Table 5: Comparisons of four methods in two study Systems.

Study systemMethodFitnessPerformance index
𝑓 m i n (best) 𝑓 m a x (worst) Δ 𝑓 𝜇 σ

26-busSCPSO1549915587871557314.3111
CPSO15503156121091557826.2314
MPSO1554515633881561827.1884
IPSO15552156581061561927.2129
HGA15568158571891565829.1129
DE15575157141391566830.4691

IEEE 57-busSCPSO1542615504781544716.1596
CPSO15435155501091547130.1171
MPSO15436155461101547940.2011
IPSO15443155611181549437.1354
HGA15453155731201551147.3282
DE15470155791091551839.5413