About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Applied and Environmental Soil Science
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 751956, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/751956
Research Article

Quantitative Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soils: Comparison between Reflectance Spectroscopy and Solvent Extraction by 3 Certified Laboratories

1Porter School of Environmental Studies, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel
2Remote Sensing Laboratory, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel
3Geography and Human Environment Department, Tel-Aviv University, P.O. Box 39040, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel
4The Soil Erosion Research Station, Ruppin Institute, Emeck Hefer 40250, Israel

Received 9 January 2012; Revised 29 March 2012; Accepted 3 April 2012

Academic Editor: Jose Alexandre Melo Dematte

Copyright © 2012 Guy Schwartz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. S. Hutcheson, D. Pedersen, N. D. Anastas, J. Fitzgerald, and D. Silverman, “Beyond TPH: health-based evaluation of petroleum hydrocarbon exposures,” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 85–101, 1996. View at Scopus
  2. P. Boffetta, N. Jourenkova, and P. Gustavsson, “Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 444–472, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. D. Ritchie, K. R. Still, W. K. Alexander et al., “A review of the neurotoxicity risk of selected hydrocarbon fuels,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health B, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 223–312, 2001. View at Scopus
  4. Environmental Sciences Division, Use of Gross Parameters for Assessment of Hydrocarbon Contamination of Soils in Alberta, Oxford, UK, 1993.
  5. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Test Method for Evaluating Total Recoverable Petroleum Hydrocarbon, Method 418.1 (Spectrophotometric, Infrared), Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA, 1978.
  6. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA, 1983.
  7. G. Schwartz, G. Eshel, and E. Ben-Dor, “Reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring contaminated soils,” in Soil Contamination, Intech, 2011.
  8. R. S. G. Gómez, T. Pandiyan, V. E. A. Iris, V. Luna-Pabello, and C. D. de Bazúa, “Spectroscopic determination of poly-aromatic compounds in petroleum contaminated soils,” Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol. 158, no. 1, pp. 137–151, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. Krupcík, P. Oswald, D. Oktavec, and D. W. Armstrong, “Calibration of GC-FID and IR spectrometric methods for determination of high boiling petroleum hydrocarbons in environmental samples,” Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol. 153, no. 1–4, pp. 329–341, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. G. Xie, M. J. Barcelona, and J. Fang, “Quantification and interpretation of total petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment samples by a GC/MS method and comparison with EPA 418.1 and a rapid field method,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 71, no. 9, pp. 1899–1904, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. Lambert, M. Fingas, and M. Goldthorp, “An evaluation of field total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) systems,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 83, no. 1-2, pp. 65–81, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. Saari, P. Perämäki, and J. Jalonen, “A comparative study of solvent extraction of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil,” Microchimica Acta, vol. 158, no. 3-4, pp. 261–268, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Villalobos, A. P. Avila-Forcada, and M. E. Gutierrez-Ruiz, “An improved gravimetric method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils,” Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol. 194, no. 1–4, pp. 151–161, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. A. Cloutis, “Spectral reflectance properties of hydrocarbons: remote-sensing implications,” Science, vol. 245, no. 4914, pp. 165–168, 1989. View at Scopus
  15. I. Schneider, G. Nau, T. V. V. King, and I. Aggarwal, “Fiber-optic near-infrared reflectance sensor for detection of organics in soils,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 87–89, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. B. R. Stallard, M. J. Garcia, and S. Kaushik, “Near-IR reflectance spectroscopy for the determination of motor oil contamination in sandy loam,” Applied Spectroscopy, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 334–338, 1996. View at Scopus
  17. Z. Zwanziger and F. Heidrun, “Near infrared spectroscopy of fuel contaminated sand and soil. I. Preliminary results and calibration study,” Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, vol. 6, no. 1–4, pp. 189–197, 1998. View at Scopus
  18. D. F. Malley, K. N. Hunter, and G. R. B. Webster, “Analysis of diesel fuel contamination in soils by near-infrared reflectance spectrometry and solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography,” Soil and Sediment Contamination, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 481–489, 1999. View at Scopus
  19. B. Hörig, F. Kühn, F. Oschütz, and F. Lehmann, “HyMap hyperspectral remote sensing to detect hydrocarbons,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1413–1422, 2001. View at Scopus
  20. F. Kühn, K. Oppermann, and B. Hörig, “Hydrocarbon index—an algorithm for hyperspectral detection of hydrocarbons,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2467–2473, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. H. Winkelmann, On the applicability of imaging spectrometry for the detection and investigation of contaminated sites with particular consideration given to the detection of fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in soil, Ph.D. thesis, Brandenburgische Technische Universität Cottbus, 2005.
  22. G. Schwartz, G. Eshel, M. Ben-Haim, and E. Ben-Dor, “Rapid methods for classification and quantitative assessment of petroleum hydrocarbons pollution in soil samples using reflectance spectroscopy,” EGU 2009-11441-2, Vienna, Austria, 2009.
  23. S. Chakraborty, D. C. Weindorf, C. L. S. Morgan et al., “Rapid identification of oil-contaminated soils using visible near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 1378–1387, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. Lammoglia and C. R. de S. Filho, “Spectroscopic characterization of oils yielded from Brazilian offshore basins: potential applications of remote sensing,” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 115, no. 10, pp. 2525–2535, 2011.
  25. J. Dan and H. Koyumdjisky, “The soils of israel and their distribution,” European Journal of Soil Science, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 12–20, 1963.
  26. S. S. Staff, Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Government Printing Office, 2010.
  27. D. L. Carter, M. M. Mortland, and W. D. Kemper, “Specific surface,” in Methods of Soil Analysis Part I. Soil Science, A. Klute, Ed., pp. 413–422, Society of America, Madison, Wis, USA, 1986.
  28. G. Eshel, G. J. Levy, U. Mingelgrin, and M. J. Singer, “Critical evaluation of the use of laser diffraction for particle-size distribution analysis,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 736–743, 2004. View at Scopus
  29. A. Pimstein, E. Ben-Dor, and G. Notesco, “Performance of three identical spectrometers in retrieving soil reflectance under laboratory conditions,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 746–759, 2011.
  30. G. Schwartz, G. Eshel, M. Ben-Haim, and E. Ben-Dor, Reflectance Spectroscopy as a Rapid Tool for Qualitative Mapping and Classification of Hydrocarbons Soil Contamination, Tel Aviv, Israel, 2009.
  31. G. Schwartz, G. Eshel, M. Ben-Haim, and E. Ben-Dor, Quantitative Assessment of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Situ by Diffused Reflectance Spectroscopy and a Penetrating Optical Sensor, GFZ, Potsdam, Germany, 2010.
  32. G. Schwartz, G. Eshel, and E. Ben-Dor, An Operational Spectral Based Model to Predict Soil Petroleum Hydrocarbon Content in Field Samples, Edinburgh, Scotland, 2011.
  33. G. Schwartz, Reflectance spectroscopy as a rapid tool for qualitative mapping and classification of hydrocarbons soil contamination, Ph.D. thesis, Tel Aviv University, 2012.