Algorithm  EA
 (1) Set .
 (2) Randomize initial population .
 (3) Repeat until the termination criterion is satisfied:
   (a) Evaluate fitness of each individual in .
   (b) Select individuals as parents from based on fitness.
   (c) Apply crossover on the parents, and generate .
   (d) Apply mutation on , and generate .
   (e) Set .
Algorithm 1: Principle of EA.