About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Applied and Environmental Soil Science
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 694597, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/694597
Research Article

Characterisation of Organomineral Fertilisers Derived from Nutrient-Enriched Biosolids Granules

1School of Applied Science, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK
2University of Southern Queensland, National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture, Building Z2, West Street, Toowoomba, QLD 4350, Australia
3United Utilities Group PLC, Lingley Mere Business Park, Warrington WA5 3LP, UK
4Harper Adams University, Newport, Shropshire TF10 8NB, UK

Received 23 June 2013; Accepted 30 August 2013

Academic Editor: Leonid Perelomov

Copyright © 2013 Diogenes L. Antille et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs, Waste strategy for England 2007. PB12596, 2007, http://archive.defra.gov.uk/environment/waste/strategy/strategy07/documents/waste07-strategy.pdf.
  2. F. Laturnus, K. von Arnold, and C. Grøn, “Organic contaminants from sewage sludge applied to agricultural soils false alarm regarding possible problems for food safety?” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 53–60, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. R. Smith, The Implications For Human Health and Environment of Recycling of Biosolids Onto Agricultural Land, Centre for Environmental Control and Waste Management, Imperial College of London, London, UK, 2008.
  4. Council of the European Communities, “Council Directive 99/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste,” Official Journal of the European Communities L, vol. 182, pp. 1–19, 1999.
  5. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, “Landfill Directive: What are the Landfill Directive’s aim and objectives?” 2007, http://archive.defra.gov.uk/environment/waste/strategy/legislation/landfill/documents/landfilldir.pdf.
  6. D. L. Antille, Formulation, utilisation and evaluation of organomineral fertilisers [Engineering Doctorate Thesis], Cranfield University, Bedford, UK, 2011.
  7. D. Edge, “Perspectives for nutrient removal from sewage and implications for sludge strategy,” Environmental Technology, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 759–763, 1999. View at Scopus
  8. Royal Society of London, “Reaping the benefits: science and the sustainable intensification of agriculture,” RS Policy Document 11/09, RS1608, London, UK, 2009, http://royalsociety.org/Reapingthebenefits/.
  9. M. C. Paré, S. E. Allaire, L. Khiari, and C. Nduwamungu, “Physical properties of organo-mineral fertilizers—Short Communication,” Canadian Biosystems Engineering, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 21–27, 2009. View at Scopus
  10. C. J. Dawson and J. Hilton, “Fertiliser availability in a resource-limited world: production and recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus,” Food Policy, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 14–22, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. Heffer and M. Prud’homme, “Fertilizer outlook 2013–2017,” in Proceedings of the 81st International Fertilizer Industry Association Conference, p. 8, Chicago, Ill, USA, May 2013, Paper No.: A/13/78, http://www.fertilizer.org/.
  12. J. R. Herring and R. J. Fantel, “Phosphate rock demand into the next century: impact on world food supply,” Nonrenewable Resources, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 226–246, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. P. Weikard and D. Seyhan, “Distribution of phosphorus resources between rich and poor countries: the effect of recycling,” Ecological Economics, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 1749–1755, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. E. Allaire and L. E. Parent, “Size guide number and rosin-rammler approaches to describe particle size distribution of granular organic-based fertilisers,” Biosystems Engineering, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 503–509, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. E. Allaire and L. E. Parent, “Physical properties of granular organic-based fertilisers, part 2: dynamic properties related to water,” Biosystems Engineering, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 225–236, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. E. Allaire and L. E. Parent, “Physical properties of granular organic-based fertilisers, part 1: static properties,” Biosystems Engineering, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 79–87, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. W. Hofstee and W. Huisman, “Handling and spreading of fertilizers. Part 1: physical properties of fertilizer in relation to particle motion,” Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, vol. 47, pp. 213–234, 1990. View at Scopus
  18. P. C. H. Miller, The measurement and classification of the flow and spreading characteristics of individual fertilisers, Proceeding no. 390, The International Fertiliser Society, York, UK, 1996.
  19. J. W. Hofstee, Physical properties of fertilisers in relation to handling and spreading [Ph.D. Thesis], Department of Agricultural Engineering and Physics, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 1993.
  20. K. Dilz and G. D. van Brakel, Effects of Uneven Fertiliser Spreading—Part I: A Literature Review, Proceeding no. 240, The International Fertiliser Society, York, UK, 1985.
  21. Anon, “Minutes of Working Group 1—Overall structure of the future Fertiliser Regulations EC2003/2003,” Brussels, Belgium, Meeting on June 2012.
  22. E. A. Makinde, “Effect of an organo-mineral fertilizer application on the growth and yield of maize,” Journal of Applied Sciences Research, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 1152–1155, 2007.
  23. World Intellectual Property Organization, (WO/2009/129589) Process for producing organo-mineral fertilizers, 2009, http://www.wipo.int/pctdb/en/wo.jsp?WO=2009129589.
  24. M. C. Paré, S. E. Allaire, L. Khiari, and L. E. Parent, “Improving physical properties of organo-mineral fertilizers: Substitution of peat by pig slurry composts,” Applied Engineering in Agriculture, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 447–454, 2010. View at Scopus
  25. M. M. Rady, “A novel organo-mineral fertilizer can mitigate salinity stress effects for tomato production on reclaimed saline soil,” South African Journal of Botany, vol. 81, pp. 8–14, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. J. Zebarth, R. Chabot, J. Coulombe, R. R. Simard, J. Douheret, and N. Tremblay, “Pelletized organo-mineral fertilizer product as a nitrogen source for potato production,” Canadian Journal of Soil Science, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 387–395, 2005. View at Scopus
  27. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, “Database on commercially available organic fertilizers and water-retaining products,” Land and Water Development Division, 2007, http://www.fao.org/AG/aGL/agll/orgfert/intro.stm.
  28. M. Tejada, C. Benítez, and J. L. González, “Effects of application of two organomineral fertilizers on nutrient leaching losses and wheat crop,” Agronomy Journal, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 960–967, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. Spence, “Bestway Fertilisers,” Personal communication. Southern Water, Worthing, West Sussex, UK, 2010.
  30. United Utilities Group PLC, US Patent No.: US7504035 B2, 17 March 2009 for the treatment of putrescible cakes. Assignee: United Utilities PLC. Inventors: M.S. Le (UK) and N.T. Shatin (Hong Kong), 2009.
  31. D. L. Antille, R. Sakrabani, and R. J. Godwin, “Nitrogen and phosphorus availability following topsoil application of organomineral fertilisers,” American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, vol. 5, pp. 4134–4150, 2012.
  32. Council of European Communities, “Council Directive EU Sewage Sludge Directive 86/278/EEC of 12 June 1986 on the protection of the environment and the soil when sewage sludge is used in agriculture,” Official Journal of the European Communities L, vol. 181, p. 6, 1986.
  33. ADAS, Guidelines for the Application of Sewage Sludge to Agricultural Land: the Safe Sludge Matrix, ADAS Gleadthorpe Research Centre, Mansfield, UK, 3rd edition, 2001.
  34. M. S. Le, T. Briddon, D. Harrison, and A. Werker, “Enzymic hydrolysis technology demonstration: production of enhanced treated biosolids for agricultural recycling,” in Proceedings of the 11th European Biosolids and Organic Resources Conference. Aqua-Enviro Technology Transfer, Wakefield, UK, November 2006.
  35. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Fertiliser Manual (RB209), The Stationery Office, London, UK, 8th edition, 2010.
  36. R. J. Skinner and A. D. Todd, “Twenty-five years of monitoring pH and nutrient status of soils in England and Wales,” Soil Use and Management, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 162–169, 1998. View at Scopus
  37. United Utilities Group PLC, “Chemical analyses of sewage sludge (biosolids),” Internal Report, United Utilities Group PLC, Warrington, UK, 2006.
  38. M. Alvarez-Cobelas, S. Sánchez-Carrilo, D. G. Angeler, and R. Sánchez-Andrés, “Phosphorus exports from catchments: a global view,” Journal of the North American Benthological Society, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 805–820, 2009.
  39. C. J. Dawson, “Phosphate and potash—reconsidering their importance and use,” Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, vol. 172, pp. 1–9, 2011.
  40. AFCOME, Association Française de Commercialisation et de Mélange d’Engrais, “Bulk blending manuel de qualité, 1ére partie,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Meeting of the Association Française de Commercialisation et de Mélange d’Engrais (L’AFCOME ’95), 1995, http://www.afcome.org/Accueil.html.
  41. L. E. Sommers, “Chemical composition of sewage sludges and analysis of their potential use as fertilizers,” Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 225–232, 1977. View at Scopus
  42. J. B. A. Dumas, “Procédés de l'analyse organique,” Annales des Chimie et des Physique, vol. 2, no. 47, pp. 198–213, 1831.
  43. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, The Analysis of Agricultural Materials (RB 427), The Stationery Office, London, UK, 3rd edition, 1986.
  44. British Standard 7755 Section 3.13, Soil Quality. Chemical Methods. Determination of Cadmium, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Lead, Manganese, Nickel and Zinc in Aqua Regia Extracts of Soil. Flame and Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Methods, The British Standards Institution, London, UK, 1998, Equivalent to ISO, 11047:1998.
  45. K. C. Jones and A. E. Johnston, “Cadmium in cereal grain and herbage from long-term experimental plots at Rothamsted, UK,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 199–216, 1989. View at Scopus
  46. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food, Code of Good Agricultural Practice For the Protection of Soil (Revised), The Stationery Office, London, UK, 1998.
  47. British Standard, Solid Fertilizers—Test Sieving [British-Adopted European Standard], The British Standards Institution, London, UK, 1995.
  48. K. Persson, Interaction between fertilisers and spreaders, Proceeding no. 389, The International Fertiliser Society, York, UK, 1996.
  49. O. Miserque, E. Pirard, Y. Schenkel, O. Mostade, and B. Huyghebaert, “Spreading segregation of blended fertilizers: influence of the particles properties,” Applied Engineering in Agriculture, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 137–144, 2008. View at Scopus
  50. I. A. Bridle, M. S. A. Bradley, A. R. Reed et al., Non-segregating blended fertiliser development: a new predictive test for optimising granulometry, Proceeding no. 547, The International Fertiliser Society, York, UK, 2004.
  51. Canadian Fertilizer Institute, Bulk Blend. Quality Control Manual, CFI, Ontario, Canada, 2001.
  52. British Standard, “Fertilizers—determination of bulk density (loose) [British-adopted European Standard equivalent to the modified version of ISO, 3944 (1992)],” The British Standards Institution, London, UK, 1995.
  53. Instron Corporation, Instron Model 1122 Universal Testing Instrument, “Operating instructions (Revised 1985)”, Manual M10-1122-1(B), 1985.
  54. G. J. Gouw and H. W. Wevers, “Behaviour of an INSTRON 1122 under cyclic testing over a small displacement range,” Journal of Biomedical Engineering, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 72–74, 1982. View at Scopus
  55. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Method of Determining and Expressing Fineness of Feed Materials by Sieving, ASAE, St. Joseph, Mich, USA, 2006, ANSI/ASAE-S.319.3 FEB03. ASAE Standards.
  56. GenStat Release 14.1, VSN International, Hemel Hempstead, UK, 14th edition, 2011.
  57. F. J. Rohlf and R. R. Sokal, Statistical Tables, W. H. Freeman, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 1995.
  58. M. I. Kokkora, D. L. Antille, and S. F. Tyrrel, “Considerations for recycling of compost and biosolids in agricultural soil,” in Soil Engineering, A. P. Dedousis and T. Bartzanas, Eds., vol. 20 of Soil Biology Series, chapter 13, pp. 195–215, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2010.
  59. O. Miserque and E. Pirard, “Segregation of the bulk blend fertilizers,” Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 215–224, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. S. A. Bradley and R. J. Farnish, Segregation of blended fertilisers during spreading: the effect of differences in ballistic properties, Proceeding no. 554, The International Fertiliser Society, York, UK, 2005.
  61. K. F. Kämpfe, H. J. Jäschke, and W. Brinschwitz, “Zusammenhang zwischen wesentlichen physikalischen eigenschaften und der verteilgenauigkeit der mineraldünger bei der application,” Agrartechnik, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 253–256, 1982.
  62. T. P. Hignett, “Physical and chemical properties of fertilizers and methods for their determination,” in Fertilizer Manual, T. P. Hignett, Ed., vol. 15 of Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences Series, chapter 22, pp. 284–316, 1985.
  63. UNIDO/IFDC, Fertilizer Manual. International Fertilizer Development Centre, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Kluwer Academic Publication, Muscle Shoals, Ala, USA, 1998.
  64. F. T. Nielsson, “Granulation,” in Manual of Fertilizer Processing, F. T. Nielsson, Ed., vol. 5 of Fertilizer Science and Technology Series, chapter 9, pp. 159–201, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 1987.
  65. A. Aphale, N. Bolander, J. Park, L. Shaw, J. Svec, and C. Wassgren, “Granular fertiliser particle dynamics on and off a spinner spreader,” Biosystems Engineering, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 319–329, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. S. Parkin, B. Basford, and P. C. H. Miller, “Spreading accuracy of solid urea fertilisers,” DEFRA Report NT2610, 2005, Component Report for DEFRA Project NT26, http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Document.aspx?Document=nt2610_6823_FRP.pdf.
  67. D. L. Antille, L. Gallar-Redondo, and R. J. Godwin, “Determining the particle size range of organomineral fertilisers based on the spreading characteristics of the material,” American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, vol. 5, pp. 4251–4268, 2013.
  68. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Procedure For Measuring Distribution Uniformity and Calibrating Granular Broadcast Spreaders, ASAE, St. Joseph, Mich, USA, 46th edition, 1999, ASAE-S. 341.2. ASAE Standards 1999.