Advances in Electronics The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Shifting the Frontiers of Analog and Mixed-Signal Electronics Tue, 16 Dec 2014 08:03:34 +0000 Nowadays, analog and mixed-signal (AMS) IC designs, mainly found in the frontends of large ICs, are highly dedicated, complex, and costly. They form a bottleneck in the communication with the outside world, determine an upper bound in quality, yield, and flexibility for the IC, and require a significant part of the power dissipation. Operating very close to physical limits, serious boundaries are faced. This paper relates, from a high-level point of view, these boundaries to the Shannon channel capacity and shows how the AMS circuitry forms a matching link in transforming the external analog signals, optimized for the communication medium, to the optimal on-chip signal representation, the digital one, for the IC medium. The signals in the AMS part itself are consequently not optimally matched to the IC medium. To further shift the frontiers of AMS design, a matching-driven design approach is crucial for AMS. Four levels will be addressed: technology-driven, states-driven, redundancy-driven, and nature-driven design. This is done based on an analysis of the various classes of AMS signals and their specific properties, seen from the angle of redundancy. This generic, but abstract way of looking at the design process will be substantiated with many specific examples. Arthur H. M. van Roermund Copyright © 2014 Arthur H. M. van Roermund. All rights reserved. Design and Build of an Electrical Machines’ High Speed Measurement System at Low Cost Sun, 16 Nov 2014 09:34:06 +0000 The principal objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of high speed measurement and acquisition equipment design and build in the laboratory at a very low cost. The presented architecture employees highly integrated market components eliminating thus the complexity of the hardware and software stack. The key element of the proposed system is a Hi-Speed USB to Serial/FIFO development module that is provided with full software and driver support for most popular operating systems. This module takes over every single task needed to get the data from the A/D to the user software gluelessly and transparently, solving this way the most difficult problem in data acquisition systems which is the fast and reliable communication with a host computer. Other ideas tested and included in this document offer Hall Effect measuring solutions using some excellent features and very low cost ICs widely available on the market today. Constantinos C. Kontogiannis and Athanasios N. Safacas Copyright © 2014 Constantinos C. Kontogiannis and Athanasios N. Safacas. All rights reserved. Design of Low Power and Efficient Carry Select Adder Using 3-T XOR Gate Mon, 22 Sep 2014 05:56:17 +0000 In digital systems, mostly adder lies in the critical path that affects the overall performance of the system. To perform fast addition operation at low cost, carry select adder (CSLA) is the most suitable among conventional adder structures. In this paper, a 3-T XOR gate is used to design an 8-bit CSLA as XOR gates are the essential blocks in designing higher bit adders. The proposed CSLA has reduced transistor count and has lesser power consumption as well as power-delay product (PDP) as compared to regular CSLA and modified CSLA. Gagandeep Singh and Chakshu Goel Copyright © 2014 Gagandeep Singh and Chakshu Goel. All rights reserved. FinFETs: From Devices to Architectures Sun, 07 Sep 2014 12:07:09 +0000 Since Moore’s law driven scaling of planar MOSFETs faces formidable challenges in the nanometer regime, FinFETs and Trigate FETs have emerged as their successors. Owing to the presence of multiple (two/three) gates, FinFETs/Trigate FETs are able to tackle short-channel effects (SCEs) better than conventional planar MOSFETs at deeply scaled technology nodes and thus enable continued transistor scaling. In this paper, we review research on FinFETs from the bottommost device level to the topmost architecture level. We survey different types of FinFETs, various possible FinFET asymmetries and their impact, and novel logic-level and architecture-level tradeoffs offered by FinFETs. We also review analysis and optimization tools that are available for characterizing FinFET devices, circuits, and architectures. Debajit Bhattacharya and Niraj K. Jha Copyright © 2014 Debajit Bhattacharya and Niraj K. Jha. All rights reserved. Ultra-Low-Voltage Low-Power Bulk-Driven Quasi-Floating-Gate Operational Transconductance Amplifier Wed, 27 Aug 2014 08:10:45 +0000 A new ultra-low-voltage (LV) low-power (LP) bulk-driven quasi-floating-gate (BD-QFG) operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) is presented in this paper. The proposed circuit is designed using 0.18 μm CMOS technology. A supply voltage of ±0.3 V and a quiescent bias current of 5 μA are used. The PSpice simulation result shows that the power consumption of the proposed BD-QFG OTA is 13.4 μW. Thus, the circuit is suitable for low-power applications. In order to confirm that the proposed BD-QFG OTA can be used in analog signal processing, a BD-QFG OTA-based diodeless precision rectifier is designed as an example application. This rectifier employs only two BD-QFG OTAs and consumes only 26.8 μW. Ziad Alsibai and Salma Bay Abo Dabbous Copyright © 2014 Ziad Alsibai and Salma Bay Abo Dabbous. All rights reserved. Occluded Face Recognition Based on Double Layers Module Sparsity Difference Mon, 18 Aug 2014 08:20:38 +0000 Image recognition with occlusion is one of the popular problems in pattern recognition. This paper partitions the images into some modules in two layers and the sparsity difference is used to evaluate the occluded modules. The final identification is processed on the unoccluded modules by sparse representation. Firstly, we partition the images into four blocks and sparse representation is performed on each block, so the sparsity of each block can be obtained; secondly, each block is partitioned again into two modules. Sparsity of each small module is calculated as the first step. Finally, the sparsity difference of small module with the corresponding block is used to detect the occluded modules; in this paper, the small modules with negative sparsity differences are considered as occluded modules. The identification is performed on the selected unoccluded modules by sparse representation. Experiments on the AR and Yale B database verify the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method. Shuhuan Zhao and Zheng-ping Hu Copyright © 2014 Shuhuan Zhao and Zheng-ping Hu. All rights reserved. The European Legislation Applicable to Medium-Range Inductive Wireless Power Transmission Systems Thu, 10 Jul 2014 19:39:57 +0000 Medium-range inductive wireless power transmission systems allow a sufficient power transfer without requiring close proximity between a primary coil and a secondary coil. We briefly investigate the range of a typical system and its radiated emission, from the perspectives of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and human exposure requirements. We then discuss the applicable legislation in the European Union, the main question being the applicability of the R&TTE or radio equipment directives. Our conclusion is that this applicability depends on multiple parameters, among which is the presence of a self-tuning capability or of a transmitter control based on telemetry. Frédéric Broydé, Evelyne Clavelier, and Lucie Broydé Copyright © 2014 Frédéric Broydé et al. All rights reserved. Advances in Microelectronics for Implantable Medical Devices Tue, 29 Apr 2014 14:20:47 +0000 Implantable medical devices provide therapy to treat numerous health conditions as well as monitoring and diagnosis. Over the years, the development of these devices has seen remarkable progress thanks to tremendous advances in microelectronics, electrode technology, packaging and signal processing techniques. Many of today’s implantable devices use wireless technology to supply power and provide communication. There are many challenges when creating an implantable device. Issues such as reliable and fast bidirectional data communication, efficient power delivery to the implantable circuits, low noise and low power for the recording part of the system, and delivery of safe stimulation to avoid tissue and electrode damage are some of the challenges faced by the microelectronics circuit designer. This paper provides a review of advances in microelectronics over the last decade or so for implantable medical devices and systems. The focus is on neural recording and stimulation circuits suitable for fabrication in modern silicon process technologies and biotelemetry methods for power and data transfer, with particular emphasis on methods employing radio frequency inductive coupling. The paper concludes by highlighting some of the issues that will drive future research in the field. Andreas Demosthenous Copyright © 2014 Andreas Demosthenous. All rights reserved. InAs/GaSb Type-II Superlattice Detectors Thu, 10 Apr 2014 14:10:25 +0000 InAs/(In,Ga)Sb type-II strained layer superlattices (T2SLs) have made significant progress since they were first proposed as an infrared (IR) sensing material more than three decades ago. Numerous theoretically predicted advantages that T2SL offers over present-day detection technologies, heterojunction engineering capabilities, and technological preferences make T2SL technology promising candidate for the realization of high performance IR imagers. Despite concentrated efforts of many research groups, the T2SLs have not revealed full potential yet. This paper attempts to provide a comprehensive review of the current status of T2SL detectors and discusses origins of T2SL device performance degradation, in particular, surface and bulk dark-current components. Various approaches of dark current reduction with their pros and cons are presented. Elena A. Plis Copyright © 2014 Elena A. Plis. All rights reserved.