Table 1: The best fitness of the BFA, LBFA, NLBFA, and FIBFA on the benchmark functions.

AlgorithmAckleySphereShubertRastrigin

BFA2.57990.0033−186.730921.8891
LBFA −186.73094.9748
NLBFA −186.73095.9698
FIBFA −186.73092.3601