Table 2: Characteristics of the cropping systems at Apelsvoll, 2001–2010.

Crop rotationFertilizer, kg ha−1Slurry, kg ha−1Plant protectionSoil tillage
NPKNPK

Conventional arable (CA1)1

Potatoes119 51 183Chemical, mechanicalAutumn ploughing and spring harrowing
Spring wheat1412566Chemical
Spring oats1202257Chemical
Spring barley1202257Chemical

Conventional arable (CA2)

Potatoes108247164Chemical, mech.Spring harrowing only7
Wheat + catch crop31342, 42980Chemical, mech.5
Oats + catch crop611622155Chemical, mech.5
Barley + catch crop311622155Chemical, mech.5

Organic arable (OA)

Barley8Manual weedingSpring ploughing and harrowing
Grass clover9Manual w.
S. wheat + catch cropManual w., mech.5, 10
Oats + peasManual w., mech.10

Conventional mixed dairy farming (CM)

Barley11 502 9 24 70 10 90ChemicalSpring ploughing and harrowing
1st ley year 992167557873
2nd ley year114219868011104
S. wheat + catch crop 862, 41643691090Chemical, mech.5

Organic mixed dairy farming (OM1)

Barley11751198Manual w.Spring ploughing and harrowing
1st ley year24231Manual w.
2nd ley year48663Manual w.
S. wheat + catch crop 8312107Manual w., mech.5, 10

Organic mixed dairy farming (OM2)

Barley119313112Manual w.Spring ploughing and harrowing
1st ley year63880Manual w.
2nd ley year9813122Manual w.
3rd ley year751093Manual w.

1Managed as was common for the region in 1985 (tillage and fertilization as in 1985, but for practical reasons, present-day inputs of seeds and chemical plant protection).
2Fertilizer level in spring adjusted according to regional recommendations, based on measurements of mineral N in topsoil in early spring. Average values are shown.
3Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L), sown about one week after the cereals.
4Split application of fertilizer with about 75% given at sowing, and 0–60 kg N ha−1 applied at growth stage (GS) 49, according to measurements with the N tester [6].
5Weed harrowing performed when the cereals are at GS 11-12.
6Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam), sown about one week after the oats.
7Performed twice with a horizontally rotating harrow.
8With undersown grass-clover mixture. Seed mix: 80% Timothy (Phleum pratense L.), 10% red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and 10% white clover (Trifolium repens L).
9Green manure, not harvested but mulched 3-4 times per season.
10Harrowed in autumn after harvest some years to reduce the weed pressure.
11With undersown grass-clover ley. Seed mix: 60% Timothy (Phleum pratense L.), 30% Meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis L.), and 10% red clover (Trifolium pratense L.).