Advances in Condensed Matter Physics http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Photoproducts Formation from Salicylic Acid and Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) in Aqueous Solution Induced by UV-B Radiation Wed, 26 Aug 2015 14:21:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/471809/ We report on the investigation of the influence of UV-B radiation (306 nm) on the salicylic acid mixed with poly(allylamine hydrochloride), PAH, in aqueous solution. UV-Vis spectra versus irradiation time reveal kinetics of photoproducts formation. At pH 9 and 10 are found a growth regime and another of decay of photoproducts formation. In addition, the growth does not depend on temperature, whereas the decay showed a significant dependence on this parameter suggesting a thermally activated process. These processes were well fitted with first-order exponential functions. Romario J. da Silva, Nara C. de Souza, and Josmary R. Silva Copyright © 2015 Romario J. da Silva et al. All rights reserved. Self-Organization of Polymeric Fluids in Strong Stress Fields Wed, 26 Aug 2015 09:45:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/172862/ Analysis of literature data and our own experimental observations have led to the conclusion that, at high deformation rates, viscoelastic liquids come to behave as rubbery materials, with strong domination by elastic deformations over flow. This can be regarded as a deformation-induced fluid-to-rubbery transition. This transition is accompanied by elastic instability, which can lead to the formation of regular structures. So, a general explanation for these effects requires the treatment of viscoelastic liquids beyond critical deformation rates as rubbery media. Behaviouristic modeling of their behaviour is based on a new concept, which considers the medium as consisting of discrete elastic elements. Such a type of modeling introduces a set of discrete rotators settled on a lattice with two modes of elastic interaction. The first of these is their transformation from spherical to ellipsoidal shapes and orientation in an external field. The second is elastic collisions between rotators. Computer calculations have demonstrated that this discrete model correctly describes the observed structural effects, eventually resulting in a “chaos-to-order” transformation. These predictions correspond to real-world experimental data obtained under different modes of deformation. We presume that the developed concept can play a central role in understanding strong nonlinear effects in the rheology of viscoelastic liquids. A. V. Semakov, V. G. Kulichikhin, and A. Y. Malkin Copyright © 2015 A. V. Semakov et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Functionals for First-Principle Studies of the Structural and Electronic Properties of -Bi2O3 Tue, 25 Aug 2015 12:43:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/120294/ Fully relativistic full-potential density functional calculations with an all-electron linearized augmented plane waves plus local orbitals method were carried out to perform a comparative study on the structural and electronic properties of the cubic oxide -Bi2O3 phase, which is considered as one of the most promising materials in a variety of applications including fuel cells, sensors, and catalysts. Three different density functionals were used in our calculations, LDA, the GGA scheme in the parametrization of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof (PBE96), and the hybrid scheme of Perdew-Wang B3PW91. The examined properties include lattice parameter, band structure and density of states, and charge density profiles. For this modification the three functionals reveal the characteristics of a metal and the existence of minigaps at high symmetry points of the band structure when spin-orbit coupling is taken into account. Density of states exhibits hybridization of Bi 6s and O 2p orbitals and the calculated charge density profiles exhibit the ionic character in the chemical bonding of this compound. The B3PW91 hybrid functional provided a better agreement with the experimental result for the lattice parameter, revealing the importance of Hartree-Fock exchange in this compound. D. H. Galván, R. Núñez-González, R. Rangel, P. Alemany, and A. Posada-Amarillas Copyright © 2015 D. H. Galván et al. All rights reserved. Particle and Particle-Surfactant Mixtures at Fluid Interfaces: Assembly, Morphology, and Rheological Description Thu, 20 Aug 2015 12:44:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/917516/ We report here a review of particle-laden interfaces. We discuss the importance of the particle’s wettability, accounted for by the definition of a contact angle, on the attachment of particles to the fluid interface and how the contact angle is strongly affected by several physicochemical parameters. The different mechanisms of interfacial assembly are also addressed, being the adsorption and spreading the most widely used processes leading to the well-known adsorbed and spread layers, respectively. The different steps involved in the adsorption of the particles and the particle-surfactant mixtures from bulk to the interface are also discussed. We also include here the different equations of state provided so far to explain the interfacial behavior of the nanoparticles. Finally, we discuss the mechanical properties of the interfacial particle layers via dilatational and shear rheology. We emphasize along that section the importance of the shear rheology to know the intrinsic morphology of such particulate system and to understand how the flow-field-dependent evolution of the interfacial morphology might eventually affect some properties of materials such as foams and emulsions. We dedicated the last section to explaining the importance of the particulate interfacial systems in the stabilization of foams and emulsions. Armando Maestro, Eva Santini, Dominika Zabiegaj, Sara Llamas, Francesca Ravera, Libero Liggieri, Francisco Ortega, Ramón G. Rubio, and Eduardo Guzman Copyright © 2015 Armando Maestro et al. All rights reserved. New Topological Configurations in the Continuous Heisenberg Spin Chain: Lower Bound for the Energy Wed, 19 Aug 2015 11:30:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/954524/ In order to study the spin configurations of the classical one-dimensional Heisenberg model, we map the normalized unit vector, representing the spin, on a space curve. We show that the total chirality of the configuration is a conserved quantity. If, for example, one end of the space curve is rotated by an angle of 2π relative to the other, the Frenet frame traces out a noncontractible loop in and this defines a new class of topological spin configurations for the Heisenberg model. Rossen Dandoloff Copyright © 2015 Rossen Dandoloff. All rights reserved. Characterisation of PMMA/ATH Layers Realised by Means of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Powder Deposition Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:54:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/980482/ We report on the characteristics of aluminium trihydrate filled poly(methyl methacrylate) composite (PMMA/ATH) coatings realised by plasma deposition at atmospheric pressure. For this purpose, PMMA/ATH powder was fed to a plasma jet where the process and carrier gas was compressed air. The deposited coatings were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. Further, the raw material was characterised before deposition. It was found that, with respect to the raw material, aluminium was uncovered in the course of the plasma deposition process which can be explained by plasma-induced etching of the PMMA matrix. As a result, the wettability of plasma-deposited PMMA/ATH was significantly increased. Even though a uniform coating film could not be realised as ascertained by confocal laser scanning microscopy, the deposited coatings feature notably enhanced characteristics which could be advantageous for further processing. Lena M. Wallenhorst, Sebastian Dahle, Matej Vovk, Lisa Wurlitzer, Leander Loewenthal, Nils Mainusch, Christoph Gerhard, and Wolfgang Viöl Copyright © 2015 Lena M. Wallenhorst et al. All rights reserved. Indentation Depth Dependent Mechanical Behavior in Polymers Mon, 17 Aug 2015 07:28:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/391579/ Various experimental studies have revealed size dependent deformation of materials at micro and submicron length scales. Among different experimental methods, nanoindentation testing is arguably the most commonly applied method of studying size effect in various materials where increases in the hardness with decreasing indentation depth are usually related to indentation size effects. Such indentation size effects have been observed in both metals and polymers. While the indentation size effects in metals are widely discussed in the literature and are commonly attributed to geometrically necessary dislocations, for polymer the experimental results are far sparser and there does not seem to be a common ground for their rationales. The indentation size effects of polymers are addressed in this paper, where their depth dependent deformation is reviewed along with the rationale provided in the literature. Farid Alisafaei and Chung-Souk Han Copyright © 2015 Farid Alisafaei and Chung-Souk Han. All rights reserved. Strain-Dependence of the Structure and Ferroic Properties of Epitaxial NiTiO3 Thin Films Grown on Different Substrates Thu, 13 Aug 2015 13:29:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/493045/ Polarization-induced weak ferromagnetism has been predicted a few years back in perovskite MTiO3 (M = Fe, Mn, and Ni). We set out to stabilize this metastable perovskite structure by growing NiTiO3 epitaxially on different substrates and to investigate the dependence of polar and magnetic properties on strain. Epitaxial NiTiO3 films were deposited on Al2O3, Fe2O3, and LiNbO3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition and characterized using several techniques. The effect of substrate choice on lattice strain, film structure, and physical properties was investigated. Our structural data from X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy shows that substrate-induced strain has a marked effect on the structure and crystalline quality of the films. Physical property measurements reveal a dependence of the weak ferromagnetism and lattice polarization on strain and highlight our ability to control the ferroic properties in NiTiO3 thin films by the choice of substrate. Our results are also consistent with the theoretical prediction that the ferromagnetism in acentric NiTiO3 is polarization induced. From the substrates studied here, the perovskite substrate LiNbO3 proved to be the most promising one for strong multiferroism. Tamas Varga, Timothy C. Droubay, Mark E. Bowden, Libor Kovarik, Dehong Hu, and Scott A. Chambers Copyright © 2015 Tamas Varga et al. All rights reserved. Computational Investigation of the Electronic and Optical Properties of Planar Ga-Doped Graphene Thu, 13 Aug 2015 12:15:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/635019/ We simulate the optical and electrical responses in gallium-doped graphene. Using density functional theory with a local density approximation, we simulate the electronic band structure and show the effects of impurity doping (0–3.91%) in graphene on the electron density, refractive index, optical conductivity, and extinction coefficient for each doping percentage. Here, gallium atoms are placed randomly (using a 5-point average) throughout a 128-atom sheet of graphene. These calculations demonstrate the effects of hole doping due to direct atomic substitution, where it is found that a disruption in the electronic structure and electron density for small doping levels is due to impurity scattering of the electrons. However, the system continues to produce metallic or semimetallic behavior with increasing doping levels. These calculations are compared to a purely theoretical 100% Ga sheet for comparison of conductivity. Furthermore, we examine the change in the electronic band structure, where the introduction of gallium electronic bands produces a shift in the electron bands and dissolves the characteristic Dirac cone within graphene, which leads to better electron mobility. Nicole Creange, Costel Constantin, Jian-Xin Zhu, Alexander V. Balatsky, and Jason T. Haraldsen Copyright © 2015 Nicole Creange et al. All rights reserved. High Performance Enhancement-Mode AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT with Selective Fluorine Treatment Mon, 10 Aug 2015 12:00:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/267680/ A novel enhancement-mode (E-mode) Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor- (MIS-) HEMT with selective fluorine ion (F−) treatment is proposed and its mechanism is investigated. The HEMT features the Selective F− treatment both in the AlGaN channel region and in the thick passivation layer between the gate and drain (SFCP-MIS-HEMT). First, the F− in the passivation layer not only extends the depletion region and thus enhances the average electric field (-field) between the gate and drain by the assisted depletion effect but also reduces the -field peak at the gate end, leading to a higher breakdown voltage (BV). Second, in the AlGaN channel region, the F− region realizes the E-mode and the region without F− maintains a high drain current (). Third, MIS structure suppresses the gate leakage current, increasing the gate swing voltage and the BV. Compared with a MIS-HEMT with F− treatment in whole channel (FC-MIS-HEMT), SFCP-MIS-HEMT increases the BV by 46% and the saturation drain current () by 28%. Chao Yang, Jiayun Xiong, Jie Wei, Junfeng Wu, Bo Zhang, and Xiaorong Luo Copyright © 2015 Chao Yang et al. All rights reserved. Chemical Functionalization Effects on Cubane-Based Chain Electronic Transport Sun, 09 Aug 2015 12:08:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/754873/ We report electronic structure calculations in chemically functionalized linear cubane-based chains. The effects of covalent chemical attachments on chain transport properties are examined with nonorthogonal tight-binding model (NTBM) considering Landauer-Büttiker formalism. The covalent bonding of even a single-type functional group is shown to considerably alter the conductance of the chain. For similar radical doping density, electronic characteristics are found to range from insulator to narrow-gap semiconductor depending on the nature of the covalent bonding. Therefore it has become possible to tune electronic properties of the cubane-based one-dimensional oligomers by the functionalization for nanoelectronic applications. Konstantin P. Katin and Mikhail M. Maslov Copyright © 2015 Konstantin P. Katin and Mikhail M. Maslov. All rights reserved. The Intramolecular Pressure and the Extension of the Critical Point’s Influence Zone on the Order Parameter Thu, 06 Aug 2015 12:28:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/258601/ The critical point affects the coexistence behavior of the vapor-liquid equilibrium densities. The length of the critical influence zone is under debate because for some properties, like shear viscosity, the extension is only a few degrees, while for others, such as the density order parameter, the critical influence zone covers up to hundreds of degrees below the critical temperature. Here we show that, for ethane, the experimental critical influence zone covers a wide zone of tens of degrees (below the critical temperature) down to a transition temperature, at which the apparent critical influence zone vanishes, and the transition temperature can be predicted through a pressure analysis of the coexisting bulk liquid phase, using a simple molecular potential. The liquid phases within the apparent critical influence zone show low densities, making them behave internally like their corresponding vapor phases. Therefore, Molecular Dynamics simulations reveal that the experimentally observed wide extension of the critical influence zone is the result of a vapor-like effect due to low bulk liquid phase densities. Jose Luis Rivera, Homero Nicanor-Guzman, and Roberto Guerra-Gonzalez Copyright © 2015 Jose Luis Rivera et al. All rights reserved. Microscale Fragmentation and Small-Angle Scattering from Mass Fractals Wed, 05 Aug 2015 17:15:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/501281/ Using the small-angle scattering method, we calculate here the mono- and polydisperse structure factor from an idealized fragmentation model based on the concept of renormalization. The system consists of a large number of fractal microobjects which are randomly oriented and whose positions are uncorrelated. It is shown that, in the fractal region, the monodisperse form factor is characterized by a generalized power-law decay (i.e., a succession of maxima and minima superimposed on a simple power-law decay) and whose scattering exponent coincides with the fractal dimension of the scatterer. The present analysis of the scattering structure factor allows us to obtain the number of fragments resulted at a given iteration. The results could be used to obtain additional structural information about systems obtained through microscale fragmentation processes. E. M. Anitas Copyright © 2015 E. M. Anitas. All rights reserved. Formation of Porous Apatite Layer during In Vitro Study of Hydroxyapatite-AW Based Glass Composites Thu, 30 Jul 2015 13:44:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/158582/ This research discussed the fabrication, characterization, and in vitro study of composites based on the mixture of hydroxyapatite powder and apatite-wollastonite (AW) based glass. AW based glass was prepared from the SiO2-CaO-MgO-P2O5-CaF2 glass system. This study focuses on the effect of composition and sintering temperature that influences the properties of these composites. Microstructural study revealed the formation of apatite layer on the composite surfaces when immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution at 37°C. Composites containing ≥50 wt% AW based glass showed good bioactivity after 7 days of immersion in the SBF. A porous calcium phosphate (potentially hydroxycarbonate apatite, HCA) layer formed at the SBF-composite interface and the layer became denser at longer soaking period, for periods ranging from 7 to 28 days. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis showed that early stage of soaking occurred with the release of Ca and Si ions from the composites and the decrease of P ions with slow exchange rate. Pat Sooksaen, Natyada Pengsuwan, Sittipong Karawatthanaworrakul, and Surasak Pianpraditkul Copyright © 2015 Pat Sooksaen et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Eu3+ Emission from Mg2TiO4 Nanoparticles by Judd-Ofelt Theory Mon, 27 Jul 2015 13:09:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/736517/ Eu3+ doped Mg2TiO4 (2 at% of Eu) nanoparticles which are 5 to 10 nm in diameter are prepared by Pechini-type polymerized complex route followed with the calcination in the temperature range from 400°C to 700°C. Emission spectra display characteristic (, 1, 2, 3, and 4) spin forbidden f-f electronic transitions of the Eu3+ ions with the most pronounced emission coming from transition and with the emission decays varying between 0.57 and 0.87 ms for samples prepared at different temperatures. Judd-Ofelt theoretical analysis of the emission spectra of Eu3+ ions was performed, which allowed calculating radiative and nonradiative emission probabilities, Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, and the quantum efficiency of the Eu3+ emission in the Mg2TiO4 nanoparticles. The analyses showed the existence of high asymmetry around the metal ion sites. Also, the largest quantum efficiency of emission of 58.5% is found in nanoparticles prepared at 600°C. Katarina Vuković, Mina Medić, Milica Sekulić, and Miroslav D. Dramićanin Copyright © 2015 Katarina Vuković et al. All rights reserved. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on the Structure and Photoluminescent Properties of New Mononuclear and Homodinuclear Europium(III) β-Diketonate Complexes Mon, 27 Jul 2015 12:29:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/205047/ Two novel europium(III) complexes, a monomer and a homodimer, with 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4,4-trifluoro-1,3-butanedione (Hcbtfa) and 5-chloro-1,10-phenanthroline (cphen) ligands, formulated as [Eu(cbtfa)3(cphen)] and [Eu2(cbtfa)4(cphen)2(CH3O)2], have been synthesized. Their structures have been elucidated by X-ray diffraction and their absorption and emission properties have been studied in the solid state. The experimental data has then been used to test the recently released LUMPAC software, a promising tool which can facilitate the design of more efficient lanthanide light-conversion molecular devices by combining ground state geometry, excited state energy, and luminescent properties calculations. João P. Martins, Pablo Martín-Ramos, Pedro Chamorro-Posada, Pedro S. Pereira Silva, Jesús Martín-Gil, Salvador Hernández-Navarro, and Manuela Ramos Silva Copyright © 2015 João P. Martins et al. All rights reserved. Exotic Superconductivity in Correlated Electron Systems Wed, 22 Jul 2015 12:44:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/180195/ Gang Mu, Viorel Sandu, Wei Li, and Bing Shen Copyright © 2015 Gang Mu et al. All rights reserved. Gap Structure of the Overdoped Iron-Pnictide Superconductor Ba(Fe0.942Ni0.058)2As2: A Low-Temperature Specific-Heat Study Wed, 22 Jul 2015 06:38:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/419017/ Low-temperature specific heat (SH) is measured on the postannealed Ba(Fe1−xNix)2As2 single crystal with x = 0.058 under different magnetic fields. The sample locates on the overdoped sides and the critical transition temperature is determined to be 14.8 K by both the magnetization and SH measurements. A simple and reliable analysis shows that, besides the phonon and normal electronic contributions, a clear term emerges in the low temperature SH data. Our observation is similar to that observed in the Co-doped system in our previous work and is consistent with the theoretical prediction for a superconductor with line nodes in the energy gap. Gang Mu, Bo Gao, Xiaoming Xie, Yoichi Tanabe, Jingtao Xu, Jiazhen Wu, and Katsumi Tanigaki Copyright © 2015 Gang Mu et al. All rights reserved. Pressure Induced Suppression to the Valence Change Transition in EuPdAs Tue, 21 Jul 2015 13:31:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/575421/ By applying a hydrostatic pressure, we have successfully suppressed the valence change transition in EuPdAs. The studied compound EuPdAs crystallizes in a P63/mmc space group. Through resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements, we find that EuPdAs shows a phase transition at 180 K and another transition below 10 K at ambient pressure, as was reported before. The overall transport and magnetic behavior is to some extent similar to that of the parent phase of iron based superconductors. With application of a hydrostatic pressure, the transition at 180 K is sensitively suppressed with a pressure as low as 0.48 GPa. However, superconductivity has not been induced with pressure up to 1.90 GPa. Baoxuan Li, Jianzhong Liu, Yufeng Li, Xiyu Zhu, and Hai-Hu Wen Copyright © 2015 Baoxuan Li et al. All rights reserved. Improving Breakdown Voltage for a Novel SOI LDMOS with a Lateral Variable Doping Profile on the Top Interface of the Buried Oxide Layer Tue, 21 Jul 2015 13:01:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/762498/ In order to achieve a high breakdown voltage (BV) for the SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) power device in high voltage ICs, a novel high voltage n-channel lateral double-diffused MOS (LDMOS) with a lateral variable interface doping profile (LVID) placed at the interface between the SOI layer and the buried-oxide (BOX) layer (LVID SOI) is researched. Its breakdown mechanism is investigated theoretically, and its structure parameters are optimized and analyzed by 2D simulation software MEDICI. In the high voltage blocking state, the high concentration ionized donors in the depleted LVID make the surface electric field of SOI layer () more uniform and enhance the electric field of BOX layer (), which can prevent the lateral premature breakdown and result in a higher BV. Compared with the conventional uniformly doped (UD) SOI LDMOS, of the optimized LVID SOI LDMOS is enhanced by 79% from 119 V/μm to 213 V/μm, and BV is increased by 33.4% from 169 V to 227 V. Simulations indicate that the method of LVID profile can significantly improve breakdown voltage for the SOI LDMOS. Jingjing Jin, Shengdong Hu, Yinhui Chen, Kaizhou Tan, Jun Luo, Feng Zhou, Zongze Chen, and Ye Huang Copyright © 2015 Jingjing Jin et al. All rights reserved. “Nodal Gap” Induced by the Incommensurate Diagonal Spin Density Modulation in Underdoped High- Superconductors Tue, 21 Jul 2015 11:27:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/652424/ Recently it was revealed that the whole Fermi surface is fully gapped for several families of underdoped cuprates. The existence of the finite energy gap along the -wave nodal lines (nodal gap) contrasts the common understanding of the -wave pairing symmetry, which challenges the present theories for the high- superconductors. Here we propose that the incommensurate diagonal spin-density-wave order can account for the above experimental observation. The Fermi surface and the local density of states are also studied. Our results are in good agreement with many important experiments in high- superconductors. Tao Zhou, Yi Gao, and Jian-Xin Zhu Copyright © 2015 Tao Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Inelastic Neutron Scattering Studies on the Crystal Field Excitations in Superconducting NdFeAsO0.85F0.15 Tue, 21 Jul 2015 11:26:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/605160/ Inelastic neutron scattering experiments were performed on polycrystalline samples of NdFeAsO0.85F0.15 over a wide temperature range (3 K–250 K). Based on the analysis of the experimental data, a Nd3+ CF energy level scheme is proposed to give a consistent explanation about the observed CF transitions. The observed extra ground-state CF transitions could not be simply explained by the transitions between five Kramers doublets split from the Nd3+   ground state in the point symmetry. A reliable explanation would be a superposition of crystal fields due to different local symmetries around the Nd3+ ions induced by the fluorine doping. Peng Cheng, Wei Bao, Sergey Danilkin, Tiesong Zhao, Jieming Sheng, Juanjuan Liu, Wei Luo, and Jinchen Wang Copyright © 2015 Peng Cheng et al. All rights reserved. The Insulator to Superconductor Transition in Ga-Doped Semiconductor Ge Single Crystal Induced by the Annealing Temperature Tue, 21 Jul 2015 11:17:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/963768/ We have fabricated the heavily Ga-doped layer in Ge single crystal by the implantation and rapid thermal annealing method. The samples show a crossover from the insulating to the superconducting behavior as the annealing temperature increases. Transport measurements suggest that the superconductivity is from the heavily Ga-doped layer in Ge. Y. B. Sun, Z. F. Di, T. Hu, and X. M. Xie Copyright © 2015 Y. B. Sun et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Orange-Red Emitting ZnB4O7:Eu3+ Phosphor with Urchin-Like Nanostructure Wed, 15 Jul 2015 10:25:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/797056/ A novel phosphor, ZnB4O7:Eu3+, with urchin-like structure consisting of radially arranged high density nanorods was successfully synthesized by hydrothermal process at 150°C for 24 h. The nanorods were measured from 200 to 400 nm in diameter and several µm in length. The urchins were few µm to 40 µm in diameter. The ZnB4O7:Eu3+ phosphors were efficiently excited by ultraviolet (UV ~ 254 nm) to visible light of ~ 220 to 450 nm and exhibited intense orange-red emission consisting of main peaks at 590, 615, and 695 nm due to the charge transfer in the host and transitions (5D0 to 7F1,2,4) of the Eu3+ ions. Effect of the Eu3+ ions concentration on the photoluminescence (PL) emission intensity was investigated and it was found that 5 at% Eu3+ is the optimum concentration. Meanwhile, the concentration quenching mechanism was discussed. The key parameters, such as temperature dependent PL and CIE values of ZnB4O7:Eu3+ phosphors, were studied. The ZnB4O7:Eu3+ phosphor exhibited good thermal stability and better absorption cross section compared to the commercial Y2O2S:Eu3+ phosphor. All these characteristics indicate that the phosphor will be a potential candidate for the UV based white LEDs. Hom Nath Luitel, Rumi Chand, and Takanori Watari Copyright © 2015 Hom Nath Luitel et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Fe Buffer Layer on Co-Doped BaFe2As2 Superconducting Thin Films Tue, 14 Jul 2015 09:03:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/753108/ A systematic characterization of Co-doped BaFe2As2 (Ba-122) thin films has been carried out. Two samples were available, one grown on CaF2 substrate and the other on MgO with an Fe buffer layer. The goal was to investigate films’ magnetic and superconducting properties, their reciprocal interplay, and the role played by the Fe buffer layer in modifying them. Morphological characterization and Energy Dispersive X-ray analyses on the Fe-buffered sample demonstrate the presence of diffused Fe close to the Co-doped Ba-122 outer surface as well as irregular holes in the overlying superconducting film. These results account for hysteresis loops obtained with magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements and observed at both room and low temperatures. The magnetic pattern was visualized by magneto-optical imaging with an indicator film. Moreover, we investigated the onset of superconductivity through a measure of the superconducting energy gap. The latter is strictly related to the decay time of the excitation produced by an ultrashort laser pulse and has been determined in a pump-probe transient reflectivity experiment. A comparison of results relative to Co-doped Ba-122 thin films with and without Fe buffer layer is finally reported. C. Bonavolontà, C. de Lisio, M. Valentino, F. Laviano, G. P. Pepe, F. Kurth, K. Iida, A. Ichinose, and I. Tsukada Copyright © 2015 C. Bonavolontà et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Low Ag Doping on Physical and Optical Waveguide Properties of Highly Oriented Sol-Gel ZnO Thin Films Mon, 13 Jul 2015 11:44:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/740208/ A sol-gel dip-coating process was used to deposit almost stress-free highly c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films onto glass substrates. The effects of low silver doping concentration (Ag/Zn < 1%) on the structural, morphological, optical, and waveguide properties of such films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy, UV-Visible spectrophotometry, and M-lines spectroscopy (MLS). XRD analysis revealed that all the films were in single phase and had a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The grain size values were calculated and found to be about 24–29 nm. SEM micrographs and AFM images have shown that film morphology and surface roughness were influenced by Ag doping concentration. According to UV-Vis. measurements all the films were highly transparent with average visible transmission values ranging from 80% to 86%. It was found that the Ag contents lead to widening of the band gap. MLS measurements at 632.8 nm wavelength put into evidence that all thin film planar waveguides demonstrate a well-guided fundamental mode for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarized light. Moreover, the refractive index of ZnO thin films was found to increase by Ag doping levels. Mohamed Dehimi, Tahar Touam, Azeddine Chelouche, Fares Boudjouan, Djamel Djouadi, Jeanne Solard, Alexis Fischer, Azzedine Boudrioua, and Abdellaziz Doghmane Copyright © 2015 Mohamed Dehimi et al. All rights reserved. Weakly Bound States of Elementary Excitations in Graphene Superlattice in Quantizing Magnetic Field Thu, 09 Jul 2015 08:16:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/979528/ The spectrum of allowed energy of electron in graphene superlattice in the quantizing magnetic field is investigated. Such spectrum consists of number of so-called magnetic minibands. The width of these minibands depends on the superlattice barriers power and on the magnetic field intensity. The explicit form of electron spectrum is derived in the case of weak magnetic field. The possibility of electron-electron and electron-phonon bound states is shown. The binding energies of these states are calculated. The binding energy is shown to be the function of magnetic field intensity. Sergei V. Kryuchkov and Egor I. Kukhar’ Copyright © 2015 Sergei V. Kryuchkov and Egor I. Kukhar’. All rights reserved. Electrical Characterization and Modeling of a Gelatin/Graphene System Thu, 09 Jul 2015 07:15:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/107957/ A gelatin/graphene composite has been analyzed by means of current density-voltage and the electrical impedance measurements. The DC electrical behavior has been interpreted in terms of an equivalent Thévenin model taking into account the open circuit voltage and the series resistance. A model based on the effect of the electrical double layer and on the diffusion of the charge carriers is used for the analysis of the experimental data, obtained in the frequency domain. The model reveals for any applied voltages a marked diffusion process at low frequencies. In particular, where the charge transfer mechanism is dominant, the time distribution of the reaction rates reveals that several multiple step reactions occur in the materials, especially at high values of the applied forward bias voltages. Giovanni Landi, Andrea Sorrentino, Salvatore Iannace, and Heinrich C. Neitzert Copyright © 2015 Giovanni Landi et al. All rights reserved. Formation of Nanoporous Tin Oxide Layers on Different Substrates during Anodic Oxidation in Oxalic Acid Electrolyte Sun, 05 Jul 2015 08:40:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/302560/ Nanoporous tin oxide layers were obtained on various Sn substrates including high- and low-purity foils and wire by one-step anodic oxidation carried out in a 0.3 M oxalic acid electrolyte at various anodizing potentials. In general, amorphous oxide layers with the atomic ratio of Sn : O (1 : 1) were grown during anodization, and a typical structure of the as-obtained film consists of the “outer” layer with less regular, interconnetted pores and the “inner” layer with much more uniform and regular channels formed as a result of vigorous gas evolution. It was found that the use of electrochemical cell with the sample placed horizontally on the metallic support and stabilized by the Teflon cover, instead of the typical two-electrode system with vertically arranged electrodes, can affect the morphology of as-obtained layers and allows fabrication of nanoporous oxides even at anodizing potentials up to 11 V. An average pore diameter in the “outer” oxide layer increases with increasing anodizing potential, and no significant effect of substrate purity on the structure of anodic film was proved, except better uniformity of the oxides grown on high-purity Sn. A strong linear relationship between the average steady-state current density and anodizing potential was also observed. Leszek Zaraska, Michał Bobruk, and Grzegorz D. Sulka Copyright © 2015 Leszek Zaraska et al. All rights reserved. Optical Properties of Sol-Gel Nb2O5 Films with Tunable Porosity for Sensing Applications Mon, 29 Jun 2015 11:42:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/403196/ Thin Nb2O5 films with tunable porosity are deposited by the sol-gel and evaporation induced self-assembly methods using organic template Pluronic PE6100 with different molar fractions with respect to NbCl5 used as a precursor for synthesis of Nb sol. Surface morphology and structure of the films are studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy and Selected Area Electron Diffraction. The optical characterization of the films is carried out through reflectance spectra measurements of the films deposited on silicon substrates and theoretical modeling in order to obtain refractive index, extinction coefficient, and thickness of the films. The overall porosity of the films and the amount of adsorbed acetone vapors in the pores are quantified by means of Bruggeman effective medium approximation using already determined optical constants. The sensing properties of the samples are studied by measuring both the reflectance spectra and room-temperature photoluminescence spectra prior to and after exposure to acetone vapors and liquid, respectively. The potential of using the studied mesoporous Nb2O5 films for chemooptical sensing is demonstrated and discussed. Rosen Georgiev, Biliana Georgieva, Marina Vasileva, Petar Ivanov, and Tsvetanka Babeva Copyright © 2015 Rosen Georgiev et al. All rights reserved.