Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A Novel Homogenous Hybridization Scheme for Performance Improvement of Support Vector Machines Regression in Reservoir Characterization Wed, 27 Apr 2016 12:17:29 +0000 Hybrid computational intelligence is defined as a combination of multiple intelligent algorithms such that the resulting model has superior performance to the individual algorithms. Therefore, the importance of fusing two or more intelligent algorithms to achieve better performance cannot be overemphasized. In this work, a novel homogenous hybridization scheme is proposed for the improvement of the generalization and predictive ability of support vector machines regression (SVR). The proposed and developed hybrid SVR (HSVR) works by considering the initial SVR prediction as a feature extraction process and then employs the SVR output, which is the extracted feature, as its sole descriptor. The developed hybrid model is applied to the prediction of reservoir permeability and the predicted permeability is compared to core permeability which is regarded as standard in petroleum industry. The results show that the proposed hybrid scheme (HSVR) performed better than the existing SVR in both generalization and prediction ability. The outcome of this research will assist petroleum engineers to effectively predict permeability of carbonate reservoirs with higher degree of accuracy and will invariably lead to better reservoir. Furthermore, the encouraging performance of this hybrid will serve as impetus for further exploring homogenous hybrid system. Kabiru O. Akande, Taoreed O. Owolabi, Sunday O. Olatunji, and AbdulAzeez Abdulraheem Copyright © 2016 Kabiru O. Akande et al. All rights reserved. Cat Swarm Optimization Based Functional Link Artificial Neural Network Filter for Gaussian Noise Removal from Computed Tomography Images Sun, 24 Apr 2016 11:52:30 +0000 Gaussian noise is one of the dominant noises, which degrades the quality of acquired Computed Tomography (CT) image data. It creates difficulties in pathological identification or diagnosis of any disease. Gaussian noise elimination is desirable to improve the clarity of a CT image for clinical, diagnostic, and postprocessing applications. This paper proposes an evolutionary nonlinear adaptive filter approach, using Cat Swarm Functional Link Artificial Neural Network (CS-FLANN) to remove the unwanted noise. The structure of the proposed filter is based on the Functional Link Artificial Neural Network (FLANN) and the Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO) is utilized for the selection of optimum weight of the neural network filter. The applied filter has been compared with the existing linear filters, like the mean filter and the adaptive Wiener filter. The performance indices, such as peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), have been computed for the quantitative analysis of the proposed filter. The experimental evaluation established the superiority of the proposed filtering technique over existing methods. M. Kumar, S. K. Mishra, and S. S. Sahu Copyright © 2016 M. Kumar et al. All rights reserved. An Efficient Chaotic Map-Based Authentication Scheme with Mutual Anonymity Thu, 14 Apr 2016 16:47:15 +0000 A chaotic map-based mutual authentication scheme with strong anonymity is proposed in this paper, in which the real identity of the user is encrypted with a shared key between the user and the trusted server. Only the trusted server can determine the real identity of a user during the authentication, and any other entities including other users of the system get nothing about the user’s real identity. In addition, the shared key of encryption can be easily computed by the user and trusted server using the Chebyshev map without additional burdensome key management. Once the partnered two users are authenticated by the trusted server, they can easily proceed with the agreement of the session key. Formal security analysis demonstrates that the proposed scheme is secure under the random oracle model. Yousheng Zhou, Junfeng Zhou, Feng Wang, and Feng Guo Copyright © 2016 Yousheng Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Thinned Planar Antenna Array Using Multiobjective Normal Mutated Binary Cat Swarm Optimization Mon, 11 Apr 2016 07:49:04 +0000 The process of thinned antenna array synthesis involves the optimization of a number of mutually conflicting parameters, such as peak sidelobe level, first null beam width, and number of active elements. This necessitates the development of a multiobjective optimization approach which will provide the best compromised solution based on the application at hand. In this paper, a novel multiobjective normal mutated binary cat swarm optimization (MO-NMBCSO) is developed and proposed for the synthesis of thinned planar antenna arrays. Through this method, a high degree of flexibility is introduced to the realm of thinned array design. A Pareto-optimal front containing all the probable designs is obtained in this process. Targeted solutions may be chosen from the Pareto front to satisfy the different requirements demonstrating the superiority of the proposed approach over multiobjective binary particle swarm optimization method (MO-BPSO). A comparative study is carried out to quantify the performance of the two algorithms using two performance metrics. Lakshman Pappula and Debalina Ghosh Copyright © 2016 Lakshman Pappula and Debalina Ghosh. All rights reserved. Multivariate Statistics and Supervised Learning for Predictive Detection of Unintentional Islanding in Grid-Tied Solar PV Systems Wed, 30 Mar 2016 07:37:42 +0000 Integration of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation with power distribution networks leads to many operational challenges and complexities. Unintentional islanding is one of them which is of rising concern given the steady increase in grid-connected PV power. This paper builds up on an exploratory study of unintentional islanding on a modeled radial feeder having large PV penetration. Dynamic simulations, also run in real time, resulted in exploration of unique potential causes of creation of accidental islands. The resulting voltage and current data underwent dimensionality reduction using principal component analysis (PCA) which formed the basis for the application of statistic control charts for detecting the anomalous currents that could island the system. For reducing the false alarm rate of anomaly detection, Kullback-Leibler (K-L) divergence was applied on the principal component projections which concluded that statistic based approach alone is not reliable for detection of the symptoms liable to cause unintentional islanding. The obtained data was labeled and a -nearest neighbor (-NN) binomial classifier was then trained for identification and classification of potential islanding precursors from other power system transients. The three-phase short-circuit fault case was successfully identified as statistically different from islanding symptoms. Shashank Vyas, Rajesh Kumar, and Rajesh Kavasseri Copyright © 2016 Shashank Vyas et al. All rights reserved. Design of Optimal Proportional Integral Derivative Based Power System Stabilizer Using Bat Algorithm Tue, 15 Mar 2016 12:34:18 +0000 The design of a proportional, derivative, and integral (PID) based power system stabilizer (PSS) is carried out using the bat algorithm (BA). The design of proposed PID controller is considered with an objective function based on square error minimization to enhance the small signal stability of nonlinear power system for a wide range of operating conditions. Three benchmark power system models as single-machine infinite-bus (SMIB) power system, two-area four-machine ten-bus power system, and IEEE New England ten-machine thirty-nine-bus power system are considered to examine the effectiveness of the designed controller. The BA optimized PID based PSS (BA-PID-PSS) controller is applied to these benchmark systems, and the performance is compared with controllers reported in literature. The robustness is tested by considering eight plant conditions of each system, representing the wide range of operating conditions. It includes unlike loading conditions and system configurations to establish the superior performance with BA-PID-PSS over-the-counter controllers. Dhanesh K. Sambariya and Rajendra Prasad Copyright © 2016 Dhanesh K. Sambariya and Rajendra Prasad. All rights reserved. A Study of Moment Based Features on Handwritten Digit Recognition Thu, 10 Mar 2016 10:00:59 +0000 Handwritten digit recognition plays a significant role in many user authentication applications in the modern world. As the handwritten digits are not of the same size, thickness, style, and orientation, therefore, these challenges are to be faced to resolve this problem. A lot of work has been done for various non-Indic scripts particularly, in case of Roman, but, in case of Indic scripts, the research is limited. This paper presents a script invariant handwritten digit recognition system for identifying digits written in five popular scripts of Indian subcontinent, namely, Indo-Arabic, Bangla, Devanagari, Roman, and Telugu. A 130-element feature set which is basically a combination of six different types of moments, namely, geometric moment, moment invariant, affine moment invariant, Legendre moment, Zernike moment, and complex moment, has been estimated for each digit sample. Finally, the technique is evaluated on CMATER and MNIST databases using multiple classifiers and, after performing statistical significance tests, it is observed that Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) classifier outperforms the others. Satisfactory recognition accuracies are attained for all the five mentioned scripts. Pawan Kumar Singh, Ram Sarkar, and Mita Nasipuri Copyright © 2016 Pawan Kumar Singh et al. All rights reserved. An Efficient Two-Objective Hybrid Local Search Algorithm for Solving the Fuel Consumption Vehicle Routing Problem Mon, 07 Mar 2016 12:09:49 +0000 The classical model of vehicle routing problem (VRP) generally minimizes either the total vehicle travelling distance or the total number of dispatched vehicles. Due to the increased importance of environmental sustainability, one variant of VRPs that minimizes the total vehicle fuel consumption has gained much attention. The resulting fuel consumption VRP (FCVRP) becomes increasingly important yet difficult. We present a mixed integer programming model for the FCVRP, and fuel consumption is measured through the degree of road gradient. Complexity analysis of FCVRP is presented through analogy with the capacitated VRP. To tackle the FCVRP’s computational intractability, we propose an efficient two-objective hybrid local search algorithm (TOHLS). TOHLS is based on a hybrid local search algorithm (HLS) that is also used to solve FCVRP. Based on the Golden CVRP benchmarks, 60 FCVRP instances are generated and tested. Finally, the computational results show that the proposed TOHLS significantly outperforms the HLS. Weizhen Rao, Feng Liu, and Shengbin Wang Copyright © 2016 Weizhen Rao et al. All rights reserved. Retrieval Architecture with Classified Query for Content Based Image Recognition Mon, 29 Feb 2016 16:41:44 +0000 The consumer behavior has been observed to be largely influenced by image data with increasing familiarity of smart phones and World Wide Web. Traditional technique of browsing through product varieties in the Internet with text keywords has been gradually replaced by the easy accessible image data. The importance of image data has portrayed a steady growth in application orientation for business domain with the advent of different image capturing devices and social media. The paper has described a methodology of feature extraction by image binarization technique for enhancing identification and retrieval of information using content based image recognition. The proposed algorithm was tested on two public datasets, namely, Wang dataset and Oliva and Torralba (OT-Scene) dataset with 3688 images on the whole. It has outclassed the state-of-the-art techniques in performance measure and has shown statistical significance. Rik Das, Sudeep Thepade, Subhajit Bhattacharya, and Saurav Ghosh Copyright © 2016 Rik Das et al. All rights reserved. Angle Modulated Artificial Bee Colony Algorithms for Feature Selection Mon, 29 Feb 2016 09:46:03 +0000 Optimal feature subset selection is an important and a difficult task for pattern classification, data mining, and machine intelligence applications. The objective of the feature subset selection is to eliminate the irrelevant and noisy feature in order to select optimum feature subsets and increase accuracy. The large number of features in a dataset increases the computational complexity thus leading to performance degradation. In this paper, to overcome this problem, angle modulation technique is used to reduce feature subset selection problem to four-dimensional continuous optimization problem instead of presenting the problem as a high-dimensional bit vector. To present the effectiveness of the problem presentation with angle modulation and to determine the efficiency of the proposed method, six variants of Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithms employ angle modulation for feature selection. Experimental results on six high-dimensional datasets show that Angle Modulated ABC algorithms improved the classification accuracy with fewer feature subsets. Gürcan Yavuz and Doğan Aydin Copyright © 2016 Gürcan Yavuz and Doğan Aydin. All rights reserved. Online Incremental Learning for High Bandwidth Network Traffic Classification Thu, 25 Feb 2016 11:32:49 +0000 Data stream mining techniques are able to classify evolving data streams such as network traffic in the presence of concept drift. In order to classify high bandwidth network traffic in real-time, data stream mining classifiers need to be implemented on reconfigurable high throughput platform, such as Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This paper proposes an algorithm for online network traffic classification based on the concept of incremental -means clustering to continuously learn from both labeled and unlabeled flow instances. Two distance measures for incremental -means (Euclidean and Manhattan) distance are analyzed to measure their impact on the network traffic classification in the presence of concept drift. The experimental results on real datasets show that the proposed algorithm exhibits consistency, up to 94% average accuracy for both distance measures, even in the presence of concept drifts. The proposed incremental -means classification using Manhattan distance can classify network traffic 3 times faster than Euclidean distance at 671 thousands flow instances per second. H. R. Loo, S. B. Joseph, and M. N. Marsono Copyright © 2016 H. R. Loo et al. All rights reserved. A Semisupervised Cascade Classification Algorithm Mon, 22 Feb 2016 09:58:23 +0000 Classification is one of the most important tasks of data mining techniques, which have been adopted by several modern applications. The shortage of enough labeled data in the majority of these applications has shifted the interest towards using semisupervised methods. Under such schemes, the use of collected unlabeled data combined with a clearly smaller set of labeled examples leads to similar or even better classification accuracy against supervised algorithms, which use labeled examples exclusively during the training phase. A novel approach for increasing semisupervised classification using Cascade Classifier technique is presented in this paper. The main characteristic of Cascade Classifier strategy is the use of a base classifier for increasing the feature space by adding either the predicted class or the probability class distribution of the initial data. The classifier of the second level is supplied with the new dataset and extracts the decision for each instance. In this work, a self-trained NBC4.5 classifier algorithm is presented, which combines the characteristics of Naive Bayes as a base classifier and the speed of C4.5 for final classification. We performed an in-depth comparison with other well-known semisupervised classification methods on standard benchmark datasets and we finally reached to the point that the presented technique has better accuracy in most cases. Stamatis Karlos, Nikos Fazakis, Sotiris Kotsiantis, and Kyriakos Sgarbas Copyright © 2016 Stamatis Karlos et al. All rights reserved. Towards Utilization of Neurofuzzy Systems for Taxonomic Identification Using Psittacines as a Case Study Sun, 21 Feb 2016 16:39:54 +0000 Demonstration of the neurofuzzy application to the task of psittacine (parrot) taxonomic identification is presented in this paper. In this work, NEFCLASS-J neurofuzzy system is utilized for classification of parrot data for 141 and 183 groupings, using 68 feature points or qualities. The reported results display classification accuracies of above 95%, which is strongly tied to the setting of certain parameters of the neurofuzzy system. Rule base sizes were in the range of 1,750 to 1,950 rules. Shahram Rahimi, Cynthia R. Spiess, Bidyut Gupta, and Elham Sahebkar Copyright © 2016 Shahram Rahimi et al. All rights reserved. Bacteria Foraging Algorithm in Antenna Design Sun, 14 Feb 2016 11:15:46 +0000 A simple design procedure to realize an optimum antenna using bacteria foraging algorithm (BFA) is proposed in this paper. The first antenna considered is imaginary. This antenna is optimized using the BFA along with a suitable fitness function formulated by considering some performance parameters and their best values. To justify the optimum design approach, one 12-element Yagi-Uda antenna is considered for an experiment. The optimized result of this antenna obtained using the optimization algorithm is compared with nonoptimized (conventional) result of the same antenna to appreciate the importance of optimization. Biswa Binayak Mangaraj, Manas Ranjan Jena, and Saumendra Kumar Mohanty Copyright © 2016 Biswa Binayak Mangaraj et al. All rights reserved. Application of Bipolar Fuzzy Sets in Graph Structures Wed, 10 Feb 2016 13:10:24 +0000 A graph structure is a useful tool in solving the combinatorial problems in different areas of computer science and computational intelligence systems. In this paper, we apply the concept of bipolar fuzzy sets to graph structures. We introduce certain notions, including bipolar fuzzy graph structure (BFGS), strong bipolar fuzzy graph structure, bipolar fuzzy -cycle, bipolar fuzzy -tree, bipolar fuzzy -cut vertex, and bipolar fuzzy -bridge, and illustrate these notions by several examples. We study -complement, self-complement, strong self-complement, and totally strong self-complement in bipolar fuzzy graph structures, and we investigate some of their interesting properties. Muhammad Akram and Rabia Akmal Copyright © 2016 Muhammad Akram and Rabia Akmal. All rights reserved. Prediction of Defective Software Modules Using Class Imbalance Learning Sun, 07 Feb 2016 07:13:28 +0000 Software defect predictors are useful to maintain the high quality of software products effectively. The early prediction of defective software modules can help the software developers to allocate the available resources to deliver high quality software products. The objective of software defect prediction system is to find as many defective software modules as possible without affecting the overall performance. The learning process of a software defect predictor is difficult due to the imbalanced distribution of software modules between defective and nondefective classes. Misclassification cost of defective software modules generally incurs much higher cost than the misclassification of nondefective one. Therefore, on considering the misclassification cost issue, we have developed a software defect prediction system using Weighted Least Squares Twin Support Vector Machine (WLSTSVM). This system assigns higher misclassification cost to the data samples of defective classes and lower cost to the data samples of nondefective classes. The experiments on eight software defect prediction datasets have proved the validity of the proposed defect prediction system. The significance of the results has been tested via statistical analysis performed by using nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. Divya Tomar and Sonali Agarwal Copyright © 2016 Divya Tomar and Sonali Agarwal. All rights reserved. Constrained Fuzzy Predictive Control Using Particle Swarm Optimization Sun, 28 Jun 2015 09:09:59 +0000 A fuzzy predictive controller using particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach is proposed. The aim is to develop an efficient algorithm that is able to handle the relatively complex optimization problem with minimal computational time. This can be achieved using reduced population size and small number of iterations. In this algorithm, instead of using the uniform distribution as in the conventional PSO algorithm, the initial particles positions are distributed according to the normal distribution law, within the area around the best position. The radius limiting this area is adaptively changed according to the tracking error values. Moreover, the choice of the initial best position is based on prior knowledge about the search space landscape and the fact that in most practical applications the dynamic optimization problem changes are gradual. The efficiency of the proposed control algorithm is evaluated by considering the control of the model of a 4 × 4 Multi-Input Multi-Output industrial boiler. This model is characterized by being nonlinear with high interactions between its inputs and outputs, having a nonminimum phase behaviour, and containing instabilities and time delays. The obtained results are compared to those of the control algorithms based on the conventional PSO and the linear approach. Oussama Ait Sahed, Kamel Kara, and Mohamed Laid Hadjili Copyright © 2015 Oussama Ait Sahed et al. All rights reserved. Hiding Information in Reversible English Transforms for a Blind Receiver Sun, 31 May 2015 11:55:24 +0000 This paper proposes a new technique for hiding secret messages in ordinary English text. The proposed technique exploits the redundancies existing in some English language constructs. Redundancies result from the flexibility in maneuvering certain statement constituents without altering the statement meaning or correctness. For example, one can say “she went to sleep, because she was tired” or “Because she was tired, she went to sleep.” The paper provides a number of such transformations that can be applied concurrently, while keeping the overall meaning and grammar intact. The proposed data hiding technique is blind since the receiver does not keep a copy of the original uncoded text (cover). Moreover, it can hide more than three bits per statement, which is higher than that achieved in the prior work. A secret key that is a function of the various transformations used is proposed to protect the confidentiality of the hidden message. Our security analysis shows that even if the attacker knows how the transforms are employed, the secret key provides enough security to protect the confidentiality of the hidden message. Moreover, we show that the proposed transformations do not affect the inconspicuousness of the transformed statements, and thus unlikely to draw suspicion. Salma Banawan and Ibrahim Kamel Copyright © 2015 Salma Banawan and Ibrahim Kamel. All rights reserved. A Software Tool for Assisting Experimentation in Dynamic Environments Wed, 22 Apr 2015 11:43:10 +0000 In real world, many optimization problems are dynamic, which means that their model elements vary with time. These problems have received increasing attention over time, especially from the viewpoint of metaheuristics methods. In this context, experimentation is a crucial task because of the stochastic nature of both algorithms and problems. Currently, there are several technologies whose methods, problems, and performance measures can be implemented. However, in most of them, certain features that make the experimentation process easy are not present. Examples of such features are the statistical analysis of the results and a graphical user interface (GUI) that allows an easy management of the experimentation process. Bearing in mind these limitations, in the present work, we present DynOptLab, a software tool for experimental analysis in dynamic environments. DynOptLab has two main components: (1) an object-oriented framework to facilitate the implementation of new proposals and (2) a graphical user interface for the experiment management and the statistical analysis of the results. With the aim of verifying the benefits of DynOptLab’s main features, a typical case study on experimentation in dynamic environments was carried out. Pavel Novoa-Hernández, Carlos Cruz Corona, and David A. Pelta Copyright © 2015 Pavel Novoa-Hernández et al. All rights reserved. Concise and Accessible Representations for Multidimensional Datasets: Introducing a Framework Based on the D-EVM and Kohonen Networks Sun, 01 Mar 2015 11:22:05 +0000 A new framework intended for representing and segmenting multidimensional datasets resulting in low spatial complexity requirements and with appropriate access to their contained information is described. Two steps are going to be taken in account. The first step is to specify ()D hypervoxelizations, , as Orthogonal Polytopes whose th dimension corresponds to color intensity. Then, the D representation is concisely expressed via the Extreme Vertices Model in the -Dimensional Space (D-EVM). Some examples are presented, which, under our methodology, have storing requirements minor than those demanded by their original hypervoxelizations. In the second step, 1-Dimensional Kohonen Networks (1D-KNs) are applied in order to segment datasets taking in account their geometrical and topological properties providing a non-supervised way to compact even more the proposed -Dimensional representations. The application of our framework shares compression ratios, for our set of study cases, in the range 5.6496 to 32.4311. Summarizing, the contribution combines the power of the D-EVM and 1D-KNs by producing very concise datasets’ representations. We argue that the new representations also provide appropriate segmentations by introducing some error functions such that our 1D-KNs classifications are compared against classifications based only in color intensities. Along the work, main properties and algorithms behind the D-EVM are introduced for the purpose of interrogating the final representations in such a way that it efficiently obtains useful geometrical and topological information. Ricardo Pérez-Aguila and Ricardo Ruiz-Rodríguez Copyright © 2015 Ricardo Pérez-Aguila and Ricardo Ruiz-Rodríguez. All rights reserved. On the Performance Improvement of Devanagari Handwritten Character Recognition Sun, 22 Feb 2015 06:06:49 +0000 The paper is about the application of mini minibatch stochastic gradient descent (SGD) based learning applied to Multilayer Perceptron in the domain of isolated Devanagari handwritten character/numeral recognition. This technique reduces the variance in the estimate of the gradient and often makes better use of the hierarchical memory organization in modern computers. -weight decay is added on minibatch SGD to avoid overfitting. The experiments are conducted firstly on the direct pixel intensity values as features. After that, the experiments are performed on the proposed flexible zone based gradient feature extraction algorithm. The results are promising on most of the standard dataset of Devanagari characters/numerals. Pratibha Singh, Ajay Verma, and Narendra S. Chaudhari Copyright © 2015 Pratibha Singh et al. All rights reserved. Cascade Support Vector Machines with Dimensionality Reduction Thu, 15 Jan 2015 06:18:45 +0000 Cascade support vector machines have been introduced as extension of classic support vector machines that allow a fast training on large data sets. In this work, we combine cascade support vector machines with dimensionality reduction based preprocessing. The cascade principle allows fast learning based on the division of the training set into subsets and the union of cascade learning results based on support vectors in each cascade level. The combination with dimensionality reduction as preprocessing results in a significant speedup, often without loss of classifier accuracies, while considering the high-dimensional pendants of the low-dimensional support vectors in each new cascade level. We analyze and compare various instantiations of dimensionality reduction preprocessing and cascade SVMs with principal component analysis, locally linear embedding, and isometric mapping. The experimental analysis on various artificial and real-world benchmark problems includes various cascade specific parameters like intermediate training set sizes and dimensionalities. Oliver Kramer Copyright © 2015 Oliver Kramer. All rights reserved. Towards Scalable Distributed Framework for Urban Congestion Traffic Patterns Warehousing Tue, 06 Jan 2015 08:26:19 +0000 We put forward architecture of a framework for integration of data from moving objects related to urban transportation network. Most of this research refers to the GPS outdoor geolocation technology and uses distributed cloud infrastructure with big data NoSQL database. A network of intelligent mobile sensors, distributed on urban network, produces congestion traffic patterns. Congestion predictions are based on extended simulation model. This model provides traffic indicators calculations, which fuse with the GPS data for allowing estimation of traffic states across the whole network. The discovery process of congestion patterns uses semantic trajectories metamodel given in our previous works. The challenge of the proposed solution is to store patterns of traffic, which aims to ensure the surveillance and intelligent real-time control network to reduce congestion and avoid its consequences. The fusion of real-time data from GPS-enabled smartphones integrated with those provided by existing traffic systems improves traffic congestion knowledge, as well as generating new information for a soft operational control and providing intelligent added value for transportation systems deployment. A. Boulmakoul, L. Karim, M. Mandar, A. Idri, and A. Daissaoui Copyright © 2015 A. Boulmakoul et al. All rights reserved. Testing Automation of Context-Oriented Programs Using Separation Logic Mon, 29 Dec 2014 09:35:53 +0000 A new approach for programming that enables switching among contexts of commands during program execution is context-oriented programming (COP). This technique is more structured and modular than object-oriented and aspect-oriented programming and hence more flexible. For context-oriented programming, as implemented in COP languages such as ContextJ* and ContextL, this paper introduces accurate operational semantics. The language model of this paper uses Java concepts and is equipped with layer techniques for activation/deactivation of layer contexts. This paper also presents a logical system for COP programs. This logic is necessary for the automation of testing, developing, and validating of partial correctness specifications for COP programs and is an extension of separation logic. A mathematical soundness proof for the logical system against the proposed operational semantics is presented in the paper. Mohamed A. El-Zawawy Copyright © 2014 Mohamed A. El-Zawawy. All rights reserved. Effect of Population Structures on Quantum-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm Wed, 24 Dec 2014 06:34:22 +0000 Quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm (QEA) has been designed by integrating some quantum mechanical principles in the framework of evolutionary algorithms. They have been successfully employed as a computational technique in solving difficult optimization problems. It is well known that QEAs provide better balance between exploration and exploitation as compared to the conventional evolutionary algorithms. The population in QEA is evolved by variation operators, which move the Q-bit towards an attractor. A modification for improving the performance of QEA was proposed by changing the selection of attractors, namely, versatile QEA. The improvement attained by versatile QEA over QEA indicates the impact of population structure on the performance of QEA and motivates further investigation into employing fine-grained model. The QEA with fine-grained population model (FQEA) is similar to QEA with the exception that every individual is located in a unique position on a two-dimensional toroidal grid and has four neighbors amongst which it selects its attractor. Further, FQEA does not use migrations, which is employed by QEAs. This paper empirically investigates the effect of the three different population structures on the performance of QEA by solving well-known discrete benchmark optimization problems. Nija Mani, Gursaran Srivastava, A. K. Sinha, and Ashish Mani Copyright © 2014 Nija Mani et al. All rights reserved. Developing Programming Tools to Handle Traveling Salesman Problem by the Three Object-Oriented Languages Tue, 23 Dec 2014 08:18:06 +0000 The traveling salesman problem (TSP) is one of the most famous problems. Many applications and programming tools have been developed to handle TSP. However, it seems to be essential to provide easy programming tools according to state-of-the-art algorithms. Therefore, we have collected and programmed new easy tools by the three object-oriented languages. In this paper, we present ADT (abstract data type) of developed tools at first; then we analyze their performance by experiments. We also design a hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) by developed tools. Experimental results show that the proposed HGA is comparable with the recent state-of-the-art applications. Hassan Ismkhan and Kamran Zamanifar Copyright © 2014 Hassan Ismkhan and Kamran Zamanifar. All rights reserved. Long Term Solar Radiation Forecast Using Computational Intelligence Methods Thu, 11 Dec 2014 00:10:29 +0000 The point prediction quality is closely related to the model that explains the dynamic of the observed process. Sometimes the model can be obtained by simple algebraic equations but, in the majority of the physical systems, the relevant reality is too hard to model with simple ordinary differential or difference equations. This is the case of systems with nonlinear or nonstationary behaviour which require more complex models. The discrete time-series problem, obtained by sampling the solar radiation, can be framed in this type of situation. By observing the collected data it is possible to distinguish multiple regimes. Additionally, due to atmospheric disturbances such as clouds, the temporal structure between samples is complex and is best described by nonlinear models. This paper reports the solar radiation prediction by using hybrid model that combines support vector regression paradigm and Markov chains. The hybrid model performance is compared with the one obtained by using other methods like autoregressive (AR) filters, Markov AR models, and artificial neural networks. The results obtained suggests an increasing prediction performance of the hybrid model regarding both the prediction error and dynamic behaviour. João Paulo Coelho and José Boaventura-Cunha Copyright © 2014 João Paulo Coelho and José Boaventura-Cunha. All rights reserved. Lyapunov-Based Controller for a Class of Stochastic Chaotic Systems Wed, 10 Dec 2014 00:10:19 +0000 This study presents a general control law based on Lyapunov’s direct method for a group of well-known stochastic chaotic systems. Since real chaotic systems have undesired random-like behaviors which have also been deteriorated by environmental noise, chaotic systems are modeled by exciting a deterministic chaotic system with a white noise obtained from derivative of Wiener process which eventually generates an Ito differential equation. Proposed controller not only can asymptotically stabilize these systems in mean-square sense against their undesired intrinsic properties, but also exhibits good transient response. Simulation results highlight effectiveness and feasibility of proposed controller in outperforming stochastic chaotic systems. Hossein Shokouhi-Nejad, Amir Rikhtehgar Ghiasi, and Saeed Pezeshki Copyright © 2014 Hossein Shokouhi-Nejad et al. All rights reserved. Script Identification from Printed Indian Document Images and Performance Evaluation Using Different Classifiers Sun, 07 Dec 2014 14:16:50 +0000 Identification of script from document images is an active area of research under document image processing for a multilingual/ multiscript country like India. In this paper the real life problem of printed script identification from official Indian document images is considered and performances of different well-known classifiers are evaluated. Two important evaluating parameters, namely, AAR (average accuracy rate) and MBT (model building time), are computed for this performance analysis. Experiment was carried out on 459 printed document images with 5-fold cross-validation. Simple Logistic model shows highest AAR of 98.9% among all. BayesNet and Random Forest model have average accuracy rate of 96.7% and 98.2% correspondingly with lowest MBT of 0.09 s. Sk Md Obaidullah, Anamika Mondal, Nibaran Das, and Kaushik Roy Copyright © 2014 Sk Md Obaidullah et al. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study of EAG and PBIL on Large-Scale Global Optimization Problems Sun, 07 Dec 2014 07:26:40 +0000 Estimation of Distribution Algorithms (EDAs) use global statistical information effectively to sample offspring disregarding the location information of the locally optimal solutions found so far. Evolutionary Algorithm with Guided Mutation (EAG) combines global statistical information and location information to sample offspring, aiming that this hybridization improves the search and optimization process. This paper discusses a comparative study of Population-Based Incremental Learning (PBIL), a representative of EDAs, and EAG on large-scale global optimization problems. We implemented PBIL and EAG to build an experimental setup upon which simulations were run. The performance of these algorithms was analyzed in terms of solution quality and computational cost. We found that EAG performed better than PBIL in attaining a good quality solution, but the latter performed better in terms of computational cost. We also compared the performance of EAG and PBIL with MA-SW-Chains, the winner of CEC’2010, and found that the overall performance of EAG is comparable to MA-SW-Chains. Imtiaz Hussain Khan Copyright © 2014 Imtiaz Hussain Khan. All rights reserved.