138078.fig.002a
(a) Rastrigin
138078.fig.002b
(b) Sphere
138078.fig.002c
(c) Griewank
138078.fig.002d
(d) Rosenbrock
138078.fig.002e
(e) Schwefel
138078.fig.002f
(f) Ackley
138078.fig.002g
(g) Michalewicz
138078.fig.002h
(h) Himmelblau
138078.fig.002i
(i) Shubert
Figure 2: 3D mathematical benchmark functions.