Table 2: Damage states and threshold rotational ductility demands for the bridge piers.

Damage StatesDescription of damage states [25]Threshold rotational ductility demand [26]

NoneNo damage to a bridge
SlightMinor cracking and spalling to abutments, hinges, piers or minor cracking to the deck3.39
ModerateAny pier experiencing moderate cracking and spalling (pier structurally still sound), any connection having cracked shear keys or bent bolts, or moderate settlement of the approach4.75
ExtensiveAny pier degrading without collapse (pier structurally unsafe), any connection losing some bearing support, or major settlement of the approach8.43
CompleteAny pier collapsing and connection losing all bearing support, which may lead to imminent deck collapse