Advances in Electronics The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. FPGA-Based Synthesis of High-Speed Hybrid Carry Select Adders Wed, 27 May 2015 12:48:59 +0000 Carry select adder is a square-root time high-speed adder. In this paper, FPGA-based synthesis of conventional and hybrid carry select adders are described with a focus on high speed. Conventionally, carry select adders are realized using the following: (i) full adders and 2 : 1 multiplexers, (ii) full adders, binary to excess 1 code converters, and 2 : 1 multiplexers, and (iii) sharing of common Boolean logic. On the other hand, hybrid carry select adders involve a combination of carry select and carry lookahead adders with/without the use of binary to excess 1 code converters. In this work, two new hybrid carry select adders are proposed involving the carry select and section-carry based carry lookahead subadders with/without binary to excess 1 converters. Seven different carry select adders were implemented in Verilog HDL and their performances were analyzed under two scenarios, dual-operand addition and multioperand addition, where individual operands are of sizes 32 and 64-bits. In the case of dual-operand additions, the hybrid carry select adder comprising the proposed carry select and section-carry based carry lookahead configurations is the fastest. With respect to multioperand additions, the hybrid carry select adder containing the carry select and conventional carry lookahead or section-carry based carry lookahead structures produce similar optimized performance. V. Kokilavani, K. Preethi, and P. Balasubramanian Copyright © 2015 V. Kokilavani et al. All rights reserved. Reconfigurable CPLAG and Modified PFAL Adiabatic Logic Circuits Tue, 24 Feb 2015 14:06:10 +0000 Previously, authors have proposed CPLAG and MCPLAG circuits extracting benefits of CPL family implemented based upon semiadiabatic logic for low power VLSI circuit design along with gating concept. Also authors have communicated RCPLAG circuits adding another dimension of reconfigurability into CPLAG/MCPLAG circuits. Moving ahead, in this paper, authors have implemented/reconfigured RCPLAG universal Nand/And gate and universal Nor/Or gate for extracting behavior of dynamic positive edge triggered DFF. Authors have also implemented Adder/Subtractor circuit using different techniques. Authors have also reported modification in PFAL semiadiabatic circuit family to further reduce the power dissipation. Functionality of these is verified and found to be satisfactory. Further these are examined rigorously with voltage, , temperature, and transistor size variation. Performance of these is examined with these variations with power dissipation, delays, rise, and fall times associated. From the analysis it is found that best operating condition for DFF based upon RCPLAG universal gate can be achieved at supply voltage lower than 3 V which can be used for different transistor size up to 36 μm. Average power dissipation is 0.2 μW at 1 V and 30 μW at 2 V at 100 ff 25°C approximately. Average power dissipated by CPLAG Adder/Subtractot is 58 μW. Modified PFAL circuit reduces average power by 9% approximately. Manoj Sharma and Arti Noor Copyright © 2015 Manoj Sharma and Arti Noor. All rights reserved. High Efficiency Driver for AMOLED with Compensation Tue, 10 Feb 2015 07:33:33 +0000 A new proposed compensation driver circuit of flat-panel display (FPD) based on organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and on poly-crystalline silicon thin-film transistors (poly-Si TFTs) is presented. This driver circuit is developed for an active-matrix organic light-emitting-diode (AMOLED) display and its efficiency is verified compared with the conventional configuration with 2 TFTs. According to results, this circuit is suitable to achieve acceptable level for power consumption, high contrast, maximum gray levels, and better brightness. And, to show this, a stable driving scheme is developed for circuit with much compensation such as against the data degradation, the threshold voltage dispersions of TFT drive, and suppression of TFT leakage current effect. Said Saad and Lotfi Hassine Copyright © 2015 Said Saad and Lotfi Hassine. All rights reserved. All Pass Network Based MSO Using OTRA Wed, 21 Jan 2015 08:37:55 +0000 This paper presents multiphase sinusoidal oscillators (MSOs) using operational transresistance amplifier (OTRA) based all pass networks. Both even and odd phase oscillations of equal amplitudes which are equally spaced in phase can be produced using single all pass section per phase. The proposed MSOs provide voltage output and can readily be used for driving voltage input circuits without increasing component count. The effect of nonideality of OTRA on the circuit performance is also analysed. The functionality of the proposed circuit is verified through PSPICE simulations. Rajeshwari Pandey, Neeta Pandey, Romita Mullick, Sarjana Yadav, and Rashika Anurag Copyright © 2015 Rajeshwari Pandey et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Occluded Face Recognition Based on Double Layers Module Sparsity Difference Tue, 20 Jan 2015 07:26:49 +0000 Advances in Electronics Copyright © 2015 Advances in Electronics. All rights reserved. Design and Implementation of Android Based Wearable Smart Locator Band for People with Autism, Dementia, and Alzheimer Thu, 15 Jan 2015 13:30:39 +0000 A wearable smart locator band is an electronic device which can be worn on the wrist of the children to monitor and keep an eye on them. As the number of mishaps with children is increasing, it is a must to keep them safe. This also helps reducing crime rates. The research study proposed the development of a wearable smart locator band that helps keeping track of kids. The developed device includes an AVR microcontroller (ATmega8515), global positioning system (GPS), global system for mobile (GSM), and switching unit and the monitoring unit includes Android mobile device in parent’s hand with web based Android application as well as location indicated on a Google Map. This development is very useful for senior people and individuals suffering from memory diseases. This device, hence, behaves as a communication interface between wearer and caregiver. Isha Goel and Dilip Kumar Copyright © 2015 Isha Goel and Dilip Kumar. All rights reserved. Blood Glucose Measurement Using Bioimpedance Technique Sun, 28 Dec 2014 00:10:09 +0000 Bioimpedance measurement is gaining importance in wide field of bioresearch and biomedical systems due to its noninvasive nature. Noninvasive measurement method is very important to decrease infection and physical injuries which result due to invasive measurement. This paper presents basic principle of bioimpedance along with its application for blood glucose analysis and effect of frequency on impedance measurement. Input from bioimpedance sensor is given to amplifier and signal conditioner AD5933. AD5933 is then interfaced with microcontroller LPC1768 using I2C bus for displaying reading on LCD. Results can also be stored in database using UART interface of LPC1768. D. K. Kamat, Dhanashri Bagul, and P. M. Patil Copyright © 2014 D. K. Kamat et al. All rights reserved. Design of CDTA and VDTA Based Frequency Agile Filters Tue, 23 Dec 2014 10:53:45 +0000 This paper presents frequency agile filters based on current difference transconductance amplifier (CDTA) and voltage difference transconductance amplifier (VDTA). The proposed agile filter configurations employ grounded passive components and hence are suitable for integration. Extensive SPICE simulations using 0.25 μm TSMC CMOS technology model parameters are carried out for functional verification. The proposed configurations are compared in terms of performance parameters such as power dissipation, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and maximum output noise voltage. Neeta Pandey, Aseem Sayal, Richa Choudhary, and Rajeshwari Pandey Copyright © 2014 Neeta Pandey et al. All rights reserved. Low Power Data Acquisition System for Bioimplantable Devices Sun, 21 Dec 2014 00:10:05 +0000 Signal acquisition represents the most important block in biomedical devices, because of its responsibilities to retrieve precise data from the biological tissues. In this paper an energy efficient data acquisition unit is presented which includes low power high bandwidth front-end amplifier and a 10-bit fully differential successive approximation ADC. The proposed system is designed with 0.18 µm CMOS technology and the simulation results show that the bioamplifier maintains a wide bandwidth versus low noise trade-off and the proposed SAR-ADC consumes 450 nW power under 1.8 V supply and retain the effective number of bit 9.55 in 100 KS/s sampling rate. Sadeque Reza Khan and M. S. Bhat Copyright © 2014 Sadeque Reza Khan and M. S. Bhat. All rights reserved. Shifting the Frontiers of Analog and Mixed-Signal Electronics Tue, 16 Dec 2014 08:03:34 +0000 Nowadays, analog and mixed-signal (AMS) IC designs, mainly found in the frontends of large ICs, are highly dedicated, complex, and costly. They form a bottleneck in the communication with the outside world, determine an upper bound in quality, yield, and flexibility for the IC, and require a significant part of the power dissipation. Operating very close to physical limits, serious boundaries are faced. This paper relates, from a high-level point of view, these boundaries to the Shannon channel capacity and shows how the AMS circuitry forms a matching link in transforming the external analog signals, optimized for the communication medium, to the optimal on-chip signal representation, the digital one, for the IC medium. The signals in the AMS part itself are consequently not optimally matched to the IC medium. To further shift the frontiers of AMS design, a matching-driven design approach is crucial for AMS. Four levels will be addressed: technology-driven, states-driven, redundancy-driven, and nature-driven design. This is done based on an analysis of the various classes of AMS signals and their specific properties, seen from the angle of redundancy. This generic, but abstract way of looking at the design process will be substantiated with many specific examples. Arthur H. M. van Roermund Copyright © 2014 Arthur H. M. van Roermund. All rights reserved. Design and Build of an Electrical Machines’ High Speed Measurement System at Low Cost Sun, 16 Nov 2014 09:34:06 +0000 The principal objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of high speed measurement and acquisition equipment design and build in the laboratory at a very low cost. The presented architecture employees highly integrated market components eliminating thus the complexity of the hardware and software stack. The key element of the proposed system is a Hi-Speed USB to Serial/FIFO development module that is provided with full software and driver support for most popular operating systems. This module takes over every single task needed to get the data from the A/D to the user software gluelessly and transparently, solving this way the most difficult problem in data acquisition systems which is the fast and reliable communication with a host computer. Other ideas tested and included in this document offer Hall Effect measuring solutions using some excellent features and very low cost ICs widely available on the market today. Constantinos C. Kontogiannis and Athanasios N. Safacas Copyright © 2014 Constantinos C. Kontogiannis and Athanasios N. Safacas. All rights reserved. Design of Low Power and Efficient Carry Select Adder Using 3-T XOR Gate Mon, 22 Sep 2014 05:56:17 +0000 In digital systems, mostly adder lies in the critical path that affects the overall performance of the system. To perform fast addition operation at low cost, carry select adder (CSLA) is the most suitable among conventional adder structures. In this paper, a 3-T XOR gate is used to design an 8-bit CSLA as XOR gates are the essential blocks in designing higher bit adders. The proposed CSLA has reduced transistor count and has lesser power consumption as well as power-delay product (PDP) as compared to regular CSLA and modified CSLA. Gagandeep Singh and Chakshu Goel Copyright © 2014 Gagandeep Singh and Chakshu Goel. All rights reserved. FinFETs: From Devices to Architectures Sun, 07 Sep 2014 12:07:09 +0000 Since Moore’s law driven scaling of planar MOSFETs faces formidable challenges in the nanometer regime, FinFETs and Trigate FETs have emerged as their successors. Owing to the presence of multiple (two/three) gates, FinFETs/Trigate FETs are able to tackle short-channel effects (SCEs) better than conventional planar MOSFETs at deeply scaled technology nodes and thus enable continued transistor scaling. In this paper, we review research on FinFETs from the bottommost device level to the topmost architecture level. We survey different types of FinFETs, various possible FinFET asymmetries and their impact, and novel logic-level and architecture-level tradeoffs offered by FinFETs. We also review analysis and optimization tools that are available for characterizing FinFET devices, circuits, and architectures. Debajit Bhattacharya and Niraj K. Jha Copyright © 2014 Debajit Bhattacharya and Niraj K. Jha. All rights reserved. Ultra-Low-Voltage Low-Power Bulk-Driven Quasi-Floating-Gate Operational Transconductance Amplifier Wed, 27 Aug 2014 08:10:45 +0000 A new ultra-low-voltage (LV) low-power (LP) bulk-driven quasi-floating-gate (BD-QFG) operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) is presented in this paper. The proposed circuit is designed using 0.18 μm CMOS technology. A supply voltage of ±0.3 V and a quiescent bias current of 5 μA are used. The PSpice simulation result shows that the power consumption of the proposed BD-QFG OTA is 13.4 μW. Thus, the circuit is suitable for low-power applications. In order to confirm that the proposed BD-QFG OTA can be used in analog signal processing, a BD-QFG OTA-based diodeless precision rectifier is designed as an example application. This rectifier employs only two BD-QFG OTAs and consumes only 26.8 μW. Ziad Alsibai and Salma Bay Abo Dabbous Copyright © 2014 Ziad Alsibai and Salma Bay Abo Dabbous. All rights reserved. Occluded Face Recognition Based on Double Layers Module Sparsity Difference Mon, 18 Aug 2014 08:20:38 +0000 Image recognition with occlusion is one of the popular problems in pattern recognition. This paper partitions the images into some modules in two layers and the sparsity difference is used to evaluate the occluded modules. The final identification is processed on the unoccluded modules by sparse representation. Firstly, we partition the images into four blocks and sparse representation is performed on each block, so the sparsity of each block can be obtained; secondly, each block is partitioned again into two modules. Sparsity of each small module is calculated as the first step. Finally, the sparsity difference of small module with the corresponding block is used to detect the occluded modules; in this paper, the small modules with negative sparsity differences are considered as occluded modules. The identification is performed on the selected unoccluded modules by sparse representation. Experiments on the AR and Yale B database verify the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method. Shuhuan Zhao and Zheng-ping Hu Copyright © 2014 Shuhuan Zhao and Zheng-ping Hu. All rights reserved. The European Legislation Applicable to Medium-Range Inductive Wireless Power Transmission Systems Thu, 10 Jul 2014 19:39:57 +0000 Medium-range inductive wireless power transmission systems allow a sufficient power transfer without requiring close proximity between a primary coil and a secondary coil. We briefly investigate the range of a typical system and its radiated emission, from the perspectives of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and human exposure requirements. We then discuss the applicable legislation in the European Union, the main question being the applicability of the R&TTE or radio equipment directives. Our conclusion is that this applicability depends on multiple parameters, among which is the presence of a self-tuning capability or of a transmitter control based on telemetry. Frédéric Broydé, Evelyne Clavelier, and Lucie Broydé Copyright © 2014 Frédéric Broydé et al. All rights reserved. Advances in Microelectronics for Implantable Medical Devices Tue, 29 Apr 2014 14:20:47 +0000 Implantable medical devices provide therapy to treat numerous health conditions as well as monitoring and diagnosis. Over the years, the development of these devices has seen remarkable progress thanks to tremendous advances in microelectronics, electrode technology, packaging and signal processing techniques. Many of today’s implantable devices use wireless technology to supply power and provide communication. There are many challenges when creating an implantable device. Issues such as reliable and fast bidirectional data communication, efficient power delivery to the implantable circuits, low noise and low power for the recording part of the system, and delivery of safe stimulation to avoid tissue and electrode damage are some of the challenges faced by the microelectronics circuit designer. This paper provides a review of advances in microelectronics over the last decade or so for implantable medical devices and systems. The focus is on neural recording and stimulation circuits suitable for fabrication in modern silicon process technologies and biotelemetry methods for power and data transfer, with particular emphasis on methods employing radio frequency inductive coupling. The paper concludes by highlighting some of the issues that will drive future research in the field. Andreas Demosthenous Copyright © 2014 Andreas Demosthenous. All rights reserved. InAs/GaSb Type-II Superlattice Detectors Thu, 10 Apr 2014 14:10:25 +0000 InAs/(In,Ga)Sb type-II strained layer superlattices (T2SLs) have made significant progress since they were first proposed as an infrared (IR) sensing material more than three decades ago. Numerous theoretically predicted advantages that T2SL offers over present-day detection technologies, heterojunction engineering capabilities, and technological preferences make T2SL technology promising candidate for the realization of high performance IR imagers. Despite concentrated efforts of many research groups, the T2SLs have not revealed full potential yet. This paper attempts to provide a comprehensive review of the current status of T2SL detectors and discusses origins of T2SL device performance degradation, in particular, surface and bulk dark-current components. Various approaches of dark current reduction with their pros and cons are presented. Elena A. Plis Copyright © 2014 Elena A. Plis. All rights reserved.