Table 5: Exchangeable cations (cmol (+)/kg soil), cation exchange capacity (cmol (+)/kg soil), and percent base saturation (%) in relation to land use and soil depths (mean ± S.E).

VariablesDepth (cm) Land use typesOverall
Protected forestOpen grasslandFarmland Grazing land

Ex. Na+0–100.06 (±0.003)0.08 (±0.01)0.04 (±0.01)0.03 (±0.01)0.05 (±0.01)a
10–200.10 (±0.03)0.08 (±0.01)0.04 (±0.005)0.05 (±0.01)0.07 (±0.01)a
Overall0.08 (±0.016)c0.08 (±0.005)bc0.04 (±0.006)ab0.04 (±0.005)a

Ex. K+0–100.62 (±0.02)0.32 (±0.07)0.68 (±0.01)0.36 (±0.07)0.49 (±0.03)b
10–200.54 (±0.05)0.28 (±0.07)0.56 (±0.02)0.28 (±0.06)0.42 (±0.03)a
Overall0.58 (±0.03)b0.30 (±0.05)a0.62 (±0.02)b0.32 (±0.05)a

Ex. Ca2+0–104.33 (±0.07)2.69 (±0.60)4.17 (±0.05)3.32 (±0.12)3.63 (±0.20)b
10–202.99 (±0.54)2.38 (±0.68)3.78 (±0.16)2.68 (±0.40)2.96 (±0.20)a
Overall3.66 (±0.34)2.54 (±0.43)a3.98 (±0.10)b3.00 (±0.23)ab

Ex. Mg2+0–100.75 (±0.005)0.61 (±0.07)0.73 (±0.002)0.76 (±0.04)0.71 (±0.02)a
10–200.72 (±0.01)0.49 (±0.11)0.72 (±0.005)0.70 (±0.01)0.66 (±0.02)a
Overall0.73 (±0.01)b0.55 (±0.06)a0.73 (±0.003)b0.73 (±0.02)b

CEC0–1018.20 (±4.89)10.44 (±2.06)22.52 (±2.24)15.52 (±2.69)16.67 (±1.60)a
10–2018.00 (±3.59)16.40 (±1.85)18.84 (±4.38)12.44 (±2.52)16.42 (±1.60)a
Overall18.10 (±2.86)a13.42 (±1.64)a20.68 (±2.40)a13.98 (±1.81)a

PBS0–1039.95 (±8.22)39.25 (±9.42)25.90 (±2.28)34.32 (±8.39)34.86 (±4.35)a
10–2027.10 (±5.50)21.09 (±5.74)40.92 (±16.0)34.54 (±7.88)30.86 (±4.35)a
Overall33.53 (±5.13)a30.17 (±6.02)a33.30 (±8.02)a34.43 (±5.43)a

Overall means within rows and columns followed by different letters are significantly different ( ) with respect to land use types and soil depths.