|Table 2: Characteristics of the cropping systems at Apelsvoll, 2001–2010.|
1Managed as was common for the region in 1985 (tillage and fertilization as in 1985, but for practical reasons, present-day inputs of seeds and chemical plant protection).|
2Fertilizer level in spring adjusted according to regional recommendations, based on measurements of mineral N in topsoil in early spring. Average values are shown.
3Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L), sown about one week after the cereals.
4Split application of fertilizer with about 75% given at sowing, and 0–60 kg N ha−1 applied at growth stage (GS) 49, according to measurements with the N tester .
5Weed harrowing performed when the cereals are at GS 11-12.
6Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam), sown about one week after the oats.
7Performed twice with a horizontally rotating harrow.
8With undersown grass-clover mixture. Seed mix: 80% Timothy (Phleum pratense L.), 10% red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and 10% white clover (Trifolium repens L).
9Green manure, not harvested but mulched 3-4 times per season.
10Harrowed in autumn after harvest some years to reduce the weed pressure.
11With undersown grass-clover ley. Seed mix: 60% Timothy (Phleum pratense L.), 30% Meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis L.), and 10% red clover (Trifolium pratense L.).