Advances in Critical Care http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Improves Arterial Hypoxemia in Meconium-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Piglets Thu, 19 Feb 2015 10:58:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acc/2015/495675/ Objective. Meconium aspiration induces acute lung injury (ALI) in neonates born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid. As yet, there is no specific therapy for improving the outcome. Recently, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which inactivates angiotensin II (Ang II), has been shown to ameliorate murine ALI. Design. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of this substance, we studied ACE2 in a piglet model of ALI induced by meconium aspiration. Subjects. Twelve anesthetized piglets were subjected in an animal research laboratory. ALI was induced by tracheal meconium instillation. Thereafter, six animals were randomly assigned to the ACE2 group, while another 6 served as control. Measurements. Systemic, pulmonary hemodynamic, and blood gas exchange parameters and Ang II levels were examined before ALI induction and at various time points after administering ACE2 or saline. In addition, ventilation-perfusion distribution of the lung was assessed by the multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET). Main Results. Animals treated with ACE2 maintained significantly higher arterial partial pressures of oxygen (Pao2) and lower arterial partial pressures of carbon dioxide (Paco2), respectively. Furthermore, Ang II, which was substantially increased, returned to basal values. Conclusion. In summary, ACE2 improves blood gas exchange in meconium-induced ALI in piglets. Benedikt Treml, Alexander Loeckinger, Axel Kleinsasser, Elisabeth Schoepf, Ralf Geiger, and Nikolaus Neu Copyright © 2015 Benedikt Treml et al. All rights reserved. Food for Thought: The Effects of Nutritional Support on Outcomes in Hospitalized Elderly Patients and the Critically Ill Wed, 16 Jul 2014 11:59:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acc/2014/871328/ The provision of adequate nutritional support appears to be essential for critically ill patients and other groups of patients at high risk for having malnutrition. In this review paper we describe our recent research regarding the amount of energy to be provided, how this should be assessed, and the beneficial effects of specialized nutritional support. We have shown that repeated measurements of energy expenditure using indirect calorimetry capture the dynamic energy changes characteristic of hospitalized patients. The provision of energy according to these measurements was associated with lower hospital mortality in critically ill patients when compared to patients receiving a fixed energy intake. A similar study performed in geriatric patients revealed a significant reduction in the number of infections when energy was provided according to repeated measurements. We have also shown that a diet enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid and gamma-linolenic acid improved oxygenation and lung dynamics and decreased ventilation duration in ICU patients with acute lung injury and ARDS. A similarly enriched diet together with micronutrients resulted in significantly less progression of existing pressure ulcers in ICU patients compared to an isonitrogenous, nutrient-sufficient formula. This may be related to an increase in the percentage of positive lymphocyte and granulocyte adhesion molecules. Jonathan Cohen, Miriam Tehilla, Ronit Anbar, and Pierre Singer Copyright © 2014 Jonathan Cohen et al. All rights reserved. Joint Paediatric and Psychiatric Follow-Up for Families following Paediatric Intensive Care Unit Admission: An Exploratory Study Wed, 04 Jun 2014 12:11:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acc/2014/897627/ Psychopathology in parents and children is increased after Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) admission; few studies have evaluated interventions to reduce this. Objective. Evaluation of the feasibility of setting up a joint paediatric and psychiatric follow-up clinic for families after PICU discharge. Design. Feasibility study offering joint follow-up with a consultant paediatric intensivist and child and adolescent psychiatrist. Setting. Paediatric outpatient clinic in a university teaching hospital with a PICU. Patients. Children and their families discharged from PICU. Interventions. Outpatient appointment focussing on physical and psychological health; psychoeducation about emotional and behavioural difficulties occurring after PICU discharge, advice for parents about supporting their child’s psychological recovery, screening for more severe psychiatric disorders, and provision of a leaflet outlining possible difficulties and management strategies. Measurements. Attendance, content of discussion, psychiatric questionnaires, and family feedback. Main Results. It proved feasible to set up follow-up appointments to address physical and psychological health concerns; 4/12(33%) eligible families attended. Children and mothers who attended all reported child difficulties including sleep disturbance, increased anxiety, and PTSD symptoms in children and parents. Conclusions. Follow-up clinics after PICU discharge are feasible to set up; take-up is poor but families attending report psychopathology which may be addressed through the intervention. Julia Gledhill, Amina Tareen, Mehrengise Cooper, Simon Nadel, and M. Elena Garralda Copyright © 2014 Julia Gledhill et al. All rights reserved.