ferreira Pascoal et al. All rights reserved.