Table 1: Track pad dimensions and oil sand properties.

Each track belt length L (m)4–8
Each track belt width W (m)0.5–2
Each track contact area L × W
Mass density of oil sands ρ (kg/m3)1600
Yield stress (MPa)~0.1
Modulus of elasticity (MPa)10
Poisson’s ratio 0.3
Strain hardening modulus (MPa)~0.1
Damping c (kPa s)10
Environmental temperature (°C)25