Advances in Anatomy http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Retroesophageal Right Subclavian Artery Thu, 02 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aanat/2014/934825/ During routine dissection of head and neck region in a 65-year-old female cadaver variation in the origin of right subclavian artery was found. The right subclavian artery originated as a direct branch of arch of aorta distal to the origin of left subclavian artery and it was found passing behind esophagus (retroesophageal) and ascending upwards to the right side while the left subclavian artery originated normally from arch of aorta distal to the origin of left common carotid artery. Anomalous variations in the origin and course of arteries have serious implications in angiographic and surgical procedures; hence it is of great importance to be aware of such possibilities of variations. Neelesh Kanaskar, P. Vatsalaswamy, Preeti Sonje, and Vaishali Paranjape Copyright © 2014 Neelesh Kanaskar et al. All rights reserved. A Study of Ischiopubic Index Using X-Ray Films in Lagos State of Nigeria Thu, 25 Sep 2014 06:25:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aanat/2014/192897/ The ischiopubic index was studied in adult pelvic X-ray films of subjects aged eighteen to seventy years. A total of 120 X-ray films made of 60 males and 60 females were collected from LUTH, Lagos State. The ischiopubic index was calculated by dividing the pubic length by ischial length and by multiplying by 100. The mean ischiopubic index for males was 101.05 ± 16.65 and that of the females was 115.99 ± 18.5. Sex differences of these indices were statistically significant () for both sexes. The mean length of the females pubis was significantly longer than that for males (), and similarly the mean length of ischium in males was significantly longer than that of the females (). Using X-ray films, sex could be assigned using demarking points to 47% and 50% females in Lagos State. In conclusion, this research has provided evidence that the ischiopubic index and the demarking points are reliable in sexing the hip bones of Nigerians (using X-ray films). Thus the ischiopubic index may be of value in forensic and archaeological analyses and in solving medicolegal cases. Theresa B. Ekanem, Ekaette J. Akpan, and Otu E. Mesembe Copyright © 2014 Theresa B. Ekanem et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Ultrahigh Frequency Radiation Emitted from 2G Cell Phone on Developing Lens of Chick Embryo: A Histological Study Wed, 17 Sep 2014 07:13:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aanat/2014/798425/ A Mobile phone in operation emits a pulsed radiofrequency electromagnetic field which is absorbed into the user’s body particularly the head region. Contradictory scientific reports on the health effect of nonionizing radiations on biological tissues have prompted to undertake the present study to evaluate the damage in the developing lens of a chick embryo following exposure to radiation emitted from a 2G cell phone. Fertilized chick embryos were incubated in two groups in a standard egg incubator. The experiment group was exposed to radiation emitted from a 2G cell phone. On completion of scheduled duration, the embryos were collected and processed for routine histological studies. The 9th to 12th day chick embryo eyes were processed for assessment of DNA damage using the alkaline comet assay technique. The lens thickness and the equatorial diameter were measured using oculometer and statistically compared for both groups. In the present study, the exposure of chick embryos to a 2G cell phone caused structural changes in lens epithelial cells, formation of cystic cells and spaces, distortion of lens fibers, and formation of posterior aberrant nuclear layer. The DNA damage in the developing eyes of the experiment group assessed by comet assay was highly significant. Mary Hydrina D'Silva, Rijied Thompson Swer, J. Anbalagan, and Rajesh Bhargavan Copyright © 2014 Mary Hydrina D'Silva et al. All rights reserved. Terminal Branch of Recurrent Human Laryngeal Nerve Tue, 16 Sep 2014 09:46:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aanat/2014/858539/ The importance of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in surgery on the anterior region of the neck has motivated many published papers on critical points of its pathway, relationship with the inferior thyroid artery, penetration in the larynx, division outside the larynx, and branches communicating with the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. We analyze the terminal branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and their distribution through the laryngeal muscles. 44 laryngeal nerves had been dissected. Most frequently, the recurrent laryngeal nerve presents a division below or at the level of the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage (outside the larynx). One of these branches forms the communication with the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, and the other penetrates the laryngeal space. Above the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage, the inferior laryngeal nerve issues a variable number of branches to muscles (3 to 7): to the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle; to the oblique and transversal arytenoid muscles; and to the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle and the thyroarytenoid muscle. Andréa Aparecida Ferreira Pascoal, Juliana Ruiz Fernandes, Cristiane Regina Ruiz, Osmar Clayton Person, and Sergio Ricardo Rios Nascimento Copyright © 2014 Andréa Aparecida Ferreira Pascoal et al. All rights reserved.