Advances in Civil Engineering The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Elaboration of the Method for Safety Assessment of Subsea Pipeline with Longitudinal Buckling Thu, 19 May 2016 11:18:30 +0000 The issue of ensuring longitudinal stability of marine gas pipelines has been raised in view of construction of pipelines operating at significant temperature drops. Most commonly the pipelines deviation from the design conditions as well as equilibrium disturbance occurs due to longitudinal buckling. The task of designing the marine gas pipeline involves making the reliability analysis of the pipeline, taking into account the required conditions of structural reliability in all construction phases. As per the Russian standards, the vertical buckling is not considered in the stability analysis, whereas the standards of the USA, Norway (DNV-RP-F110), and the Great Britain emphasize the need for considering the lateral buckling caused by axial forces. This paper focuses on the operational reliability calculation for an underwater main gas pipeline, in which longitudinal buckling failure occurred. The calculation is based on the probabilistic and statistical method of assessing the pipeline state and operational reliability. Liudmila Muravyeva and Nikolai Vatin Copyright © 2016 Liudmila Muravyeva and Nikolai Vatin. All rights reserved. Hydraulic Conductivity of Compacted Laterite Treated with Iron Ore Tailings Mon, 16 May 2016 07:57:38 +0000 The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of iron ore tailings (IOT) on hydraulic conductivity of compacted laterite. The IOT conforms to ASTM C 618-15 Type F designations. In the present study, soil was admixed with 0–20% IOT and compacted at moulding water content ranging from 10 to 25% using four types of compactive efforts. Hydraulic conductivities of the compacted soil-IOT mixtures were determined using deionized water and municipal solid waste leachate as the permeant fluids, respectively. Deionized water was the reference permeant fluid. Results of this study showed that hydraulic conductivity decreased with increase in IOT content as a result of improvement in mechanical properties of the soil. Permeation of the soil-IOT mixtures with leachate caused the hydraulic conductivity to drop to less than 1 × 10−9 m/s especially at higher compactive efforts. Also, bioclogging of the soil pores due to accumulation of biomass from bacteria and yeast present in the leachate tends to significantly reduce the hydraulic conductivity. From an economic point of view, it has been found from the results of this study that soil specimens treated with up to 20% IOT and compacted at the British Standard Light (BSL) compactive effort met the maximum regulatory hydraulic conductivity of less than or equal to 1 × 10−9 m/s for hydraulic barrier system. Umar Sa’eed Yusuf, Matawal Danladi Slim, and Elinwa Augustine Uchechukwu Copyright © 2016 Umar Sa’eed Yusuf et al. All rights reserved. The Application of Equivalent Age Concept to Sand Concrete Compared to Ordinary Concrete Sun, 08 May 2016 14:34:30 +0000 In this research the equivalent age concept was used, in order to simulate strength development of heat treated sand concrete compared with ordinary concrete at different temperature, 35, 55, and 70°C, and validate the simulation results with our experimental results. Sand concrete is a concrete with a lower or without coarse aggregate dosage; it is used to realize thin element as small precast prestressed beams, in injected concrete or in regions where sand is in extra quantity and the coarse aggregate in penury. This concrete is composed by principally sand, filler, superplasticizer, water, and cement. The results show that the simulation of ordinary concrete was acceptable with an error lower than 20%. But the error was considerable for the sand concrete. The error was due to large superplasticizer dosage, which modified the hardening of sand concrete; the most influent parameter in Arrhenius law is apparent energy activation, to search for the value of the activation energy which gives the best simulation; a superposition is used of two curves of different temperature and with superplasticizer dosage 4% and several values of activation energy, 15, 20, 25, and 30 × 10 kcal. The simulation becomes ameliorated with the adequate value of activation energy. Nabil Bella, Ilham Aguida Bella, and Aissa Asroun Copyright © 2016 Nabil Bella et al. All rights reserved. GIS Based Approach for Vulnerability Assessment of the Karnataka Coast, India Sun, 08 May 2016 11:40:43 +0000 The coastal zones are highly resourceful and dynamic. In recent times, increased events of tropical cyclones and the devastating impact of the December 2004 tsunami have brought forth the importance of assessing the vulnerability of the coast to hazard-induced flooding and inundation in coastal areas. This study intends to develop coastal vulnerability index (CVI) for the administrative units, known as talukas of the Karnataka state. Seven physical and geologic risk variables characterizing the vulnerability of the coast, including rate of relative sea level change, historical shoreline change, coastal slope, coastal regional elevation, mean tidal range, and significant wave height derived using conventional and remotely sensed data, along with one socioeconomic parameter “population,” were used in the study. A total of 298 km of shoreline are ranked in the study. It was observed that about 68.65 km of the shoreline is under very high vulnerable category and 79.26 km of shoreline is under high vulnerable category. Of the remaining shoreline, 59.14 km and 91.04 km are of moderate and low vulnerable categories, respectively. Akshaya Beluru Jana and Arkal Vittal Hegde Copyright © 2016 Akshaya Beluru Jana and Arkal Vittal Hegde. All rights reserved. Modeling of Hydrophysical Properties of the Soil as Capillary-Porous Media and Improvement of Mualem-Van Genuchten Method as a Part of Foundation Arrangement Research Wed, 06 Apr 2016 08:01:59 +0000 Within the concepts about the capillarity and the lognormal distribution of effective pore radii, a theoretical justification for function of differential water capacity and its antiderivative (function of water-retention capacity in form of a dependence of the soil volumetric water content on capillary pressure of the soil moisture) is presented. Using these functions, the ratio of soil hydraulic conductivity function to the filter coefficient is calculated. Approximations to functions describing the water-retention capacity and relative hydraulic conductivity of the soil have been suggested. Parameters of these functions have been interpreted and estimated with applying the physical and statistical indices of the soil. Vitaly Terleev, Aleksandr Nikonorov, Vladimir Badenko, Inna Guseva, Yulia Volkova, Olga Skvortsova, Sergey Pavlov, and Wilfried Mirschel Copyright © 2016 Vitaly Terleev et al. All rights reserved. Design of Reverse Curves Adapted to the Satellite Measurements Tue, 05 Apr 2016 12:34:26 +0000 The paper presents a new method for designing railway route in the direction change area adapted to the Mobile Satellite Measurements technique. The method may be particularly useful in the situations when both tangents cannot be connected in an elementary way using a circular arc with transition curves. Thus, the only solution would be the application of two circular arcs of opposite curvature signs, that is, the use of an inverse curve. It has been assumed that the design of the geometrical layout will take place within an adequate local coordinate system. The solution of the design problem takes advantage of a mathematical notation and concentrates on the determination of universal equations describing the entire geometrical layout. This is a sequential operation involving successive parts of the mentioned layout. This universal algorithm can be easily applied to the computer software which will allow generating, in an automatic way, other geometrical layouts. Then, the choice of the most beneficial variant from the point of obtained trains velocities while minimizing the track axis offsets will be held using the optimization techniques. The current designing methods do not provide such opportunities. The presented method has been illustrated by appropriate calculation examples. Wladyslaw Koc Copyright © 2016 Wladyslaw Koc. All rights reserved. Spectral Assessment of the Effects of Base Flexibility on Seismic Demands of a Structure Thu, 24 Mar 2016 08:43:54 +0000 Base flexibility of structures changes and can increase the demands on structural elements during earthquake excitation. Such flexibility may come from the base connection, foundation, and soil under the foundation. This research evaluates the effects of column base rotational stiffness on the seismic demand of single storey frames with a range of periods using linear and nonlinear time history analysis. The base rotational stiffness ranges considered are based on previous studies considering foundation and baseplate flexibility. Linear and nonlinear spectral analyses show that increasing base flexibility generally increases frame lateral displacement and top moment of the column. Furthermore, moments at the top of the columns and the nonlinear base rotation may also increase with increasing base flexibility, especially for shorter period structures. Since many commonly used baseplate connections may be categorized as being semirigid, it is essential to design and model structures using realistic base rotational stiffness rather than simply use a fixed base assumption. The overall results also illustrate the range of increased seismic demand as a function of normalized rotational stiffness and structural period for consideration in design. J. Borzouie, J. G. Chase, G. A. MacRae, G. W. Rodgers, and G. C. Clifton Copyright © 2016 J. Borzouie et al. All rights reserved. Mechanistic and Economical Characteristics of Asphalt Rubber Mixtures Thu, 17 Mar 2016 06:50:57 +0000 Load associated fatigue cracking is one of the major distress types occurring in flexible pavement systems. Flexural bending beam fatigue laboratory test has been used for several decades and is considered to be an integral part of the new superpave advanced characterization procedure. One of the most significant solutions to prolong the fatigue life for an asphaltic mixture is to utilize flexible materials as rubber. A laboratory testing program was performed on a conventional and Asphalt Rubber- (AR-) gap-graded mixtures to investigate the impact of added rubber on the mechanical, mechanistic, and economical attributes of asphaltic mixtures. Strain controlled fatigue tests were conducted according to American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) procedures. The results from the beam fatigue tests indicated that the AR-gap-graded mixtures would have much longer fatigue life compared with the reference (conventional) mixtures. In addition, a mechanistic analysis using 3D-Move software coupled with a cost analysis study based on the fatigue performance on the two mixtures was performed. Overall, analysis showed that AR modified asphalt mixtures exhibited significantly lower cost of pavement per 1000 cycles of fatigue life per mile compared to conventional HMA mixture. Mena I. Souliman and Annie Eifert Copyright © 2016 Mena I. Souliman and Annie Eifert. All rights reserved. Finite Element Modeling of Compressive and Splitting Tensile Behavior of Plain Concrete and Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Cylinder Specimens Thu, 10 Mar 2016 10:02:32 +0000 Plain concrete and steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) cylinder specimens are modeled in the finite element (FE) platform of ANSYS 10.0 and validated with the experimental results and failure patterns. Experimental investigations are conducted to study the increase in compressive and tensile capacity of cylindrical specimens made of stone and brick concrete and SFRC. Satisfactory compressive and tensile capacity improvement is observed by adding steel fibers of 1.5% volumetric ratio. A total of 8 numbers of cylinder specimens are cast and tested in 1000 kN capacity digital universal testing machine (UTM) and also modeled in ANSYS. The enhancement of compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of SFRC specimen is achieved up to 17% and 146%, respectively, compared to respective plain concrete specimen. Results gathered from finite element analyses are validated with the experimental test results by identifying as well as optimizing the controlling parameters to make FE models. Modulus of elasticity, Poisson’s ratio, stress-strain behavior, tensile strength, density, and shear transfer coefficients for open and closed cracks are found to be the main governing parameters for successful model of plain concrete and SFRC in FE platform. After proper evaluation and logical optimization of these parameters by extensive analyses, finite element (FE) models showed a good correlation with the experimental results. Md. Arman Chowdhury, Md. Mashfiqul Islam, and Zubayer Ibna Zahid Copyright © 2016 Md. Arman Chowdhury et al. All rights reserved. Industrial Wastes as Auxiliary Additives to Cement/Lime Stabilization of Soils Thu, 18 Feb 2016 14:29:10 +0000 Chemical stabilization involves the use of chemical agents for initiating reactions within the soil for modification of its geotechnical properties. Cement and lime stabilization have been the most common stabilization methods adopted for soil treatment. Cement stabilization results in good compressive strengths and is preferred for cohesionless to moderately cohesive soil but loses effectiveness when the soil is highly plastic. Lime stabilization is the most preferred method for plastic clays; however, it proves to be ineffective in sulphate rich clays and performs poorly under extreme conditions. With such drawbacks, lots of researches have been undertaken to address the issues faced with each stabilization method, in particular, the use of solid wastes for soil stabilization. Solid waste reuse has gained high momentum for achieving sustainable waste management in recent times. Research has shown that the use of solid wastes as additives with and replacement for conventional stabilizers has resulted in better results than the performance of either individually. This review provides insight into some of the works done by earlier researchers on lime/cement stabilization with industrial wastes as additives and helps to form a sound platform for further research on industrial wastes as additives to conventional stabilizers. Jijo James and P. Kasinatha Pandian Copyright © 2016 Jijo James and P. Kasinatha Pandian. All rights reserved. Performance Characterization of Polymer Modified Asphalt Binders and Mixes Wed, 17 Feb 2016 13:12:45 +0000 Fatigue sensitivity of four different asphalt binders and three different asphalt mixes was evaluated in the study. Binders were subjected to Linear Amplitude Sweep (LAS) test at three temperatures of 10, 20, and 30°C. Four-point beam bending test (4PBBT) was conducted on the asphalt mixes at a temperature of 20°C for strain amplitudes varying from 200 to 1000 microstrains. Tests like retained Marshall Stability and indirect tensile strength (ITS) were also carried out to judge the mix performance. Experimental studies demonstrated that elastomeric modified binder and mixes gave the best performance in fatigue. Plastomeric modification was found to be highly strain susceptible and resulted in poor fatigue performance. The fatigue life of stone mastic asphalt (SMA) was found to be almost five times higher than the dense graded mixes. For similar strain levels, the results of LAS test could be linearly correlated with the 4PBBT results. Nikhil Saboo and Praveen Kumar Copyright © 2016 Nikhil Saboo and Praveen Kumar. All rights reserved. An Optimization Model for Design of Asphalt Pavements Based on IHAP Code Number 234 Sun, 14 Feb 2016 13:51:33 +0000 Pavement construction is one of the most costly parts of transportation infrastructures. Incommensurate design and construction of pavements, in addition to the loss of the initial investment, would impose indirect costs to the road users and reduce road safety. This paper aims to propose an optimization model to determine the optimal configuration as well as the optimum thickness of different pavement layers based on the Iran Highway Asphalt Paving Code Number 234 (IHAP Code 234). After developing the optimization model, the optimum thickness of pavement layers for secondary rural roads, major rural roads, and freeways was determined based on the recommended prices in “Basic Price List for Road, Runway and Railway” of Iran in 2015 and several charts were developed to determine the optimum thickness of pavement layers including asphalt concrete, granular base, and granular subbase with respect to road classification, design traffic, and resilient modulus of subgrade. Design charts confirm that in the current situation (material prices in 2015), application of asphalt treated layer in pavement structure is not cost effective. Also it was shown that, with increasing the strength of subgrade soil, the subbase layer may be removed from the optimum structure of pavement. Ali Reza Ghanizadeh Copyright © 2016 Ali Reza Ghanizadeh. All rights reserved. DEM Resolution Impact on the Estimation of the Physical Characteristics of Watersheds by Using SWAT Sun, 14 Feb 2016 11:23:28 +0000 A digital elevation model (DEM) is an important spatial input for automatic extraction of topographic parameters for the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT). The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of DEM resolution (from 5 to 90 m) on the delineation process of a SWAT model with two types of watershed characteristics (flat area and mountain area) and three sizes of watershed area (about 20,000, 200,000, and 1,500,000 hectares). The results showed that the total lengths of the streamline, main channel slope, watershed area, and area slope were significantly different when using the DEM datasets to delineate. Delineation using the SRTM DEM (90 m), ASTER DEM (30 m), and LDD DEM (5 m) for all watershed characteristics showed that the watershed sizes and shapes obtained were only slightly different, whereas the area slopes obtained were significantly different. The total lengths of the generated streams increased when the resolution of the DEM used was higher. The stream slopes obtained using the small area sizes were insignificant, whereas the slopes obtained using the large area sizes were significantly different. This suggests that water resource model users should use the ASTER DEM as opposed to a finer resolution DEM for model input to save time for the model calibration and validation. Waranyu Buakhao and Anongrit Kangrang Copyright © 2016 Waranyu Buakhao and Anongrit Kangrang. All rights reserved. Cyclic and Explosive Evaluation of New Proposed Steel Joint Mon, 04 Jan 2016 07:05:02 +0000 The behaviour of a novel steel beam-to-column connection, the saddlebag, subjected to cyclic and progressive collapse, was evaluated in this paper. The cyclic behaviour considered the interstory drift angle and flexural strength in accordance with 2010 AISC Seismic Provisions, while progressive collapse assessment was evaluated through the plastic hinge rotation angle based on acceptance criteria provided in the UFC 4-023-03 guideline. From the cyclic test, one complete cycle of an interstory drift angle of 0.06 rad was satisfied for the saddlebag connection, which is an indication of the effectiveness in accordance with 2010 AISC Seismic Provisions. Besides, the new proposed connection developed adequate catenary action, which is a fundamental criterion to resist against progressive collapse. The resulting fuller hysteretic loops with large energy dissipation capacity in the proposed saddlebag connection guarantee its ability to address the inelastic deformation demands in earthquake conditions. Iman Faridmehr, Yusof Ahmad, Mahmood Md. Tahir, and Mohd Hanim Osman Copyright © 2016 Iman Faridmehr et al. All rights reserved. Performance of Recycled Porous Hot Mix Asphalt with Gilsonite Additive Thu, 08 Oct 2015 09:05:38 +0000 The objective of the study is to evaluate the performance of porous asphalt using waste recycled concrete material and explore the effect of adding Gilsonite to the mixture. As many as 90 Marshall specimens were prepared with varied asphalt content, percentage of Gilsonite as an additive, and proportioned recycled and virgin coarse aggregate. The test includes permeability capability and Marshall characteristics. The results showed that recycled concrete materials seem to have a potential use as aggregate in the hot mix asphalt, particularly on porous hot mix asphalt. Adding Gilsonite at ranges 8–10% improves the Marshall characteristic of the mix, particularly its stability, without decreasing significantly the permeability capability of the mix. The use of recycled materials tends to increase the asphalt content of the mix at about 1 to 2% higher. With stability reaching 750 kg, the hot mix recycled porous asphalt may be suitable for use in the local roads with medium vehicle load. Ludfi Djakfar, Hendi Bowoputro, Bangun Prawiro, and Nugraha Tarigan Copyright © 2015 Ludfi Djakfar et al. All rights reserved. Research on Dissipation and Fatigue Capacity of Nonstiffener Shear Panel Dampers Mon, 21 Sep 2015 12:01:19 +0000 Passive energy dissipation control system can effectively control structure response under seismic action. As a form of passive energy dissipation control, yielding steel shear panel dampers can dissipate energy of the ground motion very well with the plastic deformation. By monotonic cyclic loading, hysteretic performance of the 15 mm thick core-board nonstiffener shear panel damper is tested, and the test shows that the damper has a superior hysteretic performance. Using finite element analysis software ABAQUS, and taking height to thickness ratio of the core-board as variable, the qualitative analysis on the damper is carried out, and results show that the critical height to thickness ratio of shear panel damper is between 30 and 35. Three groups of 15 mm thick core-board nonstiffener shear panel dampers are tested by constant amplitude cyclic loading under different amplitudes; the results show that the fatigue performance is fine and the damper is a good energy dissipation device. Ji-long Li, Ya-nan Tang, and Xuan-ming Liu Copyright © 2015 Ji-long Li et al. All rights reserved. Optimizing Construction Project Labor Utilization Using Differential Evolution: A Comparative Study of Mutation Strategies Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:29:47 +0000 In construction management, the task of planning project schedules with consideration of labor utilization is very crucial. However, the commonly used critical path method (CPM) does not inherently take into account this issue. Consequently, the labor utilization of the project schedule derived from the CPM method often has substantial low ebbs and high peaks. This research proposes a model to obtain project schedule with the least fluctuation in labor demand while still satisfying the project deadline and maintain the project cost. The Differential Evolution (DE), a fast and efficient metaheuristic, is employed to search for the most desirable solution of project execution among numerous combinations of activities’ crew sizes and start times. Furthermore, seven DE’s mutation strategies have also been employed for solving the optimization at hand. Experiment results point out that the Target-to-Best 1 and a new hybrid mutation strategy can attain the best solution of project schedule with the least fluctuation in labor demand. Accordingly, the proposed framework can be an effective tool to assist decision-makers in the project planning phase. Nhat-Duc Hoang, Quoc-Lam Nguyen, and Quang-Nhat Pham Copyright © 2015 Nhat-Duc Hoang et al. All rights reserved. Reservoir Inflow Prediction under GCM Scenario Downscaled by Wavelet Transform and Support Vector Machine Hybrid Models Tue, 18 Aug 2015 09:12:35 +0000 Climate change has significant impacts on changing precipitation patterns causing the variation of the reservoir inflow. Nowadays, Indonesian hydrologist performs reservoir inflow prediction according to the technical guideline of Pd-T-25-2004-A. This technical guideline does not consider the climate variables directly, resulting in significant deviation to the observation results. This research intends to predict the reservoir inflow using the statistical downscaling (SD) of General Circulation Model (GCM) outputs. The GCM outputs are obtained from the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis (NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis). A new proposed hybrid SD model named Wavelet Support Vector Machine (WSVM) was utilized. It is a combination of the Multiscale Principal Components Analysis (MSPCA) and nonlinear Support Vector Machine regression. The model was validated at Sutami Reservoir, Indonesia. Training and testing were carried out using data of 1991–2008 and 2008–2012, respectively. The results showed that MSPCA produced better extracting data than PCA. The WSVM generated better reservoir inflow prediction than the one of technical guideline. Moreover, this research also applied WSVM for future reservoir inflow prediction based on GCM ECHAM5 and scenario SRES A1B. Gusfan Halik, Nadjadji Anwar, Budi Santosa, and Edijatno Copyright © 2015 Gusfan Halik et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Fuzzy AHP and Fuzzy TOPSIS for Road Pavement Maintenance Prioritization: Methodological Exposition and Case Study Thu, 09 Jul 2015 06:39:24 +0000 For road pavement maintenance and repairs prioritization, a multiattribute approach that compares fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy Technique for Order Preference by Ideal Situation (TOPSIS) is evaluated. The pavement distress data was collected through empirical condition surveys and rating by pavement experts. In comparison to the crisp AHP, the fuzzy AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS pairwise comparison techniques are considered to be more suitable for the subjective analysis of the pavement conditions for automated maintenance prioritization. From the case study results, four pavement maintenance objectives were determined as road safety, pavement surface preservation, road operational status and standards, and road aesthetics, with corresponding depreciating significance weights of . The top three maintenance functions were identified as Thin Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) overlays, resurfacing and slurry seals, which were a result of pavement cracking, potholes, raveling, and patching, while the bottom three were cape seal, micro surfacing, and fog seal. The two methods gave nearly the same prioritization ranking. In general, the fuzzy AHP approach tended to overestimate the maintenance prioritization ranking as compared to the fuzzy TOPSIS. Yashon O. Ouma, J. Opudo, and S. Nyambenya Copyright © 2015 Yashon O. Ouma et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Calcium Chloride Salt Solution on the Transport Properties of Cementitious Materials Thu, 04 Jun 2015 06:15:26 +0000 The chemical interaction between calcium chloride (CaCl2) and cementitious binder may alter the transport properties of concrete which are important in predicting the service life of infrastructure elements. This paper presents a series of fluid and gas transport measurements made on cementitious mortars before and after exposure to various solutions with concentrations ranging from 0% to 29.8% CaCl2 by mass. Fluid absorption, oxygen diffusivity, and oxygen permeability were measured on mortar samples prepared using Type I and Type V cements. Three primary factors influence the transport properties of mortar exposed to CaCl2: (1) changes in the degree of saturation, (2) calcium hydroxide leaching, and (3) formation of chemical reaction products (i.e., Friedel’s salt, Kuzel’s salt, and calcium oxychloride). It is shown that an increase in the degree of saturation decreases oxygen permeability. At lower concentrations (<~12% CaCl2 at room temperature), the addition of CaCl2 can increase calcium hydroxide leaching, thereby increasing mortar porosity (this is offset by the formation of Friedel’s salt and Kuzel’s salt that can block the pores). At higher concentrations (>~12%), the formation of chemical reaction products (mainly calcium oxychloride) is a dominant factor decreasing the fluid and gas transport in concrete. Yaghoob Farnam, Taylor Washington, and Jason Weiss Copyright © 2015 Yaghoob Farnam et al. All rights reserved. Assessing Mechanical Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt with Wire Wool Fibers Tue, 19 May 2015 13:08:10 +0000 This paper investigates the potential application of wire wool in the modification of hot asphalt mixes (HMA). Wire wool material is widely available at local markets as a by-product of wire wool industry and as waste products from homes. For the purpose of this study, wire wool was cut into small pieces so that it can be placed in the asphalt mixes. Different percentages of wire wool were incorporated with the hot asphalt mixes (0.0%, 0.25%, and 0.5%) of the total weight of the asphalt binder. Various experimental tests were used to evaluate the modification effectiveness of combining wire wool with hot asphalt mixes, namely, the Marshall Stability, indirect tensile strength (ITS), dynamic creep, fatigue, and rutting tests. Test results proved that the addition of wire wool increased the tensile strength of the asphalt concrete mixes. However, rutting increased due to increasing percentage of wire wool. Therefore, mixes containing wire wool can be used in areas where rutting is not the expected predominant distress type. Ahmed N. Bdour, Yahia Khalayleh, and Aslam A. Al-Omari Copyright © 2015 Ahmed N. Bdour et al. All rights reserved. Enhancing the Classical Closed-Loop Algorithm in terms of Power Consumption Thu, 14 May 2015 06:30:10 +0000 An approach is suggested to reduce the peak and average control forces of actively controlled structures. In this method, responses of an actively controlled building should be much smaller than the responses of the same building controlled by the similar passive control mechanism. This approach leads to a time varying gain matrix, which is not restricted by external excitation but it is related to the selection of a scalar function. Extensive numerical analyses by using various scalar functions show that the proposed strategy effectively can reduce the need of the required control force consumptions. Rahman Mirzaei and Seyed Sina Kourehli Copyright © 2015 Rahman Mirzaei and Seyed Sina Kourehli. All rights reserved. A Two-Stage Method for Structural Damage Prognosis in Shear Frames Based on Story Displacement Index and Modal Residual Force Wed, 13 May 2015 14:20:18 +0000 A two-stage method is proposed to properly identify the location and the extent of damage in shear frames. In the first stage, a story displacement index (SDI) is presented to precisely locate the damage in the shear frame which is calculated using the modal analysis information of the damaged structure. In the second stage, by defining a new objective function, the extent of the actual damage is determined via an imperialist competitive algorithm. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by implementing the technique to three examples containing five-, ten-, and twenty-five-story shear frames with noises and without them in modal data. Moreover, the performance of the proposed method has been verified through using a benchmark problem. Numerical results show the high efficiency of the proposed method for accurately identifying the location and the extent of structural damage in shear frames. Asghar Rasouli, Seyed Sina Kourehli, Gholamreza Ghodrati Amiri, and Ali Kheyroddin Copyright © 2015 Asghar Rasouli et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Posttensioning Slippage on 2-Way Spanning Concrete Slabs Thu, 09 Apr 2015 11:32:03 +0000 This paper investigates the effect of improper posttensioning of a 2-way spanning concrete slab subject to a central point load. Due to plate slippage alone, the support conditions only offered a 1-way spanning action which could have led to premature failure with dangerous consequences. Posttensioning can strengthen a flat slab against punching shear by controlling deflections and cracking under service loads compared with traditional punching shear reinforcing methods leading to more slender structures and economic solutions for longer spans. However, if the method is not properly applied, these thinner floor plates can fail in a brittle and sudden manner by punching at ultimate limit state and excessive deflection in serviceability. Concrete slabs containing traditional shear reinforcement performed adequately and demonstrated that the critical punching shear perimeter, defined as twice the depth of the slab, was confirmed from measured deflections and crack pattern analysis. Niall Holmes and Eoin Byrne Copyright © 2015 Niall Holmes and Eoin Byrne. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Steel Shear Walls Behavior with Sinusoidal and Trapezoidal Corrugated Plates Tue, 07 Apr 2015 07:39:00 +0000 Reinforcement of structures aims to control the input energy of unnatural and natural forces. In the past four decades, steel shear walls are utilized in huge constructions in some seismic countries such as Japan, United States, and Canada to lessen the risk of destructive forces. The steel shear walls are divided into two types: unstiffened and stiffened. In the former, a series of plates (sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated) with light thickness are used that have the postbuckling field property under overall buckling. In the latter, steel profile belt series are employed as stiffeners with different arrangement: horizontal, vertical, or diagonal in one side or both sides of wall. In the unstiffened walls, increasing the thickness causes an increase in the wall capacity under large forces in tall structures. In the stiffened walls, joining the stiffeners to the wall is costly and time consuming. The ANSYS software was used to analyze the different models of unstiffened one-story steel walls with sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated plates under lateral load. The obtained results demonstrated that, in the walls with the same dimensions, the trapezoidal corrugated plates showed higher ductility and ultimate bearing compared to the sinusoidal corrugated plates. Emad Hosseinpour, Shahrizan Baharom, and Yasser Yadollahi Copyright © 2015 Emad Hosseinpour et al. All rights reserved. Probabilistic Assessment of Degree of Bending in Tubular X-Joints of Offshore Structures Subjected to Bending Loads Thu, 05 Mar 2015 08:59:16 +0000 Fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore structures is significantly influenced by the degree of bending (DoB). The DoB exhibits considerable scatter calling for greater emphasis in accurate determination of its governing probability distribution which is a key input for the fatigue reliability analysis of a tubular joint. Although the tubular X-joints are commonly found in offshore jacket structures, as far as the authors are aware, no comprehensive research has been carried out on the probability distribution of the DoB in tubular X-joints. In the present paper, results of parametric equations available for the calculation of the DoB have been used to develop probability distribution models for the DoB in the chord member of tubular X-joints subjected to four types of bending loads. Based on a parametric study, a set of samples was prepared and density histograms were generated for these samples using Freedman-Diaconis method. Twelve different probability density functions (PDFs) were fitted to these histograms. In each case, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate the goodness of fit. Finally, after substituting the values of estimated parameters for each distribution, a set of fully defined PDFs have been proposed for the DoB in tubular X-joints subjected to bending loads. Hamid Ahmadi and Amirreza Ghaffari Copyright © 2015 Hamid Ahmadi and Amirreza Ghaffari. All rights reserved. Experimental Study of Hysteretic Steel Damper for Energy Dissipation Capacity Tue, 03 Feb 2015 13:46:45 +0000 This study aims to evaluate energy absorption capacity of hysteretic steel damper for earthquake protection of structures. These types of steel dampers are fabricated from mild steel plate with different geometrical shapes on the side part, namely, straight, concave, and convex shapes. The performance of the proposed device was verified experimentally by a series of tests under increasing in-plane cyclic load. The overall test results indicated that the proposed steel dampers have similar hysteretic curves, but the specimen with convex-shaped side not only showed stable hysteretic behavior but also showed excellent energy dissipation capabilities and ductility factor. Furthermore, the load-deformation relation of these steel dampers can be decomposed into three parts, namely, skeleton curve, Bauschinger part, and elastic unloading part. The skeleton curve is commonly used to obtain the main parameters, which describe the behavior of steel damper, namely, yield strength, elastic stiffness, and postyield stiffness ratio. Moreover, the effective stiffness, effective damping ratio, cumulative plastic strain energy, and cumulative ductility factor were also derived from the results. Finally, an approximation trilinear hysteretic model was developed based on skeleton curve obtained from experimental results. Daniel R. Teruna, Taksiah A. Majid, and Bambang Budiono Copyright © 2015 Daniel R. Teruna et al. All rights reserved. Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Deficient RC Structures with Bar Pullout and Joint Shear Degradation Wed, 28 Jan 2015 07:40:26 +0000 Pakistan is an underdeveloped country, still striving for improvement in construction practices. Most of the private construction is carried out as nonengineered which caused loss of approximately 85,000 lives in Kashmir (2005) earthquake. However, after the Kashmir (2005) earthquake, the government and engineering community emphasized on implementation of seismic codes. Although the current construction practices are considered as better than previous construction work the vulnerability of these structures is yet to be determined. It aims at the vulnerability assessment of recent RC construction in Pakistan that still needs to be assessed. Research work starts with calibration of panel zone element (PERFORM 3D) depicting joint shear degradation, while comparing the analytical results with experimental work, found in the literature. The frame work is then used for vulnerability assessment of RC structures typical of current construction practices in Pakistan while using advanced capacity spectrum method, developed by Kyriakides for which three cases have been considered, being constructed more frequently by public sector, in different seismic zones, based on design usually followed by builders in the region. Finally, the conclusion is drawn with suggestion of further improvement of seismic behavior of the structures. Arslan Mushtaq, Shaukat Ali Khan, Hamza Farooq Gabriel, and Sajjad Haider Copyright © 2015 Arslan Mushtaq et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Train Schedule on Pedestrian Movement on Stairway at Suburban Rail Transit Station in Mumbai, India Thu, 08 Jan 2015 13:01:03 +0000 Pedestrian flow takes place in confined environment on stairways under the influence of composition, direction of movement, and schedule of trains. During peak-period, alighting and boarding rate is quite high resulting in very high pedestrian movement from one platform to the other to catch the next train at interchange stations. The transfer of passengers from railway platforms through common undivided stairways becomes difficult, uncomfortable, and unsafe at times when pedestrian flow reaches the capacity level. Understanding of criteria defining quality of flow that affect the effectiveness of facilities like stairways in handling the pedestrian traffic is vital for planning and designing of such facilities to ensure the desired level of service as well as safety in case of emergency. The present paper is based on the study of pedestrian movement on stairways at busy suburban rail transit interchange station at Dadar in Mumbai, India. Pedestrian movements are captured through videography at two stairways and the effect of bidirectional movement on average walking speed is analyzed. The ascending flow in small proportion is found to be more influential in causing speed reduction on undivided stairways. The outcome of the study is useful for capacity and level of service analysis while planning and designing the transit station stairways. Shah Jiten, Joshi Gaurang, Parida Purnima, and Arkatkar Shriniwas Copyright © 2015 Shah Jiten et al. All rights reserved. Analytical Study of Common Rigid Steel Connections under the Effect of Heat Mon, 29 Dec 2014 12:37:31 +0000 One of the most important members of steel structure’s connection region is beam-to-column connection. Rigid connection in steel moment frame has special role in the behavior of these structures and the fire resistance of these connections can be important. In this paper the behaviors of three common types of rigid connections in Iran under the effect of heat were studied by the use of numerical finite element methods through ABAQUS software. The models were verified by the use of an experimental model through elastic and plastic amplitudes up to collapse and during numerical results, and the effect of large deformation in the nonlinear region has also been considered. The results show that the connection with the end plate had a better performance against heat than other connections. Also reduced stiffness and lateral buckling in this connection were less than other connections. Rohola Rahnavard, Navid Siahpolo, Mohammad Naghavi, and Akbar Hassanipour Copyright © 2014 Rohola Rahnavard et al. All rights reserved.