Advances in Artificial Neural Systems http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Modeling Slump of Ready Mix Concrete Using Genetically Evolved Artificial Neural Networks Tue, 11 Nov 2014 06:03:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2014/629137/ Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been the preferred choice for modeling the complex and nonlinear material behavior where conventional mathematical approaches do not yield the desired accuracy and predictability. Despite their popularity as a universal function approximator and wide range of applications, no specific rules for deciding the architecture of neural networks catering to a specific modeling task have been formulated. The research paper presents a methodology for automated design of neural network architecture, replacing the conventional trial and error technique of finding the optimal neural network. The genetic algorithms (GA) stochastic search has been harnessed for evolving the optimum number of hidden layer neurons, transfer function, learning rate, and momentum coefficient for backpropagation ANN. The methodology has been applied for modeling slump of ready mix concrete based on its design mix constituents, namely, cement, fly ash, sand, coarse aggregates, admixture, and water-binder ratio. Six different statistical performance measures have been used for evaluating the performance of the trained neural networks. The study showed that, in comparison to conventional trial and error technique of deciding the neural network architecture and training parameters, the neural network architecture evolved through GA was of reduced complexity and provided better prediction performance. Vinay Chandwani, Vinay Agrawal, and Ravindra Nagar Copyright © 2014 Vinay Chandwani et al. All rights reserved. Global Stability, Bifurcation, and Chaos Control in a Delayed Neural Network Model Wed, 08 Oct 2014 06:51:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2014/369230/ Conditions for the global asymptotic stability of delayed artificial neural network model of n (≥3) neurons have been derived. For bifurcation analysis with respect to delay we have considered the model with three neurons and used suitable transformation on multiple time delays to reduce it to a system with single delay. Bifurcation analysis is discussed with respect to single delay. Numerical simulations are presented to verify the analytical results. Using numerical simulation, the role of delay and neuronal gain parameter in changing the dynamics of the neural network model has been discussed. Amitava Kundu and Pritha Das Copyright © 2014 Amitava Kundu and Pritha Das. All rights reserved. Heart Disease Diagnosis Utilizing Hybrid Fuzzy Wavelet Neural Network and Teaching Learning Based Optimization Algorithm Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2014/796323/ Among the various diseases that threaten human life is heart disease. This disease is considered to be one of the leading causes of death in the world. Actually, the medical diagnosis of heart disease is a complex task and must be made in an accurate manner. Therefore, a software has been developed based on advanced computer technologies to assist doctors in the diagnostic process. This paper intends to use the hybrid teaching learning based optimization (TLBO) algorithm and fuzzy wavelet neural network (FWNN) for heart disease diagnosis. The TLBO algorithm is applied to enhance performance of the FWNN. The hybrid TLBO algorithm with FWNN is used to classify the Cleveland heart disease dataset obtained from the University of California at Irvine (UCI) machine learning repository. The performance of the proposed method (TLBO_FWNN) is estimated using -fold cross validation based on mean square error (MSE), classification accuracy, and the execution time. The experimental results show that TLBO_FWNN has an effective performance for diagnosing heart disease with 90.29% accuracy and superior performance compared to other methods in the literature. Jamal Salahaldeen Majeed Alneamy and Rahma Abdulwahid Hameed Alnaish Copyright © 2014 Jamal Salahaldeen Majeed Alneamy and Rahma Abdulwahid Hameed Alnaish. All rights reserved. Long Time Behavior for a System of Differential Equations with Non-Lipschitzian Nonlinearities Sun, 14 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2014/252674/ We consider a general system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations of first order. The nonlinearities involve distributed delays in addition to the states. In turn, the distributed delays involve nonlinear functions of the different variables and states. An explicit bound for solutions is obtained under some rather reasonable conditions. Several special cases of this system may be found in neural network theory. As a direct application of our result it is shown how to obtain global existence and, more importantly, convergence to zero at an exponential rate in a certain norm. All these nonlinearities (including the activation functions) may be non-Lipschitz and unbounded. Nasser-Eddine Tatar Copyright © 2014 Nasser-Eddine Tatar. All rights reserved. A Hybrid Intelligent Method of Predicting Stock Returns Sun, 07 Sep 2014 08:26:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2014/246487/ This paper proposes a novel method for predicting stock returns by means of a hybrid intelligent model. Initially predictions are obtained by a linear model, and thereby prediction errors are collected and fed into a recurrent neural network which is actually an autoregressive moving reference neural network. Recurrent neural network results in minimized prediction errors because of nonlinear processing and also because of its configuration. These prediction errors are used to obtain final predictions by summation method as well as by multiplication method. The proposed model is thus hybrid of both a linear and a nonlinear model. The model has been tested on stock data obtained from National Stock Exchange of India. The results indicate that the proposed model can be a promising approach in predicting future stock movements. Akhter Mohiuddin Rather Copyright © 2014 Akhter Mohiuddin Rather. All rights reserved. Downscaling Statistical Model Techniques for Climate Change Analysis Applied to the Amazon Region Thu, 29 May 2014 13:26:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2014/595462/ The Amazon is an area covered predominantly by dense tropical rainforest with relatively small inclusions of several other types of vegetation. In the last decades, scientific research has suggested a strong link between the health of the Amazon and the integrity of the global climate: tropical forests and woodlands (e.g., savannas) exchange vast amounts of water and energy with the atmosphere and are thought to be important in controlling local and regional climates. Consider the importance of the Amazon biome to the global climate changes impacts and the role of the protected area in the conservation of biodiversity and state-of-art of downscaling model techniques based on ANN Calibrate and run a downscaling model technique based on the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) that is applied to the Amazon region in order to obtain regional and local climate predicted data (e.g., precipitation). Considering the importance of the Amazon biome to the global climate changes impacts and the state-of-art of downscaling techniques for climate models, the shower of this work is presented as follows: the use of ANNs good similarity with the observation in the cities of Belém and Manaus, with correlations of approximately 88.9% and 91.3%, respectively, and spatial distribution, especially in the correction process, representing a good fit. David Mendes, José Antonio Marengo, Sidney Rodrigues, and Magaly Oliveira Copyright © 2014 David Mendes et al. All rights reserved. Exponential Stability of Periodic Solution to Wilson-Cowan Networks with Time-Varying Delays on Time Scales Wed, 02 Apr 2014 11:56:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2014/750532/ We present stability analysis of delayed Wilson-Cowan networks on time scales. By applying the theory of calculus on time scales, the contraction mapping principle, and Lyapunov functional, new sufficient conditions are obtained to ensure the existence and exponential stability of periodic solution to the considered system. The obtained results are general and can be applied to discrete-time or continuous-time Wilson-Cowan networks. Jinxiang Cai, Zhenkun Huang, and Honghua Bin Copyright © 2014 Jinxiang Cai et al. All rights reserved. Oscillatory Behavior on a Three-Node Neural Network Model with Discrete and Distributed Delays Mon, 24 Feb 2014 13:56:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2014/536324/ This paper investigates the oscillatory behavior of the solutions for a three-node neural network with discrete and distributed delays. Two theorems are provided to determine the conditions for oscillating solutions of the model. The criteria for selecting the parameters in this network are derived. Some simulation examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the results. Chunhua Feng Copyright © 2014 Chunhua Feng. All rights reserved. Novel Discrete Compactness-Based Training for Vector Quantization Networks: Enhancing Automatic Brain Tissue Classification Mon, 30 Dec 2013 08:53:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2013/278241/ An approach for nonsupervised segmentation of Computed Tomography (CT) brain slices which is based on the use of Vector Quantization Networks (VQNs) is described. Images are segmented via a VQN in such way that tissue is characterized according to its geometrical and topological neighborhood. The main contribution rises from the proposal of a similarity metric which is based on the application of Discrete Compactness (DC) which is a factor that provides information about the shape of an object. One of its main strengths lies in the sense of its low sensitivity to variations, due to noise or capture defects, in the shape of an object. We will present, compare, and discuss some examples of segmentation networks trained under Kohonen’s original algorithm and also under our similarity metric. Some experiments are established in order to measure the effectiveness and robustness, under our application of interest, of the proposed networks and similarity metric. Ricardo Pérez-Aguila Copyright © 2013 Ricardo Pérez-Aguila. All rights reserved. Estimation of Static Pull-In Instability Voltage of Geometrically Nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli Microbeam Based on Modified Couple Stress Theory by Artificial Neural Network Model Thu, 26 Dec 2013 13:29:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2013/741896/ In this study, the static pull-in instability of beam-type micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) is theoretically investigated. Considering the mid-plane stretching as the source of the nonlinearity in the beam behavior, a nonlinear size dependent Euler-Bernoulli beam model is used based on a modified couple stress theory, capable of capturing the size effect. Two supervised neural networks, namely, back propagation (BP) and radial basis function (RBF), have been used for modeling the static pull-in instability of microcantilever beam. These networks have four inputs of length, width, gap, and the ratio of height to scale parameter of beam as the independent process variables, and the output is static pull-in voltage of microbeam. Numerical data employed for training the networks and capabilities of the models in predicting the pull-in instability behavior has been verified. Based on verification errors, it is shown that the radial basis function of neural network is superior in this particular case and has the average errors of 4.55% in predicting pull-in voltage of cantilever microbeam. Further analysis of pull-in instability of beam under different input conditions has been investigated and comparison results of modeling with numerical considerations show a good agreement, which also proves the feasibility and effectiveness of the adopted approach. Mohammad Heidari, Yaghoub Tadi Beni, and Hadi Homaei Copyright © 2013 Mohammad Heidari et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Artificial Neural Network Architecture in Solving Ordinary Differential Equations Sun, 15 Dec 2013 14:56:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2013/181895/ This paper investigates the solution of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) with initial conditions using Regression Based Algorithm (RBA) and compares the results with arbitrary- and regression-based initial weights for different numbers of nodes in hidden layer. Here, we have used feed forward neural network and error back propagation method for minimizing the error function and for the modification of the parameters (weights and biases). Initial weights are taken as combination of random as well as by the proposed regression based model. We present the method for solving a variety of problems and the results are compared. Here, the number of nodes in hidden layer has been fixed according to the degree of polynomial in the regression fitting. For this, the input and output data are fitted first with various degree polynomials using regression analysis and the coefficients involved are taken as initial weights to start with the neural training. Fixing of the hidden nodes depends upon the degree of the polynomial. For the example problems, the analytical results have been compared with neural results with arbitrary and regression based weights with four, five, and six nodes in hidden layer and are found to be in good agreement. Susmita Mall and S. Chakraverty Copyright © 2013 Susmita Mall and S. Chakraverty. All rights reserved. Artificial Neural Network Modeling for Biological Removal of Organic Carbon and Nitrogen from Slaughterhouse Wastewater in a Sequencing Batch Reactor Thu, 12 Dec 2013 07:54:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2013/268064/ The present paper deals with treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater by conducting a laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with different input characterized samples, and the experimental results are explored for the formulation of feedforward backpropagation artificial neural network (ANN) to predict combined removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (-N). The reactor was operated under three different combinations of aerobic-anoxic sequence, namely, (4 + 4), (5 + 3), and (5 + 4) hour of total react period with influent COD and -N level of 2000 ± 100 mg/L and 120 ± 10 mg/L, respectively. ANN modeling was carried out using neural network tools, with Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm. Various trials were examined for training of three types of ANN models (Models “A,” “B,” and “C”) using number of neurons in the hidden layer varying from 2 to 30. All together 29, data sets were used for each three types of model for which 15 data sets were used for training, 7 data sets for validation, and 7 data sets for testing. The experimental results were used for testing and validation of three types of ANN models. Three ANN models (Models “A,” “B,” and “C”) were trained and tested reasonably well to predict COD and -N removal efficiently with 3.33% experimental error. Pradyut Kundu, Anupam Debsarkar, and Somnath Mukherjee Copyright © 2013 Pradyut Kundu et al. All rights reserved. The Classification of Valid and Invalid Beats of Three-Dimensional Nystagmus Eye Movement Signals Using Machine Learning Methods Tue, 10 Dec 2013 08:13:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2013/972412/ Nystagmus recordings frequently include eye blinks, noise, or other corrupted segments that, with the exception of noise, cannot be dampened by filtering. We measured the spontaneous nystagmus of 107 otoneurological patients to form a training set for machine learning-based classifiers to assess and separate valid nystagmus beats from artefacts. Video-oculography was used to record three-dimensional nystagmus signals. Firstly, a procedure was implemented to accept or reject nystagmus beats according to the limits for nystagmus variables. Secondly, an expert perused all nystagmus beats manually. Thirdly, both the machine and the manual results were united to form the third variation of the training set for the machine learning-based classification. This improved accuracy results in classification; high accuracy values of up to 89% were obtained. Martti Juhola, Heikki Aalto, Henry Joutsijoki, and Timo P. Hirvonen Copyright © 2013 Martti Juhola et al. All rights reserved. Artificial Neural Network Analysis of Sierpinski Gasket Fractal Antenna: A Low Cost Alternative to Experimentation Wed, 23 Oct 2013 08:55:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2013/560969/ Artificial neural networks due to their general-purpose nature are used to solve problems in diverse fields. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are very useful for fractal antenna analysis as the development of mathematical models of such antennas is very difficult due to complex shapes and geometries. As such empirical approach doing experiments is costly and time consuming, in this paper, application of artificial neural networks analysis is presented taking the Sierpinski gasket fractal antenna as an example. The performance of three different types of networks is evaluated and the best network for this type of applications has been proposed. The comparison of ANN results with experimental results validates that this technique is an alternative to experimental analysis. This low cost method of antenna analysis will be very useful to understand various aspects of fractal antennas. Balwinder S. Dhaliwal and Shyam S. Pattnaik Copyright © 2013 Balwinder S. Dhaliwal and Shyam S. Pattnaik. All rights reserved. Desirability Improvement of Committee Machine to Solve Multiple Response Optimization Problems Mon, 16 Sep 2013 10:27:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2013/628313/ Multiple response optimization (MRO) problems are usually solved in three phases that include experiment design, modeling, and optimization. Committee machine (CM) as a set of some experts such as some artificial neural networks (ANNs) is used for modeling phase. Also, the optimization phase is done with different optimization techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA). The current paper is a development of recent authors' work on application of CM in MRO problem solving. In the modeling phase, the CM weights are determined with GA in which its fitness function is minimizing the RMSE. Then, in the optimization phase, the GA specifies the final response with the object to maximize the global desirability. Due to the fact that GA has a stochastic nature, it usually finds the response points near to optimum. Therefore, the performance the algorithm for several times will yield different responses with different GD values. This study includes a committee machine with four different ANNs. The algorithm was implemented on five case studies and the results represent for selected cases, when number of performances is equal to five, increasing in maximum GD with respect to average value of GD will be eleven percent. Increasing repeat number from five to forty-five will raise the maximum GD by only about three percent more. Consequently, the economic run number of the algorithm is five. Seyed Jafar Golestaneh, Napsiah Ismail, Mohd Khairol Anuar M. Ariffin, Say Hong Tang, and Hassan Moslemi Naeini Copyright © 2013 Seyed Jafar Golestaneh et al. All rights reserved. Variance Sensitivity Analysis of Parameters for Pruning of a Multilayer Perceptron: Application to a Sawmill Supply Chain Simulation Model Sat, 14 Sep 2013 10:39:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2013/284570/ Simulation is a useful tool for the evaluation of a Master Production/Distribution Schedule (MPS). The goal of this paper is to propose a new approach to designing a simulation model by reducing its complexity. According to the theory of constraints, a reduced model is built using bottlenecks and a neural network exclusively. This paper focuses on one step of the network model design: determining the structure of the network. This task may be performed by using the constructive or pruning approaches. The main contribution of this paper is twofold; it first proposes a new pruning algorithm based on an analysis of the variance of the sensitivity of all parameters of the network and then uses this algorithm to reduce the simulation model of a sawmill supply chain. In the first step, the proposed pruning algorithm is tested with two simulation examples and compared with three classical pruning algorithms from the literature. In the second step, these four algorithms are used to determine the optimal structure of the network used for the complexity-reduction design procedure of the simulation model of a sawmill supply chain. Philippe Thomas, Marie-Christine Suhner, and André Thomas Copyright © 2013 Philippe Thomas et al. All rights reserved. Stem Control of a Sliding-Stem Pneumatic Control Valve Using a Recurrent Neural Network Sun, 23 Jun 2013 08:48:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2013/410870/ This paper presents a neural scheme for controlling an actuator of pneumatic control valve system. Bondgraph method has been used to model the actuator of control valve, in order to compare the response characteristics of valve. The proposed controller is such that the system is always operating in a closed loop, which should lead to better performance characteristics. For comparison, minimum- and full-order observer controllers are also utilized to control the actuator of pneumatic control valve. Simulation results give superior performance of the proposed neural control scheme. Mohammad Heidari and Hadi Homaei Copyright © 2013 Mohammad Heidari and Hadi Homaei. All rights reserved. Visualizing Clusters in Artificial Neural Networks Using Morse Theory Thu, 20 Jun 2013 13:26:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2013/486363/ This paper develops a process whereby a high-dimensional clustering problem is solved using a neural network and a low-dimensional cluster diagram of the results is produced using the Mapper method from topological data analysis. The low-dimensional cluster diagram makes the neural network's solution to the high-dimensional clustering problem easy to visualize, interpret, and understand. As a case study, a clustering problem from a diabetes study is solved using a neural network. The clusters in this neural network are visualized using the Mapper method during several stages of the iterative process used to construct the neural network. The neural network and Mapper clustering diagram results for the diabetes study are validated by comparison to principal component analysis. Paul T. Pearson Copyright © 2013 Paul T. Pearson. All rights reserved. Globally Exponential Stability of Impulsive Neural Networks with Given Convergence Rate Mon, 27 May 2013 13:10:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2013/908602/ This paper deals with the stability problem for a class of impulsive neural networks. Some sufficient conditions which can guarantee the globally exponential stability of the addressed models with given convergence rate are derived by using Lyapunov function and impulsive analysis techniques. Finally, an example is given to show the effectiveness of the obtained results. Chengyan Liu, Xiaodi Li, and Xilin Fu Copyright © 2013 Chengyan Liu et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Unsupervised Neural Techniques Applied to MR Brain Image Segmentation” Thu, 23 May 2013 11:50:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2013/187074/ A. Ortiz, J. M. Gorriz, J. Ramirez, and D. Salas-Gonzalez Copyright © 2013 A. Ortiz et al. All rights reserved. Using Ensemble of Neural Networks to Learn Stochastic Convection Parameterizations for Climate and Numerical Weather Prediction Models from Data Simulated by a Cloud Resolving Model Tue, 07 May 2013 09:15:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2013/485913/ A novel approach based on the neural network (NN) ensemble technique is formulated and used for development of a NN stochastic convection parameterization for climate and numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. This fast parameterization is built based on learning from data simulated by a cloud-resolving model (CRM) initialized with and forced by the observed meteorological data available for 4-month boreal winter from November 1992 to February 1993. CRM-simulated data were averaged and processed to implicitly define a stochastic convection parameterization. This parameterization is learned from the data using an ensemble of NNs. The NN ensemble members are trained and tested. The inherent uncertainty of the stochastic convection parameterization derived following this approach is estimated. The newly developed NN convection parameterization has been tested in National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). It produced reasonable and promising decadal climate simulations for a large tropical Pacific region. The extent of the adaptive ability of the developed NN parameterization to the changes in the model environment is briefly discussed. This paper is devoted to a proof of concept and discusses methodology, initial results, and the major challenges of using the NN technique for developing convection parameterizations for climate and NWP models. Vladimir M. Krasnopolsky, Michael S. Fox-Rabinovitz, and Alexei A. Belochitski Copyright © 2013 Vladimir M. Krasnopolsky et al. All rights reserved. Fuzzified Data Based Neural Network Modeling for Health Assessment of Multistorey Shear Buildings Tue, 26 Mar 2013 14:45:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2013/962734/ The present study intends to propose identification methodologies for multistorey shear buildings using the powerful technique of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models which can handle fuzzified data. Identification with crisp data is known, and also neural network method has already been used by various researchers for this case. Here, the input and output data may be in fuzzified form. This is because in general we may not get the corresponding input and output values exactly (in crisp form), but we have only the uncertain information of the data. This uncertain data is assumed in terms of fuzzy number, and the corresponding problem of system identification is investigated. Deepti Moyi Sahoo and S. Chakraverty Copyright © 2013 Deepti Moyi Sahoo and S. Chakraverty. All rights reserved. A Unified Framework for GPS Code and Carrier-Phase Multipath Mitigation Using Support Vector Regression Tue, 05 Mar 2013 16:30:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2013/240564/ Multipath mitigation is a long-standing problem in global positioning system (GPS) research and is essential for improving the accuracy and precision of positioning solutions. In this work, we consider multipath error estimation as a regression problem and propose a unified framework for both code and carrier-phase multipath mitigation for ground fixed GPS stations. We use the kernel support vector machine to predict multipath errors, since it is known to potentially offer better-performance traditional models, such as neural networks. The predicted multipath error is then used to correct GPS measurements. We empirically show that the proposed method can reduce the code multipath error standard deviation up to 79% on average, which significantly outperforms other approaches in the literature. A comparative analysis of reduction of double-differential carrier-phase multipath error reveals that a 57% reduction is also achieved. Furthermore, by simulation, we also show that this method is robust to coexisting signals of phenomena (e.g., seismic signals) we wish to preserve. Quoc-Huy Phan, Su-Lim Tan, Ian McLoughlin, and Duc-Lung Vu Copyright © 2013 Quoc-Huy Phan et al. All rights reserved. Inverse Analysis of Crack in Fixed-Fixed Structure by Neural Network with the Aid of Modal Analysis Sun, 03 Mar 2013 18:02:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2013/150209/ In this research, dynamic response of a cracked shaft having transverse crack is analyzed using theoretical neural network and experimental analysis. Structural damage detection using frequency response functions (FRFs) as input data to the back-propagation neural network (BPNN) has been explored. For deriving the effect of crack depths and crack locations on FRF, theoretical expressions have been developed using strain energy release rate at the crack section of the shaft for the calculation of the local stiffnesses. Based on the flexibility, a new stiffness matrix is deduced that is subsequently used to calculate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the cracked beam using the neural network method. The results of the numerical analysis and the neural network method are being validated with the result from the experimental method. The analysis results on a shaft show that the neural network can assess damage conditions with very good accuracy. Dhirendranath Thatoi and Prabir Kumar Jena Copyright © 2013 Dhirendranath Thatoi and Prabir Kumar Jena. All rights reserved. An Efficient Constrained Learning Algorithm for Stable 2D IIR Filter Factorization Sun, 24 Feb 2013 09:30:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2013/292567/ A constrained neural network optimization algorithm is presented for factorizing simultaneously the numerator and denominator polynomials of the transfer functions of 2-D IIR filters. The method minimizes a cost function based on the frequency response of the filters, along with simultaneous satisfaction of appropriate constraints, so that factorization is facilitated and the stability of the resulting filter is respected. Nicholas Ampazis and Stavros J. Perantonis Copyright © 2013 Nicholas Ampazis and Stavros J. Perantonis. All rights reserved. Intelligent Systems Developed for the Early Detection of Chronic Kidney Disease Wed, 09 Jan 2013 10:15:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2013/539570/ This paper aims to construct intelligence models by applying the technologies of artificial neural networks including back-propagation network (BPN), generalized feedforward neural networks (GRNN), and modular neural network (MNN) that are developed, respectively, for the early detection of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The comparison of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity among three models is subsequently performed. The model of best performance is chosen. By leveraging the aid of this system, CKD physicians can have an alternative way to detect chronic kidney diseases in early stage of a patient. Meanwhile, it may also be used by the public for self-detecting the risk of contracting CKD. Ruey Kei Chiu, Renee Y. Chen, Shin-An Wang, Yen-Chun Chang, and Li-Chien Chen Copyright © 2013 Ruey Kei Chiu et al. All rights reserved. Hopfield Neural Networks with Unbounded Monotone Activation Functions Mon, 31 Dec 2012 17:59:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2012/571358/ For the Hopfield Neural Network problem we consider unbounded monotone nondecreasing activation functions. We prove convergence to zero in an exponential manner provided that we start with sufficiently small initial data. Nasser-eddine Tatar Copyright © 2012 Nasser-eddine Tatar. All rights reserved. Advances in Unsupervised Learning Techniques Applied to Biosciences and Medicine Sun, 21 Oct 2012 07:45:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2012/219860/ Anke Meyer-Baese, Sylvain Lespinats, Juan Manuel Gorriz Saez, and Olivier Bastien Copyright © 2012 Anke Meyer-Baese et al. All rights reserved. A Radial Basis Function Spike Model for Indirect Learning via Integrate-and-Fire Sampling and Reconstruction Techniques Wed, 10 Oct 2012 13:51:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2012/713581/ This paper presents a deterministic and adaptive spike model derived from radial basis functions and a leaky integrate-and-fire sampler developed for training spiking neural networks without direct weight manipulation. Several algorithms have been proposed for training spiking neural networks through biologically-plausible learning mechanisms, such as spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity and Hebbian plasticity. These algorithms typically rely on the ability to update the synaptic strengths, or weights, directly, through a weight update rule in which the weight increment can be decided and implemented based on the training equations. However, in several potential applications of adaptive spiking neural networks, including neuroprosthetic devices and CMOS/memristor nanoscale neuromorphic chips, the weights cannot be manipulated directly and, instead, tend to change over time by virtue of the pre- and postsynaptic neural activity. This paper presents an indirect learning method that induces changes in the synaptic weights by modulating spike-timing-dependent plasticity by means of controlled input spike trains. In place of the weights, the algorithm manipulates the input spike trains used to stimulate the input neurons by determining a sequence of spike timings that minimize a desired objective function and, indirectly, induce the desired synaptic plasticity in the network. X. Zhang, G. Foderaro, C. Henriquez, A. M. J. VanDongen, and S. Ferrari Copyright © 2012 X. Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of a Nonrigid Motion Compensation Technique Based on Spatiotemporal Features for Small Lesion Detection in Breast MRI Thu, 06 Sep 2012 17:50:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2012/808602/ Motion-induced artifacts represent a major problem in detection and diagnosis of breast cancer in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the performance of a new nonrigid motion correction algorithm based on the optical flow method. For each of the small lesions, we extracted morphological and dynamical features describing both global and local shape, and kinetics behavior. In this paper, we compare the performance of each extracted feature set under consideration of several 2D or 3D motion compensation parameters for the differential diagnosis of enhancing lesions in breast MRI. Based on several simulation results, we determined the optimal motion compensation parameters. Our results have shown that motion compensation can improve the classification results. The results suggest that the computerized analysis system based on the non-rigid motion compensation technique and spatiotemporal features has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy of MRI mammography for small lesions and can be used as a basis for computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer with MR mammography. F. Steinbruecker, A. Meyer-Baese, T. Schlossbauer, and D. Cremers Copyright © 2012 F. Steinbruecker et al. All rights reserved.