Table 1: Performance comparison of the three MOEAs on the test problems.

Test problems MOEAs GD SP
Average Std. dev Average Std. dev

E-MOEA
ZDT1 NSGA-II 0.000682375 0.00837093
SPEA2 0.000440864 0.00673195

E-MOEA
ZDT2 NSGA-II 0.000512546 0.00906621
SPEA2 0.000358487 0.00426378

E-MOEA
ZDT3 NSGA-II 0.000501522 0.00926551
SPEA2 0.000467296 0.00674565

E-MOEA e − 05 0.00295588
ZDT6 NSGA-II 0.00696434
SPEA2

E-MOEA
DTLZ1 NSGA-II 0.0112144 0.0254555
SPEA2 0.00731387 0.0134803

E-MOEA
DTLZ2 NSGA-II 0.021829197 0.0281401
SPEA2 0.0024392 0.0258512

E-MOEA
DTLZ3 NSGA-II
SPEA2