Advances in Civil Engineering The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. On the Fresh/Hardened Properties of Cement Composites Incorporating Rubber Particles from Recycled Tires Thu, 30 Oct 2014 09:20:11 +0000 This study investigates the ameliorative effects on some properties of cement-based materials which can be obtained by incorporating rubber particles as part of the fine aggregates. The aim is to find out optimal cement composite/mortar mixtures, containing recycled-tyre rubber particles, suitable for specific engineering applications. Different percentages of rubber particles, from 0% to 75%, were used and, for each percentage, the suitable amount of sand was investigated in order to achieve the best fresh/hardened performances. In particular the following characteristics were examined: density, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, shrinkage, weight loss, flexural behaviour, thermal conductivity, rapid freezing and thawing durability, and chloride permeability. The experimental results were compared with the ones of cement composite specimens without rubber aggregates. Test results show that the proposed rubberized mortar mixes are particularly suitable for some industrial and architectural applications, such as under-rail bearings, road constructions, paving slabs, false facades, and stone backing. Alessandra Fiore, Giuseppe Carlo Marano, Cesare Marti, and Marcello Molfetta Copyright © 2014 Alessandra Fiore et al. All rights reserved. Experimental and Empirical Time to Corrosion of Reinforced Concrete Structures under Different Curing Conditions Thu, 16 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Reinforced concrete structures, especially those in marine environments, are commonly subjected to high concentrations of chlorides, which eventually leads to corrosion of the embedded reinforcing steel. The total time to corrosion of such structures may be divided into three stages: corrosion initiation, cracking, and damage periods. This paper evaluates, both empirically and experimentally, the expected time to corrosion of reinforced concrete structures. The tested reinforced concrete samples were subjected to ten alternative curing techniques, including hot, cold, and normal temperatures, prior to testing. The corrosion initiation, cracking, and damage periods in this investigation were experimentally monitored by an accelerated corrosion test performed on reinforced concrete samples. Alternatively, the corrosion initiation time for counterpart samples was empirically predicted using Fick’s second law of diffusion for comparison. The results showed that the corrosion initiation periods obtained experimentally were comparable to those obtained empirically. The corrosion initiation was found to occur at the first jump of the current measurement in the accelerated corrosion test which matched the half-cell potential reading of around −350 mV. Ahmed A. Abouhussien and Assem A. A. Hassan Copyright © 2014 Ahmed A. Abouhussien and Assem A. A. Hassan. All rights reserved. Bridge Management Strategy Based on Extreme User Costs for Bridge Network Condition Tue, 14 Oct 2014 13:27:24 +0000 This paper presents a practical approach for prioritization of bridge maintenance within a given bridge network. The maintenance prioritization is formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem where the simultaneous satisfaction of several conflicting objectives includes minimization of maintenance costs, maximization of bridge deck condition, and minimization of traffic disruption and associated user costs. The prevalence of user cost during maintenance period is twofold; the first case refers to the period of dry season where normally the traffic flow is diverted to alternative routes usually resurfaced to regain traffic access. The second prevalence refers to the absence of alternative routes which is often the case in the least developed countries; in this case the user cost referred to results from the waiting time while the traffic flow is put on hold awaiting accomplishment of the maintenance activity. This paper deals with the second scenario of traffic closure in the absence of alternative diversion routes which in essence results in extreme user cost. The paper shows that the multiobjective optimization approach remains valid for extreme cases of user costs in the absence of detour roads as often is the scenario in countries with extreme poor road infrastructure. Ladislaus Lwambuka and Primus V. Mtenga Copyright © 2014 Ladislaus Lwambuka and Primus V. Mtenga. All rights reserved. Mobile Imaging and Computing for Intelligent Structural Damage Inspection Wed, 01 Oct 2014 06:25:09 +0000 Optical imaging is a commonly used technique in civil engineering for aiding the archival of damage scenes and more recently for image analysis-based damage quantification. However, the limitations are evident when applying optical imaging in the field. The most significant one is the lacking of computing and processing capability in the real time. The advancement of mobile imaging and computing technologies provides a promising opportunity to change this norm. This paper first provides a timely introduction of the state-of-the-art mobile imaging and computing technologies for the purpose of engineering application development. Further we propose a mobile imaging and computing (MIC) framework for conducting intelligent condition assessment for constructed objects, which features in situ imaging and real-time damage analysis. This framework synthesizes advanced mobile technologies with three innovative features: (i) context-enabled image collection, (ii) interactive image preprocessing, and (iii) real-time image analysis and analytics. Through performance evaluation and field experiments, this paper demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed framework. ZhiQiang Chen and Jianfei Chen Copyright © 2014 ZhiQiang Chen and Jianfei Chen. All rights reserved. Structural Damage Detection Based on Modal Parameters Using Continuous Ant Colony Optimization Tue, 30 Sep 2014 07:14:56 +0000 A method is presented to detect and quantify structural damages from changes in modal parameters (such as natural frequencies and mode shapes). An inverse problem is formulated to minimize the objective function, defined in terms of discrepancy between the vibration data identified by modal testing and those computed from analytical model, which then solved to locate and assess the structural damage using continuous ant colony optimization algorithm. The damage is formulated as stiffness reduction factor. The study indicates potentiality of the developed code to solve a wide range of inverse identification problems. Aditi Majumdar, Bharadwaj Nanda, Dipak Kumar Maiti, and Damodar Maity Copyright © 2014 Aditi Majumdar et al. All rights reserved. Damage Identification for Prestressed Adjacent Box-Beam Bridges Tue, 23 Sep 2014 09:28:01 +0000 Structural health monitoring (SHM) has gained considerable attention as a tool for monitoring the health of civil infrastructure. For bridge infrastructure, previous methods have focused on the detection of localized damage through modal parameters extracted from the longitudinal direction of the structure. This paper investigates a new damage detection method based on the change in the first vertical mode extracted from the transverse direction of the bridge. The mode is determined through application of modal curve fitting to frequency response functions (FRFs) that are formed using vertical response data obtained in the direction perpendicular to the bridge’s longitudinal axis. Using this method, both local damage and global damage in the bridge reveal themselves as having a localized effect on the bridge response. Furthermore, damage is revealed in such a way that it enables differentiation of the damage types. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, modal parameters were extracted from acceleration data obtained from a finite element model of a full bridge. Analysis of the modal parameters showed that the proposed approach could not only detect both local and global bridge damage, but could also differentiate between damage types using only one mode shape. The proposed method was compared to a previously developed SHM method. Kenneth K. Walsh, Brendan T. Kelly, and Eric P. Steinberg Copyright © 2014 Kenneth K. Walsh et al. All rights reserved. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Plates Stiffened by Parallel Beams with Deformable Connection Sun, 14 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 In this paper a general solution to the geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis of plates stiffened by arbitrarily placed parallel beams of arbitrary doubly symmetric cross-section, subjected to dynamic loading, is presented. The plate-beam structure is assumed to undergo moderate large deflections and the nonlinear analysis is carried out by retaining nonlinear terms in the kinematical relations. According to the proposed model, the arbitrarily placed parallel stiffening beams are isolated from the plate by sections in the lower outer surface of the plate, making the hypothesis that the plate and the beams can slip in all directions of the connection without separation and taking into account the arising tractions in all directions at the fictitious interfaces. These tractions are integrated with respect to each half of the interface width resulting in two interface lines, along which the loading of the beams and the additional loading of the plate are defined. Six boundary value problems are formulated and solved using the analog equation method (AEM), a BEM-based method. Both free and forced transverse vibrations are considered and numerical examples with great practical interest are presented demonstrating the effectiveness, wherever possible, the accuracy, and the range of applications of the proposed method. J. A. Dourakopoulos and E. J. Sapountzakis Copyright © 2014 J. A. Dourakopoulos and E. J. Sapountzakis. All rights reserved. Achievement of Early Compressive Strength in Concrete Using Sporosarcina pasteurii Bacteria as an Admixture Thu, 11 Sep 2014 07:50:39 +0000 Often it is observed, attainment of early compressive strength in concrete is a challenge. Researchers have tried various admixtures to achieve the objective. This work addresses the issue of achieving early compressive strength in concrete using a bacterium called Sporosarcina pasteurii. The bacterium is characterised with the ability to precipitate calcium carbonate in the presence of any carbonate source and is known for its resistive capacity in extreme temperature and pressure zones. To establish the objective of gain in early strength around 192 concrete cubes were tested at 3, 7, 14, and 28 days and the results compared with controlled concrete. The bacterium was used in combination of chemicals and the dosage proportions were altered to achieve the desired M20 compressive strength at 28 days. Rakesh Chidara, Rahul Nagulagama, and Smitha Yadav Copyright © 2014 Rakesh Chidara et al. All rights reserved. Evolutionary Modeling to Evaluate the Shear Behavior of Circular Reinforced Concrete Columns Sun, 07 Sep 2014 07:53:47 +0000 Despite their frequent occurrence in practice, only limited studies on the shear behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) circular members are available in the literature. Such studies are based on poor assumptions about the physical model, often resulting in being too conservative, as well as technical codes that essentially propose empirical conversion rules. On this topic in this paper, an evolutionary approach named EPR is used to create a structured polynomial model for predicting the shear strength of circular sections. The adopted technique is an evolutionary data mining methodology that generates a transparent and structured representation of the behavior of a system directly from experimental data. In this study experimental data of 61 RC circular columns, as reported in the technical literature, are used to develop the EPR models. As final result, physically consistent shear strength models for circular columns are obtained, to be used in different design situations. The proposed formulations are compared with models available from building codes and literature expressions, showing that EPR technique is capable of capturing and predicting the shear behavior of RC circular elements with very high accuracy. A parametric study is also carried out to evaluate the physical consistency of the proposed models. Alessandra Fiore, Giuseppe Carlo Marano, Daniele Laucelli, and Pietro Monaco Copyright © 2014 Alessandra Fiore et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Blending on Strength Distribution of Ambient Cured Metakaolin and Palm Oil Fuel Ash Based Geopolymer Mortar Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:21:51 +0000 This paper investigates the influence of blending of metakaolin with silica rich palm oil fuel ash (POFA) on the strength distribution of geopolymer mortar. The broadness of strength distribution of quasi-brittle to brittle materials depends strongly on the existence of flaws such as voids, microcracks, and impurities in the material. Blending of materials containing alumina and silica with the objective of improving the performance of geopolymer makes comprehensive characterization necessary. The Weibull distribution is used to study the strength distribution and the reliability of geopolymer mortar specimens prepared from 100% metakaolin, 50% and 70% palm and cured under ambient condition. Mortar prisms and cubes were used to test the materials in flexure and compression, respectively, at 28 days and the results were analyzed using Weibull distribution. In flexure, Weibull modulus increased with POFA replacement, indicating reduced broadness of strength distribution from an increased homogeneity of the material. Modulus, however, decreased with increase in replacement of POFA in the specimens tested under compression. It is concluded that Weibull distribution is suitable for analyses of the blended geopolymer system. While porous microstructure is mainly responsible for flexural failure, heterogeneity of reaction relics is responsible for the compression failure. Taliat Ola Yusuf, Mohammad Ismail, Jamilu Usman, and Ainul H. Noruzman Copyright © 2014 Taliat Ola Yusuf et al. All rights reserved. Enhancement of Ultrahigh Performance Concrete Material Properties with Carbon Nanofiber Sun, 24 Aug 2014 06:31:04 +0000 Ultrahigh performance concrete (UHPC) realized distinctly high mechanical, impermeability, and durability characteristics by reducing the size and content of capillary pore, refining the microstructure of cement hydrates, and effectively using fiber reinforcement. The dense and fine microstructure of UHPC favor its potential to effectively disperse and interact with nanomaterials, which could complement the reinforcing action of fibers in UHPC. An optimization experimental program was implemented in order to identify the optimum combination of steel fiber and relatively low-cost carbon nanofiber in UHPC. The optimum volume fractions of steel fiber and carbon nanofiber identified for balanced improvement of flexural strength, ductility, energy sorption capacity, impact, and abrasion resistance of UHPC were 1.1% and 0.04%, respectively. Desired complementary/synergistic actions of nanofibers and steel fibers in UHPC were detected, which were attributed to their reinforcing effects at different scales, and the potential benefits of nanofibers to interfacial bonding and pull-out behavior of fibers in UHPC. Modification techniques which enhanced the hydrophilicity and bonding potential of nanofibers to cement hydrates benefited their reinforcement efficiency in UHPC. Libya Ahmed Sbia, Amirpasha Peyvandi, Parviz Soroushian, Jue Lu, and Anagi M. Balachandra Copyright © 2014 Libya Ahmed Sbia et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash on Hydration of Foamed Concrete Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:19:55 +0000 This research explains the results of an investigation carried out to understand the influence of a microwave incinerated rice husk ash (MIRHA) powder on foamed concrete (FC) hydration. The experimental work was designed using the Taguchi approach. This method was selected to have a target for the optimum working conditions of the parameter that affects some physical properties of concrete mixtures. The loss on ignition (LOI) method was used to establish the nonevaporable water () content at all selected ages of hydration. It was observed that the MIRHA powder showed lower nonevaporable water contents than the normal FC, indicating that MIRHA powder facilitated enhancement in FC hydration. The optimum FC properties were achieved at 10% MIRHA composition as proven from the highest compressive strength. This level corresponds to the highest values in change in nonevaporable water and degree of hydration. R. Bayuaji and M. F. Nuruddin Copyright © 2014 R. Bayuaji and M. F. Nuruddin. All rights reserved. Architect Critical Challenges as a Project Manager in Construction Projects: A Case Study Wed, 13 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 All construction professionals such as civil, mechanical, and electrical engineers, quantity surveyors, and architects have important roles in the construction process. Among these, architects are frequently appointed as a project manager (PM). The role of a PM will drive the success of the projects implementation. Therefore, the capability of an architect as a PM (ArPM) is critical in reducing challenges encountered. Accordingly, the identification of these challenges is an important task in selecting an appropriate ArPM. The aim of this study is to identify the most critical challenges faced by an ArPM for construction projects. The data were collected through questionnaires and interviews with architects and professionals in the Malaysian construction industry. Because of the fuzziness and uncertainty of subjective responses, Fuzzy Set Ttheory is applied to identify critical challenges. A total of 65 questionnaires were distributed and 36 questionnaires were returned. The results revealed that the critical challenges faced by an ArPM are “poor planning,” “unfamiliar technology,” “unfamiliarity with green buildings and materials,” “inappropriate scheduling,” and “poor workmanship.” All critical challenges were then categorized into six main groups including technical, managerial, personal skills, contractual, psychological, and financial. Mohammadreza Yadollahi, Mohammad Mirghasemi, Rosli Mohamad Zin, and Bachan Singh Copyright © 2014 Mohammadreza Yadollahi et al. All rights reserved. Analysis, Design, and Construction of a Base-Isolated Multiple Building Structure Thu, 07 Aug 2014 07:35:48 +0000 The analysis and design of a multiple residential building, seismically protected by a base isolation system incorporating double friction pendulum sliders as protective devices, are presented in the paper. The building, situated in the suburban area of Florence, is composed of four independent reinforced concrete framed structures, mutually separated by three thermal expansion joints. The plan is L-shaped, with dimensions of about 75 m in the longitudinal direction and about 30 m along the longest side of the transversal direction. These characteristics identify the structure as the largest example of a base-isolated “artificial ground” ever built in Italy. The base isolation solution guarantees lower costs, a much greater performance, and a finer architectural look, as compared to a conventional fixed-base antiseismic design. The characteristics of the building and the isolators, the mechanical properties and the experimental characterization campaign and preliminary sizing carried out on the latter, and the nonlinear time-history design and performance assessment analyses developed on the base isolated building are reported in this paper, along with details about the installation of the isolators and the plants and highlights of the construction works. Stefano Sorace and Gloria Terenzi Copyright © 2014 Stefano Sorace and Gloria Terenzi. All rights reserved. Some Insights to the Reuse of Dredged Marine Soils by Admixing with Activated Steel Slag Tue, 05 Aug 2014 08:18:28 +0000 Regular dredging is necessary for the development of coastal regions and the maintenance of shipping channels. The dredging process dislodges sediments from the seabed, and the removed materials, termed dredged marine soils, are generally considered a geowaste for dumping. However, disposal of the dredged soils offshores can lead to severe and irreversible impact on the marine ecosystem, while disposal on land often incurs exorbitant costs with no guarantee of zero-contamination. It is therefore desirable to reuse the material, and one option is solidification with another industrial waste, that is, steel slag. This paper describes the exploratory work of admixing dredged marine soil with activated steel slag for improvement of the mechanical properties. An optimum activation concentration of NaOH was introduced to the soil-slag mixture for uniform blending. Specimens were prepared at different mix ratios then left to cure for up to 4 weeks. The unconfined compressive strength test was conducted to monitor the changes in strength at predetermined intervals. It was found that the strength does not necessarily increase with higher steel slag content, indicating an optimum slag content required for the maximum solidification effect to take place. Also, regardless of the slag content, longer curing time produces greater strength gain. In conclusion, steel slag addition to dredged sediments can effectively strengthen the originally weak soil structure by both the “cementation” and “filler” effects, though the combined effects were not distinguished in the present study. Chee-Ming Chan and Ainun Nazhirin Abdul Jalil Copyright © 2014 Chee-Ming Chan and Ainun Nazhirin Abdul Jalil. All rights reserved. Flexural Toughness Properties of Reinforced Steel Fibre Incorporated Alkali Activated Slag Concrete Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:56:31 +0000 The influence of steel fibre addition on the flexural properties of geopolymer based cementitious matrix was investigated in the present study. Slag based geopolymer mixtures were prepared with different binder and aggregate combinations. Strength gain and hardened properties of different geopolymer concrete mixtures were evaluated using accelerated curing techniques subjected to hot air oven and steam curing. Further, the steel fibre additions on the mechanical strength properties of a high strength geopolymer mixture were studied. A comprehensive evaluation on the post-crack toughness properties was assessed using four-point bend test. Test results exhibited that a geopolymer concrete of maximum compressive strength of 56.6 MPa can be achieved with steam curing. Experimental observations also demonstrated that the steel fibre inclusions in geopolymer concrete provided adequate improvement on post-crack toughness properties and showed higher composite performance with increased volume fraction of steel fibres. Srinivasan Karunanithi and Sivakumar Anandan Copyright © 2014 Srinivasan Karunanithi and Sivakumar Anandan. All rights reserved. Increasing the Capacity of Existing Bridges by Using Unbonded Prestressing Technology: A Case Study Wed, 23 Jul 2014 11:06:52 +0000 External posttensioning or unbonded prestressing was found to be a powerful tool for retrofitting and for increasing the life extension of existing structures. Since the 1950s, this technique of reinforcement was applied with success to bridge structures in many countries, and was found to provide an efficient and economic solution for a wide range of bridge types and conditions. Unbonded prestressing is defined as a system in which the post-tensioning tendons or bars are located outside the concrete cross-section and the prestressing forces are transmitted to the girder through the end anchorages, deviators, or saddles. In response to the demand for a faster and more efficient transportation system, there was a steady increase in the weight and volume of traffic throughout the world. Besides increases in legal vehicle loads, the overloading of vehicles is a common problem and it must also be considered when designing or assessing bridges. As a result, many bridges are now required to carry loads significantly greater than their original design loads; and their deck results still deteriorated by cracking of concrete, corrosion of rebars, snapping of tendons, and so forth. In the following, a case study about a railway bridge retrofitted by external posttensioning technique will be illustrated. Antonino Recupero, Nino Spinella, Piero Colajanni, and Cosimo D. Scilipoti Copyright © 2014 Antonino Recupero et al. All rights reserved. Composite Strain Hardening Properties of High Performance Hybrid Fibre Reinforced Concrete Sun, 13 Jul 2014 13:56:21 +0000 Hybrid fibres addition in concrete proved to be a promising method to improve the composite mechanical properties of the cementitious system. Fibre combinations involving different fibre lengths and moduli were added in high strength slag based concrete to evaluate the strain hardening properties. Influence of hybrid fibres consisting of steel and polypropylene fibres added in slag based cementitious system (50% CRL) was explored. Effects of hybrid fibre addition at optimum volume fraction of 2% of steel fibres and 0.5% of PP fibres (long and short steel fibre combinations) were observed in improving the postcrack strength properties of concrete. Test results also indicated that the hybrid steel fibre additions in slag based concrete consisting of short steel and polypropylene (PP) fibres exhibited a the highest compressive strength of 48.56 MPa. Comparative analysis on the performance of monofibre concrete consisting of steel and PP fibres had shown lower residual strength compared to hybrid fibre combinations. Hybrid fibres consisting of long steel-PP fibres potentially improved the absolute and residual toughness properties of concrete composite up to a maximum of 94.38% compared to monofibre concrete. In addition, the relative performance levels of different hybrid fibres in improving the matrix strain hardening, postcrack toughness, and residual strength capacity of slag based concretes were evaluated systematically. Vikram Jothi Jayakumar and Sivakumar Anandan Copyright © 2014 Vikram Jothi Jayakumar and Sivakumar Anandan. All rights reserved. Forecasting Daily Precipitation Using Hybrid Model of Wavelet-Artificial Neural Network and Comparison with Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System (Case Study: Verayneh Station, Nahavand) Thu, 03 Jul 2014 09:37:17 +0000 Doubtlessly the first step in a river management is the precipitation modeling over the related watershed. However, considering high-stochastic property of the process, many models are still being developed in order to define such a complex phenomenon in the field of hydrologic engineering. Recently artificial neural network (ANN) as a nonlinear interextrapolator is extensively used by hydrologists for precipitation modeling as well as other fields of hydrology. In the present study, wavelet analysis combined with artificial neural network and finally was compared with adaptive neurofuzzy system to predict the precipitation in Verayneh station, Nahavand, Hamedan, Iran. For this purpose, the original time series using wavelet theory decomposed to multiple subtime series. Then, these subseries were applied as input data for artificial neural network, to predict daily precipitation, and compared with results of adaptive neurofuzzy system. The results showed that the combination of wavelet models and neural networks has a better performance than adaptive neurofuzzy system, and can be applied to predict both short- and long-term precipitations. Abazar Solgi, Vahid Nourani, and Amir Pourhaghi Copyright © 2014 Abazar Solgi et al. All rights reserved. Analytical Analysis of Seismic Behavior of Cold-Formed Steel Frames with Strap Brace and Sheathings Plates Tue, 01 Jul 2014 07:56:46 +0000 Cold-formed steel frames (CFS) are popular all over the world. In this study, we have investigated 112 frames with different bracing arrangements and different dimensional ratios with different thicknesses of sheathing plates under cyclic and monotonic loading using Finite Element Nonlinear Analysis. We also evaluated seismic parameters including resistance reduction factor, ductility, and force reduction factor due to ductility for all specimens. On the other hand, we calculated the seismic response modification factor for these systems. The maximum modification factor among shear wall panels with sheathing plates related to GWB (gypsum wall board) specimen with thickness of 15 mm was 5.14; among bracing specimens in bilateral bracing mode related to B sample was 3.14. The maximum amount of resistance among the specimens with bilateral (2-side) bracing systems belongs to the specimen C (2-side double X-bracing) with the dimension ratio of 2 (4.8 m × 2.4 m) and resistance of 305.60 kN and also among the shear wall panels with sheathing plates, it belongs to DFP (douglas fir plywood) with a thickness of 20 mm and resistance of 371.34 kN. M. Gerami and M. Lotfi Copyright © 2014 M. Gerami and M. Lotfi. All rights reserved. Optimization of Urban Highway Bypass Horizontal Alignment: A Methodological Overview of Intelligent Spatial MCDA Approach Using Fuzzy AHP and GIS Sun, 22 Jun 2014 13:08:38 +0000 Selection of urban bypass highway alternatives involves the consideration of competing and conflicting criteria and factors, which require multicriteria decision analysis. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is one of the most commonly used multicriteria decision making (MCDM) methods that can integrate personal preferences in performing spatial analyses on the physical and nonphysical parameters. In this paper, the traditional AHP is modified to fuzzy AHP for the determination of the optimal bypass route for Eldoret town in Kenya. The fuzzy AHP is proposed in order to take care of the vagueness type uncertainty encountered in alternative bypass location determination. In the implementation, both engineering and environmental factors comprising of physical and socioeconomic objectives were considered at different levels of decision hierarchy. The results showed that the physical objectives (elevation, slope, soils, geology, and drainage networks) and socioeconomic objectives (land-use and road networks) contributed the same weight of 0.5 towards the bypass location prioritization process. At the subcriteria evaluation level, land-use and existing road networks contributed the highest significance of 47.3% amongst the seven decision factors. Integrated with GIS-based least cost path (LCP) analysis, the fuzzy AHP results produced the most desirable and optimal route alignment, as compared to the AHP only prioritization approach. Yashon O. Ouma, Chepng’etich Yabann, Mark Kirichu, and Ryutaro Tateishi Copyright © 2014 Yashon O. Ouma et al. All rights reserved. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of Direct Tension Test for Cylindrical Concrete Specimens Thu, 19 Jun 2014 07:20:48 +0000 Concrete cracking strength can be defined as the tensile strength of concrete subjected to pure tension stress. However, as it is difficult to apply direct tension load to concrete specimens, concrete cracking is usually quantified by the modulus of rupture for flexural members. In this study, a new direct tension test setup for cylindrical specimens (101.6 mm in diameter and 203.2 mm in height) similar to those used in compression test is developed. Double steel plates are used to obtain uniform stress distributions. Finite element analysis for the proposed test setup is conducted. The uniformity of the stress distribution along the cylindrical specimen is examined and compared with rectangular cross section. Fuzzy image pattern recognition method is used to assess stress uniformity along the specimen. Moreover, the probability of cracking at different locations along the specimen is evaluated using probabilistic finite element analysis. The experimental and numerical results of the cracking location showed that gravity effect on fresh concrete during setting time might affect the distribution of concrete cracking strength along the height of the structural elements. Jung J. Kim and Mahmoud Reda Taha Copyright © 2014 Jung J. Kim and Mahmoud Reda Taha. All rights reserved. FE Simulation of Transmission Tower Tue, 10 Jun 2014 05:50:12 +0000 The vital components of the transmission line are the electrical transmission towers. They are commonly used to support the phase conductors and shield wires of a transmission line. Also the accurate prediction of tower failure is very important for the reliability and safety of the transmission system. The current research describes nonlinear FE models of predicting the transmission tower failure. In the current FE simulations, the eccentricity and the joint effect of the tower were considered. The current models have been calibrated with results from previous full-scale tower tests and numerical models with good accuracy in terms of both the failure load and the failure mode. Boshra Eltaly, Amen Saka, and Kamel Kandil Copyright © 2014 Boshra Eltaly et al. All rights reserved. Drying Shrinkage Behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Concrete Incorporating Polyvinyl Alcohol Fibres and Fly Ash Tue, 20 May 2014 06:09:31 +0000 The current study assesses the drying shrinkage behaviour of polyvinyl alcohol fibre reinforced concrete (PVA-FRC) containing short-length (6 mm) and long-length (12 mm) uncoated monofilament PVA fibres at 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.375%, and 0.5% volumetric fractions. Fly ash is also used as a partial replacement of Portland cement in all mixes. PVA-FRC mixes have been compared to length change of control concrete (devoid of fibres) at 3 storage intervals: early-age (0–7 days), short-term (0–28 days), and long-term (28–112 days) intervals. The shrinkage results of FRC and control concrete up to 112 days indicated that all PVA-FRC mixes exhibited higher drying shrinkage than control. The shrinkage exhibited by PVA-FRC mixes ranged from 449 to 480 microstrain, where this value was only 427 microstrain in the case of control. In addition, the longer fibres exhibited higher mass loss, thus potentially contributing to higher shrinkage. Amin Noushini, Kirk Vessalas, Garo Arabian, and Bijan Samali Copyright © 2014 Amin Noushini et al. All rights reserved. Use of Rice Husk-Bark Ash in Producing Self-Compacting Concrete Wed, 14 May 2014 10:43:03 +0000 This paper presents the use of blend of Portland cement with rice husk-bark ash in producing self-compacting concrete (SCC). CT was partially replaced with ground rice husk-bark ash (GRHBA) at the dosage levels of 0%–40% by weight of binder. Compressive strength, porosity, chloride penetration, and corrosion of SCC were determined. Test results reveal that the resistance to chloride penetration of concrete improves substantially with partial replacement of CT with a blend of GRHBA and the improvement increases with an increase in the replacement level. The corrosion resistances of SCC were better than the CT concrete. In addition, test results indicated that the reduction in porosity was associated with the increase in compressive strength. The porosity is a significant factor as it affects directly the durability of the SCC. This work is suggested that the GHRBA is effective for producing SCC with 30% of GHRBA replacement level. Sumrerng Rukzon and Prinya Chindaprasirt Copyright © 2014 Sumrerng Rukzon and Prinya Chindaprasirt. All rights reserved. Sawdust Ash as Powder Material for Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Naphthalene Sulfonate Mon, 05 May 2014 11:13:20 +0000 Tests are carried out to determine the fluidity of Ashaka Portland cement paste and its compatibility with sawdust ash (SDA) as powder material for self-compacting cement (SCC) mixtures. Results of the investigation showed that saturation was achieved at w/c ratios of 0.4 and 0.42, at dosages of naphthalene sulfonate superplasticizers of 3.5% and 2%, respectively. The optimum replacement level for the SCC mixture was 10 wt.% of cement by SDA and 2% of the superplasticizer dosage. The achieved spread and flow time were 26 cm and 8 seconds and are within the specified range of 24 cm to 26 cm and 7 to 11 seconds, respectively. Statistical inference showed that the mix, w/c, and the interaction between the mix and w/c ratio are significant. Augustine U. Elinwa and Ahmed M. Mamuda Copyright © 2014 Augustine U. Elinwa and Ahmed M. Mamuda. All rights reserved. Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating Micro- and Acrylic Polymer Thu, 03 Apr 2014 13:34:01 +0000 This study examined the effects of using acrylic polymer and micro-SiO2 in self-compacting concrete (SCC). Using these materials in SCC improves the characteristics of the concrete. Self-compacting samples with 1-2% of a polymer and 10% micro-SiO2 were made. In all cases, compressive strength, water absorption, and self-compacting tests were done. The results show that adding acrylic polymer and micro-SiO2 does not have a significant negative effect on the mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete. In addition using these materials leads to improving them. Ali Heidari and Marzieh Zabihi Copyright © 2014 Ali Heidari and Marzieh Zabihi. All rights reserved. New Active Control Method Based on Using Multiactuators and Sensors Considering Uncertainty of Parameters Mon, 31 Mar 2014 08:05:19 +0000 New approach is presented for controlling the structural vibrations. The proposed active control method is based on structural dynamics theories in which multiactuators and sensors are utilized. Each actuator force is modeled as an equivalent viscous damper so that several lower vibration modes are damped critically. This subject is achieved by simple mathematical formulation. The proposed method does not depend on the type of dynamic load and it could be applied to control structures with multidegrees of freedom. For numerical verification of proposed method, several criterions such as maximum displacement, maximum kinetic energy, maximum drift, and time history of controlled force and displacement are evaluated in two- , five- , and seven-story shear buildings, subjected to the harmonic load, impact force, and the Elcentro base excitation. This study shows that the proposed method has suitable efficiency for reducing structural vibrations. Moreover, the uncertainty effect of different parameters is investigated here. Babak Karimpour, Ali Keyhani, and Javad Alamatian Copyright © 2014 Babak Karimpour et al. All rights reserved. Free Vibration Response of a Frame Structural Model Controlled by a Nonlinear Active Mass Driver System Thu, 27 Mar 2014 16:04:33 +0000 Active control devices, such as active mass dampers, are mainly employed for the reduction of wind-induced vibrations in high-rise buildings, with the final aim of satisfying vibration serviceability limit state requirements and of meeting appropriate comfort criteria. When such active devices, normally operating under wind loads associated with short return periods, are subjected to seismic events, they can experience large amplitude vibrations and exceed stroke limits. This may lead to a reduced performance of the control system that can even worsen the performance of the whole structure. In this paper, a nonlinear control strategy based on a modified direct velocity feedback algorithm is proposed for handling stroke limits of an active mass driver (AMD) system. In particular, a suitable nonlinear braking term proportional to the relative AMD velocity is included in the control law in order to slowdown the device in the proximity of the stroke limits. Experimental and numerical free vibration tests are carried out on a scaled-down five-story frame structure equipped with an AMD to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. Ilaria Venanzi and Filippo Ubertini Copyright © 2014 Ilaria Venanzi and Filippo Ubertini. All rights reserved. Causes of Early Age Cracking on Concrete Bridge Deck Expansion Joint Repair Sections Mon, 17 Mar 2014 07:29:44 +0000 Cracking of newly placed binary Portland cement-slag concrete adjacent to bridge deck expansion dam replacements has been observed on several newly rehabilitated sections of bridge decks. This paper investigates the causes of cracking by assessing the concrete mixtures specified for bridge deck rehabilitation projects, as well as reviewing the structural design of decks and the construction and curing methods implemented by the contractors. The work consists of (1) a comprehensive literature review of the causes of cracking on bridge decks, (2) a review of previous bridge deck rehabilitation projects that experienced early-age cracking along with construction observations of active deck rehabilitation projects, and (3) an experimental evaluation of the two most commonly used bridge deck concrete mixtures. Based on the literature review, the causes of concrete bridge deck cracking can be classified into three categories: concrete material properties, construction practices, and structural design factors. The most likely causes of the observed early-age cracking were found to be inadequate curing and failure to properly eliminate the risk of plastic shrinkage cracking. These results underscore the significance of proper moist curing methods for concrete bridge decks, including repair sections. This document also provides a blueprint for future researchers to investigate early-age cracking of concrete structures. Jared R. Wright, Farshad Rajabipour, Jeffrey A. Laman, and Aleksandra Radlińska Copyright © 2014 Jared R. Wright et al. All rights reserved.