About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Autoimmune Diseases
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 160830, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/160830
Review Article

Theranostic Implications of Nanotechnology in Multiple Sclerosis: A Future Perspective

1Department of Biotechnology, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind Road, Pune 411 007, India
2Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Room 2145, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180, USA
3Department of Applied Sciences, Maharashtra Academy of Engineering, Alandi (D), Pune 412 105, India
4Centre for Vascular Disease, University of Ferrara, 41100 Ferrara, Italy

Received 9 August 2012; Accepted 9 November 2012

Academic Editor: Pietro Invernizzi

Copyright © 2012 Ajay Vikram Singh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Comston and A. Coles, “Multiple sclerosis,” The Lancet, vol. 359, no. 9313, pp. 1221–1231, 2002.
  2. J. A. Bobholz and S. Gremley, “Multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating disorders,” The Little Black Book of Neuropsychology, pp. 647–661, 2011.
  3. K. J. Smith and W. I. McDonald, “The pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis: the mechanisms underlying the production of symptoms and the natural history of the disease,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, vol. 354, no. 1390, pp. 1649–1673, 1999.
  4. M. Debouverie, S. Pittion-Vouyovitch, S. Louis, and F. Guillemin, “Natural history of multiple sclerosis in a population-based cohort,” European Journal of Neurology, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 916–921, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. A. Jones, S. L. Pohar, S. Warren, K. V. Turpin, and K. G. Warren, “The burden of multiple sclerosis: a community health survey,” Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, vol. 6, article 1, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. F. Manfredini, A. M. Malagoni, S. Mandini et al., “Near-infrared spectroscopy assessment following exercise training in patients with intermittent claudication and in untrained healthy participants,” Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 315–324, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. B. Hemmer, J. J. Archelos, and H. P. Hartung, “New concepts in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 291–301, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. B. Carrieri, M. Petracca, S. Montella, M. Delfino, C. Sepe, and A. Gattoni, “Multiple sclerosis and systemic sclerosis: efficacy of interferon beta on skin lesions,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 67, no. 8, pp. 1192–1193, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Ascherio and K. L. Munger, “Environmental risk factors for multiple sclerosis. Part I: the role of infection,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 288–299, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. F. D. Lublin and S. C. Reingold, “Defining the clinical course of multiple sclerosis: results of an international survey,” Neurology, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 907–911, 1996. View at Scopus
  11. J. F. Kurtzke, “Rating neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis: an expanded disability status scale (EDSS),” Neurology, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 1444–1452, 1983. View at Scopus
  12. G. A. Silva, “Neuroscience nanotechnology: progress, opportunities and challenges,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 65–74, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. G. Orive, E. Anitua, J. L. Pedraz, and D. F. Emerich, “Biomaterials for promoting brain protection, repair and regeneration,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 682–692, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. L. N. Lin, Q. Liu, L. Song, F. F. Liu, and J. X. Sha, “Recent advances in nanotechnology based drug delivery to the brain,” Cytotechnology, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 377–380, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. R. Kanwar, X. Sun, V. Punj et al., “Nanoparticles in the treatment and diagnosis of neurological disorders: untamed dragon with fire power to heal,” Nanomedicine, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 399–414, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. E. A. Neuwelt, B. Bauer, C. Fahlke et al., “Engaging neuroscience to advance translational research in brain barrier biology,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 169–182, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. M. Srikanth and J. A. Kessler, “Nanotechnology—novel therapeutics for CNS disorders,” Nature Reviews Neurology, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 307–318, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. M. Fazil, B. S. Shadab, J. K. Sahni, and J. Ali, “Nanotherapeutics for Alzheimer’s disease (AD): past, present and future,” Journal of Drug Targeting, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 97–113, 2012.
  19. N. R. Saunders, C. J. Ek, M. D. Habgood, and K. M. Dziegielewska, “Barriers in the brain: a renaissance?” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 279–286, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. W. M. Pardridge, “Molecular biology of the blood-brain barrier,” Molecular Biotechnology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 57–69, 2005. View at Scopus
  21. T. Zeis, A. Probst, A. J. Steck, et al., “Molecular changes in white matter adjacent to an active demyelinating lesion in early multiple sclerosis,” Brain Pathology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 459–466, 2009.
  22. P. Zamboni, “The Big Idea: iron-dependent inflammation in venous disease and proposed parallels in multiple sclerosis,” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 99, no. 11, pp. 589–593, 2006. View at Scopus
  23. P. Zamboni, R. Galeotti, E. Menegatti et al., “Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 392–399, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Laupacis, E. Lillie, A. Dueck et al., “Association between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis,” CMAJ, vol. 183, no. 16, pp. E1203–E1212, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. R. Zivadinov, M. Ramanathan, K. Dolic et al., “Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: diagnostic, pathogenetic, clinical and treatment perspectives,” Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1277–1294, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. P. Zamboni, E. Menegatti, B. Weinstock-Guttman et al., “Hypoperfusion of brain parenchyma is associated with the severity of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional preliminary report,” BMC Medicine, vol. 9, article 22, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. D'haeseleer, M. Cambron, L. Vanopdenbosch, and J. De Keyser, “Vascular aspects of multiple sclerosis,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 657–666, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. P. D. Henderson, M. H. Barnett, J. D. E. Parratt, and J. W. Prineas, “Multiple sclerosis: distribution of inflammatory cells in newly forming lesions,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 739–753, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. M. LeVine and A. Chakrabarty, “The role of iron in the pathogenesis of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1012, pp. 252–266, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. V. Singh and P. Zamboni, “Anomalous venous blood flow and iron deposition in multiple sclerosis,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1867–1878, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. G. D’Aversa, et al., “Mylin basic protein induces inflamattory mediatirs from primary human endothelial cells and blood brain barrier disruption: implications of the multiple sclerosis,” Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology. In press.
  32. M. Wankhede, A. Bouras, M. Kaluzova, and C. G. Hadjipanayis, “Magnetic nanoparticles: an emerging technology for malignant brain tumor imaging and therapy,” Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 173–186, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. G. De Rosa, G. Salzano, M. Caraglia, and A. Abbruzzese, “Nanotechnologies: a strategy to overcome blood-brain barrier,” Current Drug Metabolism, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 61–69, 2012.
  34. G. A. Silva, “Nanotechnology approaches to crossing the blood-brain barrier and drug delivery to the CNS,” BMC Neuroscience, vol. 9, supplement 3, article S4, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. R. Siwak, A. M. Tari, and G. Lopez-Berestein, “The potential of drug-carrying immunoliposomes as anticancer agents,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 955–956, 2002. View at Scopus
  36. T. Patel, J. Zhou, J. M. Piepmeier, and W. M. Saltzman, “Polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery to the central nervous system,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 701–705, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. V. Rivest, A. Phivilay, C. Julien et al., “Novel liposomal formulation for targeted gene delivery,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 981–990, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. N.-F. Sun, Q.-Y. Meng, A.-L. Tian et al., “Nanoliposome-mediated FL/TRAIL double-gene therapy for colon cancer: in vitro and in vivo evaluation,” Cancer Letters, vol. 315, no. 1, pp. 69–77, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. A. V. Singh, C. Lenardi, L. Gailite, A. Gianfelice, and P. Milani, “A simple lift-off-based patterning method for micro- and nanostructuring of functional substrates for cell culture,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, vol. 19, no. 11, Article ID 115028, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. V. Singh, L. Gailite, V. Vyas et al., “Rapid prototyping of nano- and micro-patterned substrates for the control of cell neuritogenesis by topographic and chemical cues,” Materials Science and Engineering C, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 892–899, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. T. M. Swi Chang, “Therapeutic applications of polymeric artificial cells,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 221–235, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. G. Orive, R. M. Hernández, A. R. Gascón et al., “Cell encapsulation: promise and progress,” Nature Medicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 104–107, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. S. Knippenberg, N. Thau, R. Dengler, T. Brinker, and S. Petri, “Intracerebroventricular injection of encapsulated human mesenchymal cells producing glucagon-like peptide 1 prolongs survival in a mouse model of als,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 6, Article ID e36857, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. R. Fernandes and D. H. Gracias, “Self-folding polymeric containers for encapsulation and delivery of drugs,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 64, no. 14, pp. 1579–1589, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. S. Ausländer, M. Wieland, and M. Fussenegger, “Smart medication through combination of synthetic biology and cell microencapsulation,” Metabolic Engineering, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 252–260, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. P. Aebischer, M. Schluep, N. Déglon et al., “Intrathecal delivery of CNTF using encapsulated genetically modified xenogeneic cells in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients,” Nature Medicine, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 696–699, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. D. F. Emerich, G. Orive, and C. Borlongan, “Tales of biomaterials, molecules, and cells for repairing and treating brain dysfunction,” Current Stem Cell Research and Therapy, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 171–189, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. E. B. Malarkey and V. Parpura, “Carbon nanotubes in neuroscience,” in Brain Edema XIV, Z. Czernicki, et al., Ed., pp. 337–341, Springer, Vienna, Austria, 2010.
  49. G. Modi, V. Pillay, and Y. E. Choonara, “Advances in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders employing nanotechnology,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1184, pp. 154–172, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. W. Lee and V. Parpura, “Chapter 6—carbon nanotubes as substrates/scaffolds for neural cell growth,” Progress in Brain Research, vol. 180, pp. 110–125, 2009. View at Scopus
  51. G. Cellot, E. Cilia, S. Cipollone et al., “Carbon nanotubes might improve neuronal performance by favouring electrical shortcuts,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 126–133, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. Y.-J. Huang, H.-C. Wu, N.-H. Tai, and T.-W. Wang, “Carbon nanotube rope with electrical stimulation promotes the differentiation and maturity of neural stem cells,” Small, vol. 8, no. 18, pp. 2869–2877, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. A. Nunes, K. T. Al-Jamal, and K. Kostarelos, “Therapeutics, imaging and toxicity of nanomaterials in the central nervous system,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 161, no. 2, pp. 290–306, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. L. Qiu, C. Zheng, Y. Jin, and K. Zhu, “Polymeric micelles as nanocarriers for drug delivery,” Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 819–830, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. R. Tang, W. Ji, and C. Wang, “PH-responsive micelles based on amphiphilic block copolymers bearing ortho ester pendants as potential drug carriers,” Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, vol. 212, no. 11, pp. 1185–1192, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. Z. Zhu, E. Senses, P. Akcora, and S. A. Sukhishvili, “Programmable light-controlled shape changes in layered polymer nanocomposites,” ACS Nano, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 3152–3162, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. J. Ouyang, C. W. Chu, C. R. Szmanda, L. Ma, and Y. Yang, “Programmable polymer thin film and non-volatile memory device,” Nature Materials, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 918–922, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. R. A. Petros and J. M. Desimone, “Strategies in the design of nanoparticles for therapeutic applications,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 615–627, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. H. Rosen and T. Abribat, “The rise and rise of drug delivery,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 381–385, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. X.-B. Xiong, A. Falamarzian, S. M. Garg, and A. Lavasanifar, “Engineering of amphiphilic block copolymers for polymeric micellar drug and gene delivery,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 155, no. 2, pp. 248–261, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. E. Ruoslahti, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Targeting of drugs and nanoparticles to tumors,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 188, no. 6, pp. 759–768, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. V. Singh, L. Subhashree, P. Milani, D. Gemmati, and P. Zamboni, “Interplay of iron metallobiology, metalloproteinases, and FXIII, and role of their gene variants in venous leg ulcer,” International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 166–179, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. T. J. Seabrook, A. Littlewood-Evans, V. Brinkmann, B. Pöllinger, C. Schnell, and P. C. Hiestand, “Angiogenesis is present in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and pro-angiogenic factors are increased in multiple sclerosis lesions,” Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol. 7, article 95, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. E. Holley, J. Newcombe, J. L. Whatmore, and N. J. Gutowski, “Increased blood vessel density and endothelial cell proliferation in multiple sclerosis cerebral white matter,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 470, no. 1, pp. 65–70, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. Van Horssen, C. D. Dijkstra, and H. E. De Vries, “The extracellular matrix in multiple sclerosis pathology,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 1293–1301, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. D. Neri and R. Bicknell, “Tumour vascular targeting,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 436–446, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. G. Von Maltzahn, J.-H. Park, K. Y. Lin et al., “Nanoparticles that communicate in vivo to amplify tumour targeting,” Nature Materials, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 545–552, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. B. Uttara, A. V. Singh, P. Zamboni, and R. T. Mahajan, “Oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases: a review of upstream and downstream antioxidant therapeutic options,” Current Neuropharmacology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 65–74, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. R. J. M. Franklin and C. Ffrench-Constant, “Remyelination in the CNS: from biology to therapy,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 839–855, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  70. D. Schubert, R. Dargusch, J. Raitano, and S. W. Chan, “Cerium and yttrium oxide nanoparticles are neuroprotective,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 342, no. 1, pp. 86–91, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. L. Zhang, D. Alizadeh, and B. Badie, “Carbon nanotube uptake and toxicity in the brain,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 625, pp. 55–65, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. L. L. Dugan, D. M. Turetsky, C. Du et al., “Carboxyfullerenes as neuroprotective agents,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 94, no. 17, pp. 9434–9439, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. S. S. Ali, J. I. Hardt, and L. L. Dugan, “SOD Activity of carboxyfullerenes predicts their neuroprotective efficacy: a structure-activity study,” Nanomedicine, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 283–294, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. L. L. Dugan, E. G. Lovett, K. L. Quick, J. Lotharius, T. T. Lin, and K. L. O'Malley, “Fullerene-based antioxidants and neurodegenerative disorders,” Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 243–246, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. A. Tan, L. Yildirimer, J. Rajadas, H. De La Peña, G. Pastorin, and A. Seifalian, “Quantum dots and carbon nanotubes in oncology: a review on emerging theranostic applications in nanomedicine,” Nanomedicine, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1101–1114, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. S. R. Shin, H. Bae, J. M. Cha et al., “Carbon nanotube reinforced hybrid microgels as scaffold materials for cell encapsulation,” ACS Nano, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 362–372, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. R. W. Motl and L. A. Pilutti, “The benefits of exercise training in multiple sclerosis,” Nature Reviews Neurology, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 487–497, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. S. Kannan, H. Dai, R. S. Navath et al., “Dendrimer-based postnatal therapy for neuroinflammation and cerebral palsy in a rabbit model,” Science Translational Medicine, vol. 4, no. 130, Article ID 130ra46, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  79. P. J. Gaillard, C. C. M. Appeldoorn, J. Rip et al., “Enhanced brain delivery of liposomal methylprednisolone improved therapeutic efficacy in a model of neuroinflammation,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 164, no. 3, pp. 364–369, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  80. H. Dai, R. S. Navath, B. Balakrishnan et al., “Intrinsic targeting of inflammatory cells in the brain by polyamidoamine dendrimers upon subarachnoid administration,” Nanomedicine, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 1317–1329, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. A. R. Menjoge, R. M. Kannan, and D. A. Tomalia, “Dendrimer-based drug and imaging conjugates: design considerations for nanomedical applications,” Drug Discovery Today, vol. 15, no. 5-6, pp. 171–185, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. A. V. Singh, A. Rahman, N. V. G. Sudhir Kumar et al., “Bio-inspired approaches to design smart fabrics,” Materials and Design, vol. 36, pp. 829–839, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  83. A. V. Singh, A.S. Ajay, N. Aditi, et al., “Nanomaterials: new generation therapeutics in wound healing and tissue repair,” Current Nanoscience, vol. 6, pp. 577–586, 2010.
  84. A. V. Singh, S. Maheshwari, D. Giovanni et al., “Nanoengineering approaches to design advanced dental materials for clinical applications,” Journal of Bionanoscience, vol. 4, no. 1-2, pp. 53–65, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. S. Sant, S. L. Tao, O. Z. Fisher, Q. Xu, N. A. Peppas, and A. Khademhosseini, “Microfabrication technologies for oral drug delivery,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 496–507, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  86. V. Kohli and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Prospects and developments in cell and embryo laser nanosurgery,” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 11–25, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. M. Ebbesen and T. G. Jensen, “Nanomedicine: techniques, potentials, and ethical implications,” Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2006, Article ID 51516, 11 pages, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. A. M. Khawaja, “The legacy of nanotechnology: revolution and prospects in neurosurgery,” International Journal of Surgery, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 608–614, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  89. R. A. Freitas, “Nanotechnology, nanomedicine and nanosurgery,” International Journal of Surgery, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 243–246, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. G. J. Tserevelakis, S. Psycharakis, B. Resan et al., “Femtosecond laser nanosurgery of sub-cellular structures in HeLa cells by employing Third Harmonic Generation imaging modality as diagnostic tool,” Journal of Biophotonics, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 200–207, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  91. G. D. M. Jeffries, J. S. Edgar, Z. Yiqiong, J. P. Shelby, F. Christine, and D. T. Chiu, “Using polarization-shaped optical vortex traps for single-cell nanosurgery,” Nano Letters, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 415–420, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. I. Obataya, C. Nakamura, S. Han, N. Nakamura, and J. Miyake, “Nanoscale operation of a living cell using an atomic force microscope with a nanoneedle,” Nano Letters, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 27–30, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. J. Wang and W. Gao, “Nano/microscale motors: biomedical opportunities and challenges,” ACS Nano, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 5745–5751, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  94. S. Hernot, S. Unnikrishnan, Z. Du et al., “Nanobody-coupled microbubbles as novel molecular tracer,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 158, no. 2, pp. 346–353, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  95. R. Farra, N. F. Sheppard Jr., L. McCabe et al., “First-in-human testing of a wirelessly controlled drug delivery microchip,” Science Translational Medicine, vol. 4, no. 122, Article ID 122ra21, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. W. A. Qureshi, “Current and future applications of the capsule camera,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 447–450, 2004. View at Scopus
  97. P. C. Swain, “Wireless capsule endoscopy,” Gut, vol. 52, supplement 4, pp. iv48–iv50, 2003. View at Scopus
  98. D. G. Georganopoulou, L. Chang, J. M. Nam et al., “Nanoparticle-based detection in cerebral spinal fluid of a soluble pathogenic biomarker for Alzheimer's disease,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 7, pp. 2273–2276, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. J. M. Nam, K. J. Jang, and J. T. Groves, “Detection of proteins using a colorimetric bio-barcode assay,” Nature Protocols, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 1438–1444, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. J. B. M. Warntjes, O. Dahlqvist Leinhard, J. West, and P. Lundberg, “Rapid magnetic resonance quantification on the brain: optimization for clinical usage,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 320–329, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. A. J. Haes, L. Chang, W. L. Klein, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Detection of a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease from synthetic and clinical samples using a nanoscale optical biosensor,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, no. 7, pp. 2264–2271, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. N. E. Kurland, Z. Drira, and V. K. Yadavalli, “Measurement of nanomechanical properties of biomolecules using atomic force microscopy,” Micron, vol. 43, no. 2-3, pp. 116–128, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  103. V. Mani, B. V. Chikkaveeraiah, V. Patel, J. S. Gutkind, and J. F. Rusling, “Ultrasensitive immunosensor for cancer biomarker proteins using gold nanoparticle film electrodes and multienzyme-particle amplification,” ACS Nano, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 585–594, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. A. Neely, C. Perry, B. Varisli et al., “Ultrasensitive and highly selective detection of alzheimer's disease biomarker using two-photon rayleigh scattering properties of gold nanoparticle,” ACS Nano, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 2834–2840, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. Y. Heta, K. Kumaki, H. Hifumi, D. Citterio, A. Tanimoto, and K. Suzuki, “Gadolinium containing photochromic micelles as potential magnetic resonance imaging traceable drug carriers,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 876–883, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  106. J. M. J. Richards, C. A. Shaw, N. N. Lang et al., “In vivo mononuclear cell tracking using superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide feasibility and safety in humans,” Circulation, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 509–517, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  107. S. Metz, A. J. Beer, M. Settles et al., “Characterization of carotid artery plaques with USPIOenhanced MRI: assessment of inflammation and vascularity as in vivo imaging biomarkers for plaque vulnerability,” International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 901–912, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  108. D. Bataveljić, S. Stamenković, G. Bačić, and P. R. Andjus, “Imaging cellular markers of neuroinflammation in the brain of the rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,” Acta Physiologica Hungarica, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 27–31, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. L. MacHtoub, R. Pfeiffer, A. Backovic, S. Frischauf, and M. C. Wick, “Molecular imaging cellular SPIO uptake with nonlinear optical microscopy,” Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 159–164, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. S. Santra, S. D. Jativa, C. Kaittanis, G. Normand, J. Grimm, and J. M. Perez, “Gadolinium-encapsulating iron oxide nanoprobe as activatable NMR/MRI contrast agent,” ACS Nano, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 7281–7294, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  111. A. H. Jacobs and B. Tavitian, “Noninvasive molecular imaging of neuroinflammation,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1393–1415, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar