Advances in Evolutionary Biology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A DNA Barcode-Based Evaluation of the Southeast Asian Catfish Genus Hemibagrus Bleeker, 1862 (Teleostei: Siluriformes; Bagridae) Thu, 05 Feb 2015 06:21:29 +0000 Species of the genus Hemibagrus are large river catfishes found throughout South-east Asia. The complexity of the region’s biogeographical history and the lack of well-defined morphological characters render the taxonomy and phylogenetic reconstruction of Hemibagrus problematical. Early molecular studies of the H. nemurus species group revealed extensive genetic subdivisions, the taxonomic status of which remained unclear. A recent, morphologically-based, revision of the genus provides an opportunity to clarify the taxonomic status of these lineages. We employ a DNA barcode derived from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to expand our genetic analyses of the genus and to test the congruence of morphologically and genetically based taxonomies. Secondly, we evaluate phylogenetic relationships among taxa. Thirdly, we describe the phylogeography of Hemibagrus in South-east Asia. The species groups and nominal species proposed in the morphology-based revision generally reflect a hierarchy of monophyletic groups based on phenetic and maximum likelihood reconstructions of mtDNA phylogenies. The most notable exception involves the definition of a morphologically cryptic group from North Borneo. H. nemurus from West Java appears to be a regional population of H. capitulum. The phylogeography of the genus has been principally influenced by the formation of North Borneo and the emergence of the Sunda Islands. Julian J. Dodson and Frédéric Lecomte Copyright © 2015 Julian J. Dodson and Frédéric Lecomte. All rights reserved. Repetitive Sequence and Sex Chromosome Evolution in Vertebrates Thu, 11 Sep 2014 09:31:46 +0000 Sex chromosomes are the most dynamic entity in any genome having unique morphology, gene content, and evolution. They have evolved multiple times and independently throughout vertebrate evolution. One of the major genomic changes that pertain to sex chromosomes involves the amplification of common repeats. It is hypothesized that such amplification of repeats facilitates the suppression of recombination, leading to the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes through genetic degradation of Y or W chromosomes. Although contrasting evidence is available, it is clear that amplification of simple repetitive sequences played a major role in the evolution of Y and W chromosomes in vertebrates. In this review, we present a brief overview of the repetitive DNA classes that accumulated during sex chromosome evolution, mainly focusing on vertebrates, and discuss their possible role and potential function in this process. Tariq Ezaz and Janine E. Deakin Copyright © 2014 Tariq Ezaz and Janine E. Deakin. All rights reserved.